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Full text of "A word for word meaning of the quran"

WORD FOR WORD 

MEANING OF 

THE QUR'AN 

Vol. I 



MUHAMMAD MOHAR ALI 



tAAJ AL-SUNNAH 



www.kitabosunnat.com 







A WORD FOR WORD MEANING OF THE QUR'AN 



Vol. I 



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A WORD FOR WORD 



MEANING OF THE QUR' AN 



With explanatory notes, word meanings wtth cross references 
and grammatical hints 



Vol. ! 
Sflrahs 1 (al-Fatihah) to ] I {Hud) 






By 
MUHAMMAD MOHAR AH 

([-"uniH'fly Professor or ihc History or Islam. M.aiitia Islamic Univeisity. Madina. and Imam Muhammad Islamic 

University. Riyadh, Snudj Arabia 
Author of Siral til-Nabi and tht Orientalists. History efihe Muslims ofBrngut, The Bengali Reaction it/ Christian 
Missionary Activities, A Brief Survey tif Muslim Hale in India, The Qur'iin und the Latest 'Orientalist Assumptions. 

clc. etc) 



IPSWICH 

JAM'IYAT 'IHYAA* MINHAAJ AL-SUNNAH 
2003 



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A WORD FOR WORD MEANING OF THE QUR" AN {S&rahs al-Fdtihah to Hud) 
PubushedbyJam'iat 'I^iyaV Minhaaj al-Sunnah 
P.O. Box 24, Ipswich, Suffolk IP3 BED 
Tel. & Fax: 01473251578 












Firs l Completed Edition 2003 
Vol.1 
ISBN 954 03692 ] 

©M.M.Ali 















Printed by Alden Gnaw Umhq>, Qsney Mead. Oxpohd. OX2 OEF 



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PREFACE 

All the praise is for Allah who has enabled me to complete the preparation of this 
Word for Word Meaning of the Qur'an, The method and purpose of the work have 
been explained in ihe preface to the first part of (his work which was published in 
1998. That preface is reproduced hereafter for convenience of reference. 

I started the project casually while working at the Madina Islamic University, 
translating (he first few 'ayahs of surat al-Baqarqah on 5. 11. 91 sitting in the 
Prophet's Mosque after the maghrib prayer. Since that date 1 regularly translated a 
few 'Ayahs each day, mostly at the Prophet's Mosque between the maghrib and 
'isha' prayers. In this way the first draft of the work was completed on 8. 10. 1996, a 
few months after my retirement from Madina. During this first phase of the work 1 
made only the translation, making it follow as closely as possible the sequence of the 
Arabic text in respect of syntax and order of words and phrases in the '&yak Thus 
completing the first draft I modified and expanded the plan and started revising the 
translation, adding word meanings and explanatory notes, wherever necessary, and 
grammatical hints, typesetting these on the computer. In this second phase it was a 
sustained and full-time work, devoting on an average six to seven hours a day 
continually for a little over six years since 1996. As already mentioned, the first part 
of this work consisting of sHrahs al-Fatihah and ai-Baqarah was published in early 
1998. Four other parts appeared in succession till March 200 1 . By the mercy of Allah 
the completed work is now ready for publication. 

Throughout this long and sustained work my wife, Rosy, and sons. Monu (Abu 
Muntasir), Ma'rflf and Manslir, have constantly helped and encouraged me. A 
number of friends and readers have also helped and encouraged me in various ways. I 
am grateful to all of them. Above all, it is Allah's help and support that has enabled 
me to continue and complete this work despite my serious ailment and ill health. May 
He accept this humble effort; and peace and blessings of Al!ah be on His Prophet 
Muhammad, his family and followers, 

M, M. Ali 
London, 5 February 2003 



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r^ 1 Cr^v 11 *"' r-- 
PREFACE to the First Part 






There are a number of English meanings of the Qur'In in circulation. The method 
followed in these works is generally that the text of the ayah is placed in one column 
and its meaning is placed side by side in another column. This arrangement of course 
enables the reader to know the meaning of the 'ayah as a whole; but a non-Arab 
reader not having some knowledge of Arabic is unable to identify which English 
words or phrases represent the meaning of which words in the Arabic text. The 
present work aims at removing this difficulty. It places one or a couple of words of 
the 'dyak in one line of a column and gives their meanings side by side in another 
column, taking care to see that the flow mid intelligibility of the English meanings 
are not thereby tost. This method has the additional advantage of keeping the 
meaning strictly to the wording of the text and it militates against omitting the 
meaning of any word of the text or importing in the meaning any word or expression 
that has no correspondence with anything in the text. 

To furthet facilitate (he understanding of the text, the meanings of almost all 
important words in the text have been given separately, To do this a number has 
been placed on the English word which represents the meaning of the particular word 
in the text and then the meanings of that word have been given under that number in 
another column by the side of the general meaning of the text. The numbering has 
been kept individual for each page. Also grammatical notes, particularly verb forms 
and vernal nouns, have been given as far as practicable. As the words recur at 
different pages, so their meanings and grammatical notes also have been repeated, 
giving cross reference to at least one previous occurrence of the word, indicating the 
page on which and the number under which the word has been explained before. 
Such repetition has been deemed helpful for habituating the reader with the particular 
word and its meanings. As is the case whh other languages, many words in Arabic 
language also each bears a number of meanings. An attempt has been made to 
indicate such different meanings for a particular word. Similarly, a number of 
English meanings have been given for a word so that a reader may well understand 
the different shades of meaning of the particular term in an 'Syah. The aim has been 
to enable a non-Arab reader to understand the Qur'an as well as to improve his 
knowledge of Arabic, particularly the Qur'anic Arabic. Along with word meanings 
explanatory notes also have been given wherever necessary; but these have been kept 
to the minimum and have been based on classical and authoritative commentaries to 
which reference has been made at the appropriate places. 



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VII 



Many words in the Qur'an bear special meanings. In explaining these words help 
has been taken, besides the standard dictionaries, lexicons, and commentaries paying 
special attention to word meanings, of the following works dealing specifically with 
the Qur'Snic vocabulary: 

1. Al-Damagham, Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (5th century H.?), Qamiis al-Qur'an 
'aw 'fslah al-WujiVi wa al-Naza'ir Fi al-Qur'an al-Karim (ed- 'Abd al-'AzTz Sayyid 
at-'Ahl), Beirut, fifth print, April, 1985 

2. Al-FTruzabadT, Majd al-Din Muhammad ibn Ya'qflb <d. 817 H.). Bafa'ir Dhawt 
ai-Tamyiz Ft Lata' if al-Kitab at-'Aziz (ed. Muhammad 'Alt a]-Najjar), 6 vols., 
Beirut, n.d. 

3. Al-lsfahani, 'Abu al-Q3sim al-Husayn ibn Muhammad, al-Raghib (d. 502 H.), 
Al-Mufraddt Ft Gharib a! -Qur'an al-Karim (ed. Muhammad Sayyid Kaylanl), 
Beirut, n.d. 

4. Al-Taymi, 'Abu 'Ubaydah Ma'trar ibn al-Muthanna (d. 210 H.), Majaz 
al-Qur'an (ed. Muljammad Fuwad Sizkin), 2 vots., second print, Beirut, 1401/1981. 

5. Al-YazMf, 'Abu 'Abd al-Rahman 'Abd Allah ibn Yahya ibn al-Mubarak (d. 237 
H.), Gharib al-Qur'an wa Tafstruhu (ed. Muhammad Salfm al-Hajj), first print, 
Beirut, 1405/1985 

6. Al-Zajjaj, 'Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn al-SarrT, Ma'am al-Qur'an wa 'I'rabuhu (ed. 
'Abd al-Jalil 'Abduhu ShalbO, 5 vols., first print, Beirut, 1408/1988 

7. Ibn al-Jawzi. Jamil al-Dfn "Abu al-Faraj 'Abd al-Rahman (d. 597 H), Nuzhai 
al-'A'yun al-Nawdzir Fi "Urn al-Wuj&h wa al-Naza'ir (ed. Muhammad 'Abd 
al-Karim Kazim al-RMi), second print, Beirut, 1405 H. /1985 

8. Muhammad Fuwad r Abd al-Baqi, Mu'jam Gharib at-Qumn Mustakhrajan min 
Saffif} at-Bukhan t second print, Beirut, n.d. 

9. Mu'jam 'Alf&z al-Qur'an al-Karim, prepared by Mujamma' al-Lugka! 
at-'Arabiyyah of Cairo, Cairo, n.d. (ISBN 977). 

May Allah accept this humble effort and enable us to do what pleases Him and 
meets with His approval. And peace and blessings of Allah be on His Prophet 
Muhammad, his family and those who follow him. 

M. M. Ali 
London. 21 Shawwal 1418 H. 
(18.2. 1998) 



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VIII 



Acc. 

ACL 

Al-Bakr. 



Al-Bayddwt = 

AI-Taban : 
Ai-Tafstr al-Kabtr 

Al-Zamakhshari 

Bohr. 

Basa 'ir = 

Bukk&ri = 

f. 

Fath al-Qadir : 



Gen. 

i. 

ii. 

iii. 

Ibn Kathlr 






impfcl. 
m. 



List Of Abbreviations 

i Accusative 

= Active 

= 'AbO HayySn al-Andalusi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf (654 - 754 H. ), At-Bahr 

al-Muifil Fi al-Tafsir (ed. Sadqt Muhammad Jamil and others), new print, 

Al-Maktabat al-Tijariyyah, Makka, n,d., 10+1 vols. 
-■ Al-BaydSwi. Najir al-Din 'AbO Sa'td 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar ibn 

Muhammad a!~5hiraji, al-Qadi (d, 791 H), Tafsir al-Baydawi 

al-Musammd Anwar al-Tanzil wa 'Asrdr al-Ta 'wit, 2 vols., Dar al-Kutub 

al-'llmiyyah, first print, Beirut, 1408 HJ 1988. 
= Al Tabrari, "Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir (d, 3)0 H.}, JSmi' at-Baydn 

•anTa-wU 'Ayal-Qur'an, 15 Vols., Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1408 H./1988. 
- Muhammad Al-Razi. Fakhr al-Din ibn al-'Allamah Diya* al-DTn 'Umar. 

aMmam (544-604 H,), Tafsir al-Fakkr al-Rdzi ai-Mushtahar bi al-Tafstr 

al-Kabtr wa Mafatth al-Gimyb (ed. Khalfl Muhyi al-Din al Mays), 17 vols. 

(the pagination is by pans), Dar al-Fikr, first print, Beirut, 14 14 H. / 1993. 
a Al-Zamakhshari, al-Khawirizmi, "Abu al-QSsim Jar Allah Mahmud ibn 

'Umar (467-538 HJ, Al-Kashshaf an ifaqa'iq al-Tat\zi! wa 'Uy&n 

at- 'Aqdwtl Ft Wujuh al-Ta 'wtl, 2 vols.. Maktabat al-Ma'arif, Riyadh and 

Dar al-Ma'rifah, Beirut, n.d. 
= Al-SamarqandT, 'Abu a]-Laylh Nasr ibn Muhammad ibn "Ahmad ibn 

Ibrahim (d. 375 H.), Tafsir at-Samarqandi al-Musamma Bahr al-'VlGm 

(ed. 'Al! Muhammad Mu'awwid and others), 3 vols,, first print, Dar 

al-Kuiubal-'Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1413 H. / 1993. 
Al-FMzabadT, Majd al-Din Muhammad ibn Ya'qQb. Basd'ir Dliawi 

at-Tamyiz FxLatd'ifKitdb at' Aziz (ed. Muhammad 'Alt al-Najjar), 6 vols., 

Beirut, n.d. 
: Al-Bukhari. 'AbO 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Isma'Tl. Sahth al-Bukkdri, 

the number refers to ihe number of hadith as in Fath al-Bari. 
■■ feminine 
' Al-Shawkanl, Muhammad ibn 'AIT ibn Muljammad (d. 1250 H.) . Fath 

at-Qadtr al-Jami' Bayn Farmay al-Riwdyah wa at-Dirdyah miti 'llm 

at-Tafsir, 5 vols., Dar al-Fikr, Beirut. 1409 H71989. 
= Genitive 
= first person 
a second person 
= third person 
= Ibn Kathir, al-Hafiz ( 700-774 H.) Tafsir al-Qur'an al-'Azm (ed. 'Abd 

al-'Aziz Ghunaym and others), 7 vols., Dar al-Sha'b, Cairo, n.d. 
■ imperfect 
= masculine 



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tx 



Mufraddr 



Muslim 






n. 
PL 

Safwat 



= Isfahan!, 'Abu al-Qasim al-Husayn ibn Mu ham mad, al-RSghib ( d. 502}, 
At-Mufraddr FT Gharib al-Qur'&n (ed. Muhammad Sayyid Kaylanj), Dar 
al-Ma'rifiih, Beinil, n.d. 

= 'AbQ al-Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj al-Qushayr? aJ-NaysabQri, Sahih 
Muslim, the number refers to the number of fiadith as numbered by 
Muhammad Fuwad 'Abd al-BaqT in the Istanbul edition 

= Note 

= plural 

= singular 

= Husayn Muhammad Makhluf, Safwat al-Bay&n li Ma'ani al-Qur'an. third 
print, Kuwait, 1407 H/1987, 
Tafsir at-M&wardi = AI-MawardT. 'Abu al- Hasan 'Alt ibn Muhammad, al-Basri (364-450), 
Ai-Nukat wa af-'Uy&n Tafsir at-ftfdwardi, (ed. Af-Sayyid ibn "Abd 
al-Maqsud ibn 'Abd al-Rahim), 6 vols., Dar al-Kulub al-'Ilmiyyah and 
Mu'assasat al-Kutub al-Thaqafiyyah, first print, Beirut, 1 4 1 2 H V 1992. 
= verb 

KEY TO VERB FORMS 

Form II J4s fa ' 'ala (j*d tafil) 

" in ^\*=fd'ala{^\k,mufa , alah) 

" IV J-JJ ■ 'of ala (JWI 'If at) 

" V j«j = tafo ' 'ala Q*B lafa ' 'ul) 

" VI >w = tafa'ala j>UB tafa 'ut) 

" VH >ii = info 'ala (JUil infi'dl) 

" Vffl J^i = ifia 'ala (Jw ifti 'M) 

" IX j*l = iTa^te («J*a if'ilal) 

" X y^^istaf'ala^^Miz^Hstifdl) 
There are a few more verb forms, but they of rare occurrence. 

TRANSLITERATION 

* = * (hamzah) ^ = S/s 

i = A/a (as long vowel) j* - D/d 


















> = Dh/dh 



Ji = Z/z 
j.=Gh/gh 






j =W/w 

,> = fi (as Jong vowel) 

* = Y/y 

^ = I/i (as long vowel) 












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CONTENTS 






Preface 


V 


Preface to the First Part 


VI 


List of Abbreviations 


VIII 


Key to Verb Forms 


IX 


Transliteration 


IX 




List of SOrahs 




\.SQrat al-Fatihah (The Opening) .. 


. page 1 


2. " 


al-Baqarah (The Cow) 


. " 4 


3. " 


'At 'Imran (The Family of 'Imran) 


. " 154 


4. " 


ai-Nisa ' (The Women) 


. " 236 


5. " 


al-Ma'idah (The Table) 


. " 325 


6. " 


al-'An 'dm (The Cattle) 


. " 391 


7. " 


al- 'A 'raj (The Heights) 


. " 465 


8. " 


al- 'Anfal (The spoils of War) 


. " 546 


9 " 


al-Tawbah (Repentance) 


- " 576 


10." 


Yunus 


. " 635 


11." 


HM 


. " 677 


12." 


Yusuf 


. " 722 


13." 


at-Ra'd (The Thunder) 


. " 763 


14." 


Ibrahim 


. " 782 


15." 


al-rjijr 


. " 806 


16." 


al-Nakt (The Bees) 


. " 827 


17." 


al-Isrd' (The Night Journey) 


" 872 


18." 


al-Kahf (The Cave) 


. " 910 


19." 


Maryam 


. " 950 



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XI 

20, Surat Td-Hd .. .. .. page 

21." al-'Anhiya' (The Prophets) 

22. " al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 

23. " al-M it 'min tin (The Believers) 

24. " al-N&r (The Light) 

25. " al-Furqdn (The Distinguishment) „ 

26. ,T al-Shu'ard- (The Poets) 

27. " al-Naml (The ants) 

28. " al-Qasas (The Narrative) 

29. " a/- 'Ankabtii (The Spider) 

30. " al-Rtim (The Romans) 

31. " Luqman 

32. " al-Sijdah (Prostration) 

33. " aU 'Ahzab (The Confederates) 

34. " 5afra'{Sheba) 

35. " Fatir (The Originator) 

36. " ra-sfa 

37. " a l-S&ffat (Those Standing on Rows) 

38. • Sad 

39. " at-Zumar {The Groups) 

40. " al-Ghdftr/al-Mu'minun (The Forgiver/The Believers) 

41. " Fussilat (Elucidated) 

42. " al-Shtird (Consultation) 

43. " al-Zukhruf (The Ornament) .. 



**■ 



976 

1012 

1044 

1075 

1105 

1137 

1162 

1202 

1231 

1265 

1290 

1311 

1324 

1334 

1367 

1389 

1409 

1430 

1459 

1480 

1509 

1540 

1560 

1582 



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XII 



44. Sural al-Dukhan (The Smoke) „ 

45. " al-J&thiyah (The Down on the Knees) 

46. " al-Ahqaf (The Winding Sandy Tracts) 

47. " Muhammad 

48. al-Fath (The Victory) 

49. " al-Hujur&t (The Chambers) ,. 

50. " Qaf 

51. " al-Dhariyat (The Scattering Winds) .. 

52. " at-Tur (The Mount) 

53. " al-Najm (The Star) 

54. " al-Qamar (The Moon) 

55. " al-Rahman (The Most Compassionate) 

56. " al-W&qi'ah (The Inevitable Event) ., 

57. " al-Hadtd(lrcm) 

58. " ai-Mujadilah (The Arguing Lady) .. 

59. " ul ffashr (The Gathering) 

60. " al-Mumtahintih (The Woman to be Eaxamined) 

61. " a/-Sa#(The Row) 

62. " al-Jtwiu 'ah (Friday) 

63. " al-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites) 

64. " al-Taghabun (Mutual Gain and Loss).. 

65. " al-Talaq (Divorce) 

66. " at- Tahrim (The Prohibition) ,. 

67. " al-Mulk (The Dominion) 



page 



1606 
1618 
1631 
1647 
1661 
1676 
5685 
1696 
1707 
1717 
1729 
1741 
1753 
1767 
1782 
1794 
1806 
1814 
1820 
1825 
1830 
1837 
1844 
1850 



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68. 


Sural ai-Qalam (The Pen) 


page 


1859 


69. 


N 


at-Haqqah (The Inevitable) .. 


ll 


1 868 


70. 


i\ 


al-Ma 'arij (The Ways of Acsent) 


II 


1877 


71. 


n 


Nuh 


II 


1884 


72. 


it 


al-Jinn (The Jinn) 


tl 


1890 


73. 


ii 


at-Muzzammil (The Enwrapped) 


H 


1898 


74. 


ri 


al-Muddaththir {The One Shrouded) .. 


qp 


1904 


75. 


■ ■ 


al-Qiyamah (The Resurrection) 


II 


1913 


76. 


n 


al-lnsan (Man) 


H 


1919 


77. 


■■ 


al-Mursaiat (The Despatched) 


ii 


1926 


78. 


M 


al-Naba ' (The News) 


ir 


1933 


79. 


tl 


al-Nazi'dt (The Divesters) 


ii 


1940 


80. 


II 


Vt&aja (He Frowned) 


ii 


1947 


81. 


II 


al-Takwtr (The Rolling Up) 


II 


1953 


82. 


IP 


al-lnfitar (The Cleaving Asunder) 


pi 


1957 


83. 


■ P 


al-Mutaffifin (The Defrauders) 


ii 


1960 


84. 


ii 


at-Inshiqaq (The Splitting) 


II 


1966 


85. 


II 


al-Bur&j (The Constellations) .. 


ii 


1970 


86, 


II 


ai-Tariq (The Nocturnal Visitor) 


IP 


1974 


87. 


' 


al- VI 7d (The Most Exalted) .. 


ip 


1977 


88. 


" 


al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming Event) 


ii 


1980 


89. 


M 


al-Fajr (The Daybreak) 


pi 


1984 


90. 


■ | 


al-Balad (The City) 


»i 


1989 


91. 


PI 


al-Shams (The Sun) 


» 


1992 



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XIV 



92. Sural al-Layl (The Night) 
al-Duha (The Forenoon) 
til-Sharh (The Exposition) 
al-Tin (The Fig) 
al- 'Alaq (The Sticking Clot) .. 
al-Qadr (Decree) 
al-Rayyinah (The Clear Evidence) 
al-Zilz&l (The Earthquake) 
al- 'Adiyat (The Galloping Studs) 
al-Q&ri'ak (The Calamity) ., 
al-Takdtimr (The Vying for More) 
al- 'Asr (The Time) 
al-Humazah (The Slanderer) .. 
al-Fii (The Elephant) 
Quraysh (Quraysh) 
al-Ma 'un (Petty things) 
al-Kawihar (Abundance) 
al-Kafirun (The Unbelievers) .. 
ul-Nasr (The Help) 
al-Masad (The Palm Fibres) .. 
a/- '/jt/i/dj. (Sincerity) 
al-Falaq (The Daybreak) 
al-Nas (Mankind) 

INDEX 









page 


1995 


M 


1998 


» 


2000 


II 


2002 


» 


2004 


II 


2007 


■I 


2008 


III 


2011 


M 


2013 




2015 


11 


2017 


« 


2019 


ip 


2020 


» 


2022 


H 


2023 


■» 


2024 


11 


2025 


ii 


2026 


It 


2027 


It 


2028 


■ 1 


2029 


II 


2030 


|| 


2031 


■■ 


2032 



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AL-FATI&AH (The Opening) 
(Makkan: 7 'Ayahs) 



This surah is called til-Fatihah or "The Opening" because the Qur'an opens, i.e., starts with ii. It is 
called by oiher names as well, such as "Umm el-Qur'an or "Mother of I he Qur'an" because it embodies 
the essence of the Qur'an; and at-Sah " ni-Mmhani or the "Repealed Seven" because its seven "ayahs are 
repealed in every unit (rak'ah) of prayers, compulsory or optional. The Prophet, peace and blessings of 
Allah be on him. said that it is "the greatest surah of the Qur'an" (Bukhari, nos. 4474, 4647, 4703. 
5006), No other religious scripture contains a comparably sublime prayer in so succinct and concise 
form, declaring the absolute Oneness of Allah (monotheism), man's duty to worship Him Alone, his 
dependence on Him in all affairs, his accountability to Him on the Day of Judgement and the need for 
seeking His guidance to the correct way of life and conduct and His favour to be saved from its pitfalls, 

t. M-RahmSn and al-Rahfm arc both derived 
from ruhmah (mercy) and both the forms indicate 
emphasis and intensity According to the 
commentators, however, the former has an 
clement of universality whereas the latter 
indicates particularity The 'ayah teaches the 
believers that ihey should start every act of theirs 
in the name of Allah, i.e.. remembering Him and 
seeking His help 

2 Itumd means praise with reverence and love 
and is more general than shukr (thanks) which is 
usually expressed in response to favours received. 
.1 Rabb a a comprehensive term meaning 
Creator. Nourishcl. Sustainer, Protector and 
Conuoller. No single English word adequately 
conveys its meaning. The word Lord is used for 
convenience only. 

A 'Alami'n is the plural (in the genitive) of 
'nltim. i.e.. any being or object that points to its 
Creator. It means here mankind, jinn, angels and 
all other beings and objects that constitute the 
universe. At more than forty places Allah is 
described in the Qur'an as the Lord of all beings 
{Rabb ai-'uktmihi, and at 26:2-1 the expression is 
elucidated as "the Lord of die heavens and the 
earth and all that is there in them." Also the 
expression al-hamda litialu rabb at-'alamm 
occurs al 3 other places, e.g., 6:45, 37:182 and 
40:6S 

5, It is significant that the Qur'an starts with 
mentioning the most noteworthy attributes and 
names of Allah, the Most Compassionate and the 
Most Merciful, The Syah thus emphasizes thai 
man should never and under no circumstances be despaired of His mercy, love and grace. 

6. Din has a multiplicity of meanings depending on the contexts, such as judgement, reckoning and awarding of 
reward and punishment, religion or way of life and nullah or community. The 'Syah reminds man of his 
accountability on the Day of Judgement and Award of reward and punishment which wit! lake place after 



13 




m: &$m m&m 




1. In the name of Allah, 


■JJSf 


the Most Compassionate, 


fc »J *■ "V™* 


the Most Merciful, 1 


23 


2. All the praise 2 


mil 


is for Allah, 


i ■ 'i 


the Lord 'of all beings. 4 


*2>f 

•a «r 


3. The Most Compassionate, 


®-^ll 


the Most Merciful; 5 


-—^ 


4. The Sovereign of 


$«*&* 


the Day of Judgement. 6 



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Strati I : Al-FJkilmh (Part Unt'i 11 



& 



§\ 5. You Alone 
*4_ m> we worship 1 
jlC^ and You Alone 
we ask for help. 2 



LxJ 6. Guide us to 
kZLJa .VJJ1 the straight way 



in ' 



J~£e, 



resurrection, On that day all men shall siand up 
before their Lord (83:6) and no individual will 
have any power whatsoever for himself and Ihe 
command that day shall be absolutely Allah's (see 

&2.m 

t, Na'budu = we worship, adore, serve; (v. L 
pt. impfel, from nlniiin ['ibadah /abudah 
J'uh6diyuh\. lo worship, serve}. 

2. Neaa'inu = we seek or ask for help (v. i. pi. 
impfct. from iitu'ana, form X Of 'Una [WnL to 
be of middle age, i.c, lo be robust!. 

This 'Ayah 4 of i he .tarah constitutes a 
declaration of absolute monotheism, lis first pari 
declares an abandonment of polytheism and 
asserts lhai worship and submission is due solely 
w Allah: and i(s second pari, declares man's 
dependence on Him Alone for all help and 
succour. According to the Qur'an monotheism 
(lawttirf) has Ihree distinct aspects - (a) Tmrhid 
al-rububiyyuh , i.e.. monotheism in respect of 
recognition of Allah (God) as Hie Creator and 
Lord of ill beings; (b) Tawhid til-'ut&hiyyuh. i.e. 
monotheism in respect of worshipping Htm solely 
and exclusively, and not any other entity or 
Object; and (c) Tawhid al-'asmS' m ul-iifdl. i.e., 
monotheism in respect of Names and Attributes. 
These names and attributes .ire spccifieJ in ihc 
Qur'iLn and these should under no circumstances 
be applied or imputed to any created being or 
object Even the arch poly I heists assert ihcir 
belief in ihe One and Supreme Creator and Lord: 
put (hey err in respect or the other Iwo aspects of 
monotheism and worship and adore oibet entities 
and objecis as intermediaries between them and God and as possessing attributes, powers and functions belonging 
solely to Allah. The Qui' an rectifies this error and enjoins strict and uncompromising adherence tq all Ihe three 
aspects of monotheism. Attribution of any divine quality and nature to any crcaicd entity Or object and rendering 
homage or worship to such an object constitutes (he most abominable form of polytheism WWr*). 
3 SirS{ = way. path, road 

4, Miataqtm = straight, upright, erect, correct, right, sound, proper. (Active participle from inaqdma, foirn X of 
qiima}. The "straight way" means the way specified by the Qur - lti and the Prophet. It is the way of luwfrid 
(monotheism) and of Islam In several places of the Qur'an different Prophets arc made to say; "Allah is my Rabb 
(Lord) and your Rabb, So worship Him This is a straight way." (3:51; 19:36; 43:64). U is further staled: "Whoever 
holds fast to Allah (i.e monotheism) has indeed been guided to a straight way," [93:101), 

A prayer made by a Muslim and believer lo be guided lo the straight path means a prayer to be kept constant and 
steadfast on the way of monotheism he is on. {Ai-Bahr al-Muhlt. h 54). The uyah also leaches thai a Muslim 
should seek Allah's guidance to the right decision and the right step in every situation 

5 'Aa'aaua - you graced or bestowed favour (v. ii, m. s. pas( from 'annum, form IV of naanwMa'ima 
[nu'mah/mon'am], lo be in ease and comfort), The expression "ihose you graced upon" means those who, hy 
carrying oul (he injunctions and abstaining from ihe prohibitions of Allah and His Messenger earned the pleasure of 






7. The way of those 

You graced upon;* 

not of 

those under wrath 3 

nor of those gone astray. 5 



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Allah Mure particularly n means Allah's Prupliels and Messengers. Ihe [rue believers, the marlyrs in the way of 
Allah nnd ihe righteous, (See 4G9. See also Al-Tabari, I, 7576, Ibn Kalhir, 1. 44-45), The 'ayah thus emphasizes 
anolhet cardinal aspect of Islam, namely, lhal the Quran and ihe Prophet continued and completed the same 
message of Allah as delivered through all the previous Prophets and Messengers. It teaches that as Allah is Ihe Lord 
of the enure universe, so is His religion (dm) universal (or all beings, delivered by His Prophets and Messengers al 
all times and climes Islam is thus the revival, completion and continuation, of this universal religion. Hence a behef 
in all the previous Prophets and Messengers and in ihe scriptures originally revealed to them is required of a true 
Muslim This is more clearly spelt out in Vjyun 4 or the nest ,riir«<i. ASBatjamh. 

f, MagkdSb = the object of wralh (passive participle of g7w#iu (jfJiaJuAI. to be angry, furious It includes all 
Ihose who incur Allah's wrath and displeasure by disobedience and violation of His injunctions. 

7 Ddntn ( pi of dtilt in the accusative/genitive) = ihose who go astray by abandoning monotheism and the 
"straight path" enunciated by Allah- 












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2. SORAT AL-BAQARAH (The Cow) 

Maciinan: 286 Ayahs 



This turah h called al-Baqarah (the Cow) after the account of Ihe cow given in its 'ayalis 67-7 1, 
describing the deviation of the Children of tsra'Jl from she original teachings of Moses. It is the longcsl 
surah of the Qur'an and comaius also its longest 'ayah (282) Most of this surah was revealed at the 
very initial Madinan period of the Prophet's lift; while the other parts also were revealed at later dates at 
Madina, It contains the most sublime 'ayah. 'Ayai al-Karsi (2:255), and its concluding 'ayah forms a 
very fervent and appropriate prayer to be made by man to Allah, 

ll starts with emphasising thai this Qur'in is beyond doubt a Book sent down by Allah for the 
guidance of the "godfearing - 1 1 then describes the respeciive characteristics of believers, unbelievers 
and hypocrites, the creation of man, the conduct of the Children of Isia'il in relation to the Prophets, 
with special reference to the struggles of Propheis MGsa (Moses) and "Isi (Jesus), the objections raised 
by Ihe "People of the Book" to Prophet Muhammad (p.b.h.) and his mission, and the replies thereto. Ii 
also refers to the mission of Prophel Ibrahim (Abraham) and his building of ihe Ka'ba along with his 
son Isma'il, peace be on them. Further, it contains injunctions and rules regarding a number of important 
matters like fasting in the month of Ramadan, pilgrimage, jihad, matters concerning the formation and 
regulation of family, the basic unit of society, such as marriage, divorce and rules regarding inheritance 
together with rules regarding foods and drinks, prohibitions of gambling and taking of interest (riba), 
and treatment of the orphans and the needy. 

(tn the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful) 

I. These letters are called "Disjointed letlcrs" 
(tii-hurif ai-muoattjtih). They sure miraculous and 
none except Allah knows [heir meanings Such 
leltcrs occur at the beginning of 29 (urrifo of the 
Qur'an 

2 Rayh = duuhi. suspicion, misgiving* 
3. i.e.. there is no doubt (a) that this Book has 
been sent down by Allah and: (b) [hat ii 
i: uiT.ii I ulcv ihe conreel guidance for man and other 
beings, The fact of Ihe Qur fin being a sent down 
from Allah is repeatedly emphasized in it The 
sending down of ihe Book, there is no doubt, is 
from Ihe Lord of alt beings"(.12:2). See also 
4:iOS, 4; 166, 6:92. 21:10; 26:192.36:5, 38:29, 
39: 1. 40:2, 4 1 :2. 45:2. 46:2; 56:80. 69:43. 
4 Multaqin (accusative /genitive of muliaqun, 
sing, multaqin) m those who are on ihcir guard. 
those who protect themselves. Active participle 
from ittatfa. form VIII of -waqii [ha^yWi^i/yunj. 
to guard, lo protect Hence mutiaijin means one 
who protects oneself against Allah's displeasure 
and punish men I by following the guidance 
provided by Him, hence godfearing. The meaning 
is elucidated tn ihe succeeding 'ayahx 3 and 4. 





mwi 


tfzi 




©IS 


l.Alif- Lam - Mtm 1 


£Sft& 


2. This is the Book; 


Qt 


no doubt 1 is 


4~* 


there in it. 1 




[It is] guidance 


- ■_■*"''-■! 


for the godfearing 4 - 


tj: 








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IKj^I 



3. Who believe 
in the unseen 1 
and properly perform' 1 
the prayer; 
and out of what 
We provide 4 for them 
they spend; 15 

4. And who 
believe in what 
has been sent down 1 ' 
to you 

and what was sent down 
before you; 7 
and in the hereafter 8 
they believe with certitude 

5. Such people are 
on guidance 
from their Lord 
and such people are 
the ones to succeed . l0 



Sirah 2 - Al-Buqamh [Part (JuiTi 1] 5 

[.Yu'miHUna - ihcy believe (v. iii. m. pi., impfct, 
from 'dmana [Tmd«), form IV of amina 
( omji/'omdn], to be Sift, feel safe), 
2 Ghnjb - alt that is beyond human sight and 
Senses This includes, besideds Allah, angels, 
jinn, paradise, hell, resurrection, reckoning, 
reward, punishment and all thai the Qur'an and 
the Prophet Speak of but is not seen or fell. 
J, Yuqimuna = they set Up, straighten out, 
perform correctly and properly ( v iii. m pi 
impfct from 'atfUntij, farm IV of ttQma\qiyHm 
/quwmtxh}, to get up, to stand up, lo be erect). 
Proper performance of prayers means to perform 
them regularly, in the prescribed times and 
manners and in congregation. 
<i. RtoMqnS = We provided, bestowed, endowed 
(v. i, pi. past from razm/a [rait/], to provide with 
the means of sustenance), 

^.i'unfitfuna = they spend, give away (v. iii. fit. 
pi impfct, rrom 'mjaqa. form IV of nafaqa 
[na/aq], to be used up, be spent, lo sell well), The 
term spending here includes general ehonlablc 
gifts as well as payment of the obligatory KiMh 
(Al.Tabari. I. 105; Ibn Kathir, ), 65). 
b, "Vnzila - it wasjenl tlown(vert>, 3rd per., mas., 
sing., past passive from 'anzata, form IV of 
naiala. lo get down, come down, descend. Here 
it refers to the Quran and the nan-Quranic wahy. 
it. sunnah. 

7 tn consonance with the concept that the Lord 
of All Beings {ftahb al-'Atumin) has 
communicated [he same guidance and the san*e 
message at all limes and climes through His 
different Prophets and Messengers a Muslim is to 
believe in all the previous Prophets and senptures 
received by them from Allah. These are. however, 
completed and superseded by the Qur'an 
8. Al- 'Akhirah = the hereafter, which includes 
in its meaning Resurrection, ihe Day of 
Judgement, Reckoning, Reward and Punishment 
and the life in Paradise and Hell. 
J, Yuqinuna = they believe with certitude, hive 
firm conviction, know for certain, are sure (v. iii. 
m. pi- imfcl. form 'ayqanti, form IV Of yaqmt 
[ vntin/yaifin |. lo be sure). 

10- Mii/K(UJ«t ( sing, muflifti. successful ones, 
those who attain Allah's pleasure and rewards ,; 
act. participle from aflttpo. form IV of faiaha 
\falh]= to split, cleave, plough; hence /eJiM/t = 



tiller, peasant. In Its form IV, i.e., aftalfa. means to thrive, prosper, be successful, 



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Surah 2 : Al-Baqamh |Port (M'J I ] 



-i^<A 6. Verily those who 
ij^JiT disbelieve, 1 



Jtp it is the same on them 

ililJi whether you warned 2 them 

y*ji£fifi or did not warn 1 them, 

p isi*^ they will not believe. 



•Oil* 



7. Allah has put a seal 4 
f>-ktj*& on their hearts 5 

jtj and on their hearing;* 
;1 $jj and on their sights 7 
;_^Lt is a veil; 8 
*^)j and there is for them 
wiju- a stupendous 9 punishment, 

Section (Ruku') 2 

tg®3*5 8. And among men 10 

JyuJ- who say: 
jilUlii "We believe in Allah 
j^Xw^J and in the Last Day"; 
^ilij but they are not 
believers. 



1 Kafari m they disbelieved, denied, became 
ungrateful (v. ill m. pi. past ) The literal meaning 
of kafara is to cover, hide, deny Hence a kiifir is 
one who covers or hides something, such as a 
tiller ut cultivator who hides the seed under (he 
soil- In this literal sense the term is used in the 
Qar'Sn at 57:20. Technically, however, il means 
one who disavows and denies Allah's favours and 
is thus an unbeliever, an ungrateful one; and kufr 
means unbelief, infidelity, ungratefulness, 
atheism 

After having described the characteristics of the 
godfearing believer, "dyuhs b and 7 describe the 
characteristics, of the unbeliever. 

2 'Andhana - you warned, cautioned (v. ji. m. 
s. past from 'tindharu. form IV of aadftiim [nudtir 
Mudhur], io dedicate, to vow In its form IV 
i'lndhur) means to warn wuh a mention of the 
consciiuentes of disregarding the warning 

J, Tundhir[u\ - you warn fir. ii. m s. impfcl 
from andhura). An imperfect verb, when 
preceded by the negative particle turn indicate s 
past tense and its last letter becomes vowel less. 
4. Khaiama m he scaled, put a seal, closed (V. iii. 
m k post from khatm/khiium, to seal) 
5 Qulub (sing, tjcdiii ■ hearts, minds. In the 
Qur'an, as elsewhere, the expression "heart" is 
often used to denote the perceiving, 
undemanding and reasoning faculty. 

6. Vim' b hearing, figuratively ears. 

7, 'Absdr - (sing, itaiaf) = sights, visions, eyes. 
8. (ihishavah = covering, veil 

The putting of a seal on the hearts and eyes and 
there being a veil on the eves mean that on 
account of obstinate unbelief ihe hearts, ears and 
eyes of the unbelievers are rendered incapable of 
and impervious to perceiving and receiving 
guidance and the truth. The description applies to 
the unbelievers of the Prophet's time as well as of 
all times. 

t. 'Aftm = great, big. grand, huge, stupendous, 
immense, enormous, tremendous. When spoken 
of punishment il means "extremely heavy", 
10. Here follows a description of the hypocrites 
imanafiqun, sing. ntanafitj) who make an 
outward profession of the faith but conceal 
unbelief and disloyalty in their hearts The 
description applies to the Prophet's contemporary 
hypocrites, who emerged on the scene mainly at 
Mad ma. as well as the hypocrites of all times 



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Sarah 2 : M-Buqarah [Part Vu: i I] 



.ijti t ',' 



9.They try to deceive 1 Allah 
and those who believe; 
but they deceive 2 not 
except themselves 
and they do not realize 1 [it]. 



— > -• 



10. In their hearts is 
a disease, 4 

so Allah increases^ them 
in disease; 

and there is for them 
a punishement, 
extremely painful, 6 
{&j£$fttel because they use to lie. 7 



1 I . And when it is said 

to them: 

"Do not make troubles 8 

in the land",' 

they say: 

"We are but 

peace- makers." 1 " 






I Yukhadi'una = they try to deceive (V iii, m, 
pi., impfct. from kh&da'a, form 111 of khada'a 
\Umil'). to deceive, It should be noted that in the 
next clause of the 'JraJi die verb is in ii.s First 
form, yukhdu'una. not yakhadi una. 

2. Yakhda'uaa - they deceive, cheat (v. iii m. 

pi. impfct from ;.'i,.',-/.i .j i 

3. r'orri'ururra a they realize, notice, perceive, 
feel, sense, come to know, see through (v. iii. m 
pi impfct. from thu'aru {shu'6r],lo re all it', to 
know). The hypocrites only deceive themselves 
because Ihey deprive themselves Of the light of 
the truth and because the evil consequences of 
their trickery will fait on them and Allah will 
ultimately punish them. 

■1 Marai (pi. 'timriM) - disease, ilcfawu. 
ailment, illness. malady. The disease meant here 
is that of jealousy and hypocrisy 

5. it; Allah leaves them to continue to indulge 
in their hypocrisy and jealousy and thus 
increasingly suffer menially because of the 
steady and increasing success of the Prophet and 
the Muslims This applies to similar situations of 
struggles between the truth and the untruth, 

6. 'Afim = extremely painful, grievous, 
excruciating, intensely agonizing (active 
participle in the scale Of fa % from 'ulima 
[ 'ntiim | , to feel pain) 

?. Yakdhihuna = they he, utter falsehood 
knowing it to be so (v, iii, m, pi. impfct from 
kadhaba [kidhb]. 10 lie). Prefixed by kdna/fcdni 
[he verb gives the meaning of habitual and 
continual act Speaking about the hypocrites Ihc 
Prophet (p.b.h.) said: "The signs of a munufiu are 
three: when he speaks he lies, if he promises he 
breaks it and if he is given a trust he betrays it." 
(Bukhdri. nos, 34. 2459 and 3178). 
8 LS TuftidC - you (all) do not make troubles, 
mischief, disorder (v. ii. m, pi imperative 
(prohibition) from 'afsada, to spoil, corrupt, mar, 
distort, create troubles; form IV or faiada 
yastWfits&d), to be or become bad, spoiled ). 

9. Ard - earth, land, country, region, ground 

10. Afuflih&n (sing. mu]tltfj)= peace-makers, 
those who sel things right, compose differences 
(active participle from 'asiattu, to set right, to 
compose differences; form IV of jedaf/a/taiuha \ 
5uU"thfsuIuhfsaiahiyah/maslahah\, to be good, 
right, proper, in order). 






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Sir„h 2 - At Bvwwh (Part Un) 1 1 






r* 1 . 



Sflfl 



# &H5 



I { I' 






pi 






1 2. Oh yes] They surely are 
the ones making troubles; 1 
but they do not realize, 2 

1 3 . And if it is said to them; 
"Believe- 1 

as the people believe"; 

they say: "Shall we believe 4 

as believe the fools?"* 

Lo, they indeed are 

the stupid ones 

but they do not know. 6 

14. And when they meet 7 
those who believe 

they say: "We believe"; 
but when they retire 8 
to their arch-devils* 
they say: "We indeed are 
with you; 
we were only 
ridiculing." 10 



1 Mufiidua <sing mufuti) m trouble makers 
creators of mischief,. disturbance, disorder (active 
participle from uftadu, form IV oiftaada See Id 
ru/wti'H3l2:ll,p. T, n. 8J 

2 Yaih'uriina = I hey realize, notice, perceive, 
feet, sense, come to know, see through (v iii. m 
pi imperfect from aha am | v/m ir), to realize, lo 
know. See at 2.9. p. 7. o.3). 

S. 'Anroiil = You (all) believe <v ii m, pi 
imperative from 'timuiui See yu 'minwu »t 2:3, p. 

5. n I > 

4, Vii'minu = we believe (v. i. pi, impfcl. from 
"umanay, 

5 Sufahu - cing .Kiflh) m fools, Stupid, foolish 
Dishonest people and hypocrites Usually consider 
honest men as short of understanding 

6, Ya'tamSmt = they know (v. iii. m. pi. impfct 
from 'atima ['Urn], (4 know, be aware of). 

7 tjiqu (originally !fU/t>yS) = ihey met, came 
across (v. iii. in. pi. past from lacjiyu [lit/a" I 

lu'iwi' /Imfv/tutfvalt/tuijuii] lo meet). 

8. Khaiav = ihey retired into privacy, secluded 
themselves, were alone, became vacant (v iii. m. 
pi post from khuii \khMNi\aiflthala'\ to be empty, 
vacant, alone; figuratively, to go out of sight, 
hence to pass away). 

9. Shayitin fsing. shaylan) = devils, evil ones, 
evil leaders. The reference here ft to the leaders 
and instigators of the hypocrites. A liuiyitin may 
Ik nl men as well as o| jirin 

10. .If " rfaAo '•'" (sing. mniluhzi) = mockers, 
ndiculcrs. scoffers, (tenders (active participle 
from telah&i'a, form X of ketw'a\httz' /hu: 1 ' 
tmtu/huiQ'Muihza'ah] lo mock, to ridicule, lo 
make fun), 






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Suruh 1 : Al-Baqarah [Port ( Stii ") I ) 



}&£&& 15. Allah derides 1 

^ a( them 

•^iij and gives them a respite 2 

■j.v^ in their excesses, 3 

i>pu to wander blindly." 

jj,\ Jiuiji 1 6. Those are they that 

%UJ\\j,j-L\ have bought 5 error* 

tS-^V with guidance; 

liijtli but no profit 7 has made 

l^jjit their trading, 

iy 6 li j nor are they 

on the right way. 8 



***■£ 



1 1" 



17. Their instance is 

i*^f Ji3* like the instance of one who 

ijt ijLlf lit* a fire, 

o'.liUlii but when it lightened 1 

,XjZ.£ all around him 

J «akl>j Allah took away 

>_;>- their light 

■^^^JSjj and left them in darkness, 11 

^ii/^t^ they seeing nothing. 12 






1 Ytatahzi'u ■ he derides, mocks, scoffs (v. iii, 
m. s, impfct. Team silahzu'a, form X of haja'a, 
See fluufdti;f'aH al 2:14. p. SI. n. 10 ). Here it 
means lhat Allah will bring disgrace and 
ignominy on them and will indict proper 
retribution on them {FtOk iti-Qadlr, I, 44). In 
many places in the Qui' an ihe sainc word which 
is used to describe the offence is also used lo 
indicate the punishment for it (see for instance 
.1:54, 4:142, 86:15-16). This is a recogniied 
manner of speech in Arabic, 

2 Ypmwddu - he extends, respites (v iii, m s. 
irnprtl, from madda \tmiJi{\ to extend, give an 
extension, lo gram a respite), Here it means thai 
Allah will lei them alone far ihe time be inn lo 
revel in their sinful act. 

3, Tughy&n = transgression, exceeding the limits, 
excesses in unbelief and ungratefulness, 
oppression, deluge, 

4. Ya'mah&na - they wander, stray, rove blindly, 
ore confused, arc at a loss, are perplexed (v. iii. m. 
pi impfct from 'amaha I'amah]. i lo stray. La 
rove blindly) Atnnh is like oman (blindness), 
but the former applies to mind and heart, while 
Ihe latter applies to both physical si£hl and mind 
(At-Zamakhstuiri. I. 36). 

5Jstuaraw = they bought, purchased, bartered (v. 
iii. [ii pi, past ishlana, form VIII at shard [ihirim 
Anira']. to buy. lo take one thing in exchange of 
another). 

6. pal&lah - error, wrong way (see Qdiltn at 1 :7. 
p. 3. n. 6). 

7. Rabihat - she or il did nol make any gain, 
profit (v. iii. f. s. past from rabika [ribk/rabah\. to 
gain). 

8. Mutitadiit (accusative /genitive of mihiadiin. 
Sing, trmhtudii) - those guided anghl. led on the 
nghl way (active participle from ihladd, form 
VIII of hadS {hiduyah/hudunfhady\, to lead, to 
guide). 

'> hmwquda m He kindled, lit, ignited ( v iii. m. 

I. past in form X of waqada [v/aqd Avcu/od t 
y/ui/6d\, lo take fire, to burn; hence waqad, fuel). 
10, "A^A'm - she or it lightened, illuminated (v. 
iii. f s. past in form IV of dd'a [daw'), lo shine, 
gleam, radiate). 

I I, ZutumSt (sing, aiiumah) = darkness. 

12. Yubitritna m they see. reaJiie, comprehend (v. 
iii. m. pi. impfct from 'abspra. form IV of 
bajura/basira [baiar], to look, to see). Here the 
verb is a circumstantial expression (hat). 



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10 



Surah 2 : Al-Baqarah [Halt Uut'\ I] 






18. Deaf, 1 dumb, 1 blind, 1 
so they cannot come back. 4 



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19. Or like a heavy rain 3 
from the sky 6 
wherein is darkness 
and thunder 7 and lightning; 8 
they put* their fingers 
in their ears 

4*>ijfe against the thnderbolts 10 
oj? \ j j*. f or f e ar ' l of death , 

ijiijfj but Allah closes in 12 
@ify*JO{, on the unbelievers. 



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20. The lighting is about to 

snatch 11 their sights; 

whenever it flashes l4 f or them 

they walk in it; 

and when it becomes dark 15 

over them 

they standstill. 

And were Allah to will. 

He could have taken away 






I . Summ (sing asamm) n deaf 
2 Bukm t sing. ahkam j = dumb 
1 'Vmy (sing, a'mi) = blind 

The deafness, dumbness and blindness mean ben: 
the mental state of being unable to listen to the 
iruih. io speak out the truth and ID see the truth. In 
Ihis respect Ihe position of (be nrnnHfiif is similar 
10 lhal of the unbeliever iififtr) regarding whom 
ayah 7 above says: "Allall has a put a seal on 
their hearts and hearing, and on thcif eyes is a 
veil" 

4 Yarji'una iSk-v return come tack, ffirttt (1 
iii rn pi impfct. ftom ntja'a |ra/u'|. lo return). The 
similitude is very appropriate, in thai the murtHfit 
gels a glimpse of (he light of the truth but then 
misses it and relapses into the darkness of error 
and unbelief and Cannot return to the light of 
guidance which be bartered for error because or 
the malady in hit heart (Ibn Kathtr, ), 80). 
Speaking about the hypocrites the Qur'in says at 
another place: "That is because they believed, 
then disbelieved. So a seal was set on their hearts: 
hence they cannot comprehend' 63:3). 
5. Sayyib - heavy rain, torrential downpour. 
f> i.e. from the clouds. 
7. ka'd (pi. ra'ad} - thunder. 
8 ttarq (pi bwitj) = lightning. 

9. Yaj'atuna - (hey put, set, place (v. iii. m 
impfcl. (torn jn'ala [ju'i], to make, to put). 

10. Sav&'lq (sing stTiqah) - thunderbolts, bolls 
of lightning. 

I I . Hadhar - caution, precaution, watchfulness. 

12. Muhii - one who closes in on. surrounds, 
encompasses, comprehensive Active participle 
from ahata. form IV of Jala \hawi /hitah / 
hiySlah], to encircle, enclose, guard). 

1 3. Vakhlafu = he or it snathes, makes off 
with, sei7.es. grabs, kidnaps, abducts (v. iii. m. s 
impfet from khitfifa/khatafa [khatf], lo snatch 
away) 

14. Ada'a m It or he produced light, flashed, 
illuminated (v iii m. s. past in form IV of ft'i'tt 
[tfaw'], lo shine, gleam. See at 2:17, p. 9. n. 10). 

15. Azlama - it or he became dark (v. iii. m. s. 
past in form IV of jufeimu \za!m/;ulm\. to do 
wrong). 

'Ayahs 19 and 20 constitute a second similitude 
about the hypocrites. Imim Fakhr a) -Dm al-Raz! 
points out that the similitude is appropriate in a 
number of ways (a) The hypocrites, in the 



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Siirtiti 1 . At-tlMftinili (Port (Jo;'i 1 1 



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iheir hearing 
and their sights. 
Verily Allah is 
over everything 
Omnipotent. 1 



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Section Ifinfrti') 3 

2 1 . O mankind, 
worship 5 your Lord" 1 
jlJI Who created 4 you 
and those before you* 
so that you may 



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22. [The Lord] Who set 

for you 

the earth as a bed 7 

and the sky as a structure; 8 

and sends down' 

from the sky water [rains] 

and produces 10 therewith 



earth wuh Ihe sky. 

9. 'Anzala - he sent down {v. in in 
"unzita at 2:4. p. 5, n. 6). 

10. 'Akhraja a He brought out, produced, [v 



intensity of their contusion and lack or 
understanding, cannot sec and understand Ihe 
Irulh i iim as a man caught in 3 rainstorm 
accompanied by deafening thunder and blinding 
Hashes of lightning cannot see and proceed along 
the way. lb) Although rain is useful and 
necessary, it becomes harmful and dreadful if it is 
accompanied by darkness, lightning and 
thunderbolts Similarly the hypocrites' profession 
n! belief, though outwardly a good thing, is 
harmful to themselves and others because of Iheir 
ill-will and lock of sincerity, (c) Just as the 
pushing of fingers m ears cannol save one from 
destruction if the thunderbolt actually strikes one, 
similarly the hypocrite's outward profession of 
belief will noi avail him against Allah's 
retribution. { At-Tafiir ul-Knbir. J, pari 2, pp, 
85-86). 

I Qadir - Omnipoleni, All-Powerful. 
1 f/*6tidfl = you (all) worship (v ii m p|. 
imperative from 'iiWu [ ibt'iduh /'uhaJuh / 
nt'intiuilil U> worship. i.t serve See au'batlu ,n 
1:5, p. 2. n.L). The iiyuh emphasizes tawhid 
til-'uliiliiyyuft, i.e., !he exclusivity of Allah as the 
Only and Sole Object of worship 
J, /EdAfr. see al 1:2. p I. n.3. The rest of this 
iiyuh and the greater part of the following 'uyttH 
mention the characteristics of Rabb as Cfeaior. 
Mourisherand Sustaincr, 

•i Kkalaqn = He created, brought into being from 
non-enisKnce (V, iii. m. s. post from Ihulif. to 
CTealej, 

S. i.e.. He is the Only One Creator rrom the 
beginning to ihe end. for ell places and times. 
ft Taltaqitta = you {all) protect yourselves or be 
mi your guani (v u m pi impfci. from sttuqn. 
form VIII of matfa iH'tr^v/Wrguya/ij, to safeguard. 
to prelect. See nmttaijin at 2:2, p.4. n_4). 
7, Firash (pi. famnlit - bed. cushion; i.e., 
habitable and: suitable to settle on. 
S Bind' i basts, set-up, structure, edifice. The 
description is here of what Ihe Lord has provided 
for man's sustenance, making the earth suitable 
for his living and Ihe sky as the basis or set-up, 
thereby clearly indicating the relationship of the 



past in form IV of namlu [jiu;u/|, io come down, get down, descend, See 
ii m. s. pas I in form IV of tharajo \k>iun'ij\. to go out) 



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i: 



Sural, 2 AI-BtUfttlflt (Part Uut'i I 1 






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I Thamarai (sing, thamurafi) a fruits, yield;, 

imp, 

2. fttrg = provision sustenance. Iivdiliin.nl 

$, Ajj Taj'aia - (you ill 1. 1 Jo nol set up (v ii m 

pi imperative | prohibition} from ja ala li"'l]. 10 

moke, to put}. 

4 Attdid (sing mdtti = equals, peers, rivals. 

partners Here is a direct and unequivocal 

command to mankind not to set any partner with 

their Lord, Allah - neither in worshipping nor in 

attributing divine qualities to any other object or 

being. 1 Ins prohibition against \lurk 11 1, vetting 

partners with Allah) is reflated many limes m 

v;nuiu% Ihi in- in 111! (JurVm In -i v.. is I In- «t|i'lc 

Qur'fin dents with monotheism in one form or 

another, in that it provides arguments and 

accounts to bring home the theme ol momtthtKio 

irmptlBtiwi the need D abide by Allah's 

nininiiindlliflirs iilltl [»r«>lnhili<ins and srn'.lli'. 

dboui the rewards for doing so and the 
punishments for not doing so, 

5. Ta'lamuna = you (alt) know, are awxc of (v 
ii. m pi., impfct from 'ulintti | 'i!m\Mi know Sec 
5:11 at p S, n.fij. "And you all know' is o 
circumstantial expression meaning that yuu all 
know t :j > that Allah is your Creator and Lord, thj 
that He has no equal or partner and (c) that you 
understand the impropriety of setting partners 
with Allah iTuffir al-Mitwardi. I. B4J 

6. ftayb = doubt, suspicion, misgivings, See at 2:2 
p.4,n,2- 

7. Naaalni = We sent down (v. i. pl. from 
/unjoin, form It of nmuiu [nuiui\. to come down 
See imtiiia at 2:22. p, 1 1, n.9). 

8. 'Abd (pl. ibadi - servant, slave, bondsman. 
The reference here is to the Prophet Muhammad 
(p.b.h.). This description or him in the Qur'An is 
intended to prevent any deification of him 
° Shuhada' (sing \hnMd\ a witnesses, martyrs. 
Here it means collaborators and supporters 
(Al-Tabari, 1. 167; AI-BaydSwi. J. 39) 
10 S&diqin (accusative (genitive of sddiqun, sing. 
SwUq) - truthful, i.*., if you me truthful in your 
claim that the Qtir*att is hot from Allah, The 
jmmilability of the Qur'afl is its Standing miracle. 

The "ayah is an open challenge to the detractors of all times and dimes, to produce a ten like that of the Quran 
The challenge is repeated el I (MS, I hi 3 and I7:RS. all of which are Makkan passages, The last mentioned &yuh 
makes the challenge in a dearer form; "If all mankind and jinn got together to produce ihe like of this Qur'an they 
would never come up with a like of it. even if they were aiding and abetting one another " 

II lUaqU - you (all) beware of, he afraid of. fear tv, ii. m. pl. imperative from illui/a. form VIII of wuqa 
[waqyMiqayah]. to guard, to protect. See rurrctfwiu at 2:21. p. 1 1, n 6). 



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kinds of crops' 

as provision 2 for you. 

So do not set up 1 for Allah 

equals; 4 

and you all know.' 

23. And if you are 

in any doubt'' about what 

We have sent down 7 

on Our servant, 

then come up with a surah 

of the like of it; 

and call your collaborators'' 

besides Allah, 

if you are truthful. 10 

24. But if you did not do, 
and you can never do, 
then beware" of the fire 



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Sirah 2 : At Bai/amli [Part (Ju; ) I ] 



13 



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of which the fueS 1 is 

men and stones. 2 

prepared 1 for the unbelievers. 

25. And give good tidings" 

to those who believe 

and do the right deeds 5 

that for them are gardens* 

below which flow 7 

the rivers.* 

Each time they are provided 9 

therefrom with a fruit 

as food 

they wi[] say: 

"This is what 

we have been fed 30 before"; 

for they will have been given 

of it 

simitar in look;" 

and they will have therein 

spouses 12 rendered pure; 11 

and they in there 

will abide for ever. H 



I IVdfbrf = fuel, that whieh keeps fire burning. 
See imawquda at 2:17, p 9, n. 9. 

2. Hijarttk (Sing, hajar) = slows 

yU'iddai = prepared, marie ready (v. hi. f. s, 
pas! passive from 'a'tiddu. form IV of 'addu 
| 'adit], to count, reckon). 

4. Bashikir = give good tidings (v. ii. m, s 
imperative from bustututrti. form [1 of hi? hum 
[binhr&uihr] to rejoice, to be happy) 

5. §itik&l ( fern, sing miihah; mas. tHlih) = good 
deeds, right deeds. Here ii means right and proper 
deeds according to the Qur'Jin and sannah (active 
participle from mlaha Jsalaha [mihih /saldhiyah 
huluh]. to be good, risjhl, proper). 

6. Sannal (sing, janntih), gardens, paradise 

1 Tajrl m she or it flows, runs {v, jji. f. s. 
imperfect ham/ani Mary], to flow, run}. 

8. Aakir (sing, nahr) = rivers, streams. 

9, Ruaqtl = they were given, provided with (v. 
lil m, pi. past passive from raznqu [rtaq\, to 
provide with (he means of sustenance. See 
ranufnH at 2: i, p, 5, n. 4), 

Id HuztqnA - we were given, provided with (v. i, 
pi, past passive from rajaqa) 

1 1. Mutashabih m similar in look to one another, 
resembling one another (active participle from 
lufhabahci, form Vf from shibh / fhetxth, 
resemblance, likeness). 

12. 'Azwty (sing KMf) ■ husbands, wives. 
spouses, partners ZuWj is used in Arabic for 
either husband or wife and it means one of a pair 

13. MuUihftaroh {mas. muiahhur) — rendered 
pure, unblemished, clean, immaculate ( passive 
participle from lahhara. form il of nikaru/iahara 
[aihr/tahilrah]. to be clean, pure), 

14. Khatidi'in (sing. khSlid) = Ever-living, eternal, 
immortal, everlasting, abiding for ever (active 
participle from Vuildda [khulud). to remain or last 
for ever). 



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14 



Surah 2 : Al-Baqanih |Parl Uuz) I) 



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26. Verily Allah 

does not fight shy ' 

of striking 2 the instance 

of even a gnat' 

and what is beyond it. 4 

So as to those who believe 

they know that it is the truth 

from their Lord. 

And as to those who 

disbelieve they say: 

"What does Allah intend 11 

by this as an example?" 

He lets go astray* thereby 

many 

and He guides aright thereby 

many; 

but He lets not stray thereby 

any but the defiant ;' 



JM-S 27. Who break" 



<w)l ^ 



Allah's covenant* 



«j- after its solemn affirmation 



ijii^y and cut off" 



I Yaslakfi - He feels shy, 15 ashamed of. lei* 
live, keeps alive iv.ni, m s impfcl from 
isiahytl, form X of Imyiya/hayya [hayiihl lo live! 
Here il means Allah does not fight shy of. refrain 
Of abstain from ( Ibn Kathir. I, W; 
A I -Zamakhsharf. 1.55). 

2, Ytdtibu ■ He strikes, beats, hits [v. iii. m. s, 
linpfCT, from daraba, \darb]. In beat, to strike) 

3 Ba'Mah = gnat. mosquito. 

4 Fawq - above, over, beyond, Here the meaning 
is what is above, beyond Or more than the gnat in 
milium The 'liyiA is a reply la t he critics of 
Ihe mention of such objects in the OuiTln as the 
bees (16 68). the fly (22:71 J, the ams [27: 18) and 
I he spider (29:4 1). 

5. Wrdda - he intended, wished, desired, meant, 
aimed at (v iii, m. s past m form IV of r&du 
[ruwd], lo walk about, look or search foe). 
6 Yadiilu- He makes stay, go asttay, misleads, 
misguides (v. iii. m. s. impfct from 'adtiliu. form 
IV of daliti [dtiltH/Jaltilah\_ to go astray, stray, be 
lost.) Here it means that the striking of the 
instances of such apparently negligible objects as 
the bees, (he (1y and (he ant prove to be the cause 
or going astray on the part of the unbelievers 
because or their unbelief and disobedience This 
is made clear in the lost clause of ihe liyah which 
Slates: "He makes not stray thereby any except 
Ihe defiant". 

? Fosiqln ( accusative/genitive of fiisiyiiti. sing, 
/&<«,) - disobedient, defiant, wantonly sinful 
(active participle from fasaqu \fsi<i/fatuq\, tu 
si ray from the right course, to renounce 
obedience). Three of the characteristics of i ;Auq 
are mentioned in the next 'ayah. 

8, Yanquduna - they break, violate, infringe (V. 
iii. in pi itnpfcl. from mtqada \ntiqd\, in break, 
lo violate, lo wreck). 

9 Ahd (pi. 'ahad) - covenant, pledge, pact, vow, 
commitment The covenant mentioned here refers 
| Is the natural covenant □( man to worship and 
obey Allah Alone as well as the particular 
covenant of the Children of tsrj'il mentioned in 
ihe Tarah to obey and follow any subsequent 
Prophet or Allah including Prophet Muhammad 
(p.b.h.) (Ibn Kaihfr. I. 95), 

1(1 Yaaia'una = they cut off. sever (v iii. m. pi. 
impfct. from qiHa'ti \qat '], to cul. lo sever). 



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Sura* 2 : Al-Baqurah [Pan (Jul) I ) 
'Amaru 



15 









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what Allah has commanded 
£>£c,V*j the link to be kept up 2 with; 

Mdc« disorder.,' 

in the earth. 
ft»^iJ^J^ These will be the ones 

incurring loss.* 



28. How can you disbelieve 5 
in Allah 

and you were lifeless, 6 
then He gave you life, 7 
then He will make you die,* 
then He will give you life,'' 
and then unto Him 
you shall all be taken back? 10 

29. He it is Who 
created" for you 
whatever is there in the earth 
in tutu. 

Further, 12 He paid attention 11 

to the sky 

and perfectly formed u them 





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I 'Amprir = He commanded, ordered, instructed 
It Hi. m. s pasl from 'tintr. order, command) 
2. Yihaiu = it is kepi up, continued, maintained, 
be connected, linked { v. iii. m. s.tmpfti. passive 
from waxala [wuitteUuli]. to reach, conned, link, 
join). Here Ihc emphasis is on ihe duty in keep 
food relations wilh and look after near relatives. 
She needy and fellow Muslims 
i Yufsitt&na - Ifocy create disorders, iroufales, 
dislurhance <v. iii. m. pi. impfct, from 'n/.tada, 
farm IV of fasadu lftm)d/fufuil\. la be bod, 
(.polled. Sec lufridu al 2:1 1, p. 7, n 8 arid 
mufsidSn at 2: 1 2, p. 8, n. I ) ). 
'■ khasirun i\ir.j' i)i,t.-\ri lOWtt dnfC tbU 
intur loss (active participle from kimmru [khuir 
/khasar /kfiastjrah/kliasrtm] to lose, be in loss). 
Such persons will be the losers in I he hereafter 

5 Ta&furHna - you (all) disbelieve (v. ii in p], 
impfct from infant \kafr/ kaftan / kuf&r], to 
disbelieve, to caver See kafari III 2:6. p. 6. n.l). 

6 Amvdx I s me, .tnayyii)- lifeless, dead 

7. 'AhyS - He gave life, brought to life <v iii. m. 
s. pasl in form )V of Ijayiya [hayah\ t lo live. See 
yiMtcrAvf al 2:26, p, 14, n, I). 
K YumUu = he causes lo die. he makes to die (v, 
iii. m. s. iinpfct. from 'iitiuita , farm IV of mam 
[f«*l] lo die). 

9. Yuhy! - he gives life I v. iii. m.S.tmpfcl. from 
ahya. See above HI ft, 71, Here it refers to Ihe 
resurrcxigun and life in the hereafter 
1(1. TuTJa'una - You will be made to rclum. 
reverted, taken hack (v. it, m. pi, impfct passive 
from 'arja'a. form |V of raja a [rajs ] lo return) 

11 Khotaqa. see al 2:21 p II. n. 4 While the 
previous ayah tells (hat Allah creates us. makes 
us die and will raise us again for judgement and 
reward, the present iiyah. 29. reminds us that 
everything in the earih and us setting, ihe skies. 
are created by Allah Far cur use and benefit 

12 Thumma = further, moreover, then 

1.1. fslava m he became even, straighl. equal, 
rvcnlar. Upright {v. iii. m. s. past in form Vlll tif 
faiviya [.Hwm\. lo be equal). Here [he word 
means he turned attention to. because it is 
followed by ifS. lo (|bn Kathtr. I, 97; 
Al-Zamakhshari. I. 61. At-8ai;r. 1. 217 See also 
Al-Tabari, I, 191). 

14 Sawwa = he gave proper form, put in order, 
straightened, levelled, made equal (V. iii. m. s. 
pasl in form II of lawiyu. See the previous note). 



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16 



Surtth 2 : Ai-Battamii (Part Um'\ I J 



I Samawdl (dng MMd") = Skies, heavens. The 
expression "seven skies" is very significant This 
is repealed many rimes in ihc Qur'in According 
to the presenr state of scientific knowledge, the 
sky is nut confined in what we see nf ii with our 
eyes; bul there are staggeringly vasi spacer over 
and beyond it The nature and extent of "the sky' 
remains still unfalhonied. Il is noteworthy thai no 
human being, however knowledgeable could 
have so categorically spoken of "seven skies" in 
[he early seventh century AC by any amount of 
observation of the sky. SttmiV is derived from 
nonSw, height, ahitudc, highness, eminence 

'Allm = All-Knowing. Omniscient, i.e.. Allah 
is All -Aware or the purpose and need for each Of 
His creation, pi also of the activities and 
lntfiltuKi'i ol lliv cnMllnx's 
J In [Ins section ihe origin or man and his destiny 
are described. He is created by Allah and is 
endowed with such qualities; of head and heart as 
should nuke him ihe noblest of creation and 
tender him even superior, to an angel: bur be can 
descend to [he lowest depth of degradation by 411 
abuse of those qualities. He has cone from near 
Allah, has been ordained to settle and stay on the 
earth for an jppoiou-ij icnn. .ind is destined to 
return lo Mini to he either reinstated in his 
original position of dignity and heavenly bliss or 
be consigned 10 perdition, according as he 
conducts himself in this worldly life. 

4 Ja'il = (pi. ju'iiuni one who creates, puts, 
makes, sets. lays, places, appoints < active 
part it 1 pie from ja'ala [fti'l], to create, put, set). 

5 Khatifah ■ I pi. khuiuju'. khaiii'ifi, successor, 
deputy, vicegerent, delegate taciivc participle 
from khulufa, to succeed, to follow. 10 come 
after). The commentators have given three 
explanations of this icrtn as applied to nun. (a) 
Man is Allah's vicegerent on earth because he is 
to carry out and give effect to Allah's injunctions 
and directives in Ihe world (h) Kheiiifnh means 
here a new species whose one generation will 

Minced another generation (t) Man is Called k/wtifiili here because he succeeded a previous species, jinn, who 

inhabited the earth before Ihe coining of man (Ibn Kalhir. I. 99- 1 001. 

(1 Yufsidu - be makes trouble, disorder (v iii. m s. impfel from 'ufttidti, See yufsidSna at 2:27, p 15, n. 3}. 

7, Yasfiku = be sheds (v. iii , m, s. imperfect from stifuka [sufk] to shed, spill). 

8 ,\'usat>hihu = we proclaim the sanctity, we glorify, we declare immunity from any semblance of blemish (v 1 pi 
impfel from subbaht. form II of itibahu [sabMsibiikuh\ to swim, float). 

9 Suqaddisu ■ we hold sacred, holy: we sanctify, we hallow (v i. pi. impfel from tfuddaia, form II of qadusti 
[qudsftfudSs] to be holy, sacred, pure}. 





into seven skies. 1 


JlJ»J^J*J 


And He is of everything 


®£ 


All-knowing.* 




Section iRuku') 4* 


— ^jJuii^j 


30. And when your Lord said 


^sD- 


to the angels: 


3itSi 


"I am going to sef 1 


^4 


in the earth 




a successor"; 


\~) Li 


they said; 


l^ijill 


"Will you set therein 




such as will make trouble* 


^ 


in there 




and will shed blood; 7 




while we proclaim sanctity* 


> 


with Your praise 




and declare Your Holiness?* 



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Saruh 2 : Al-Bitttuwk [Port (/«") 1 1 
I. A'tamu 



17 



P%$$i He said: "Verily I know' 
Z)J&oi& what you do not know. " : 



■ * f 






'.1>\lp2.j 3 1 . And He taught 1 Adam 
'i+fe ifcV 1 ' the names, 4 all of them; 
l££r He then laid 5 them 
JUijiC^Ui^ before the angels and said: 
"Telt Me 6 
the names of these, 
if you are truthful." 7 



32. They said: 

"Sacrosanct are You; 

no knowledge we have 

except 

what You have taught 8 us. 

Verily You are 

the All-knowing, 

the All-Wise."' 



■jili 



-ji - ■ ■ 



Ujfctf 



W& 



(■0 



{2% jli 33. He said: "O Adam, 
"A., ^ " tell them their names." 
-ititllii So when he had told them 



1 know (v. i. >. lmpll-i from "ulinui 
[ 'itm], to know, be aware ot) 
2 Ta'hun&nu ■ you (all) know', an: awic of (v. 
ii in pi., impfcl from 'alimu). 
\ 'Ailama - he taught, informed, ins [rue ltd (v. 
in m. s past, in form II or 'alimay 

i ,-tsmd ' a (sing um) - names, i.c Allah taught 
Adam the names and qualilies of all things 
necessary for man. 

5. 'Arada a he displayed, exhibited, set forth, laid 
before (v. iii, m, i. post from 'ar$. to show, 
demonstrate, to be visible): i.e. Allftii had all the 
things taught to Adam bfoughl before the angels, 

6 Anbi'u a you (all) inform, tell, relate, give an 
account ( v. ii. m. pi. imperative from tinba'u, 
form IV of naba'a \mib'/nubu'\, to be nigh, 
miscd; hence ruiba '. news). 

7. SAdiqln ( accusative/genitive of sadiqun, sing 
$adi(f) - truthful; i.e. if you arc right in your 
assumption that man would not be a suitable 
successor in the earth (Active participle from 
sadm/a [sudtj/^idtf], to lell the truth. See at 2:23, 
p. 11. n id> 

8. 'Aliamla - you taught, instructed, informed (v. 
ii. m. s. past, in form II of 'tilimu. See 3 above). 

'}. 'Ayah 29 above says that Allah is All -Knowing. 
This is repeated in 'tiyuh 32 wherein it is further 
slated that Allah is All-Wise; and in the following 
'ayah (33) Allah says that He knows the unseen 
of the heavens and the earth and whatever we, the 
creatures, disclose or conceal, Such attributes and 
names are exclusive to Allah and these are 
emphasized time and again in the Qur'an Belief 
in this forms part of Islamic monotheism 
(monotheism in respect of Allah's Names and 
Attributes). If therefore anyone thinks that he will 
not be accountable to Allah for any e-f his 
sayings or doings because tie keeps these "top 
secrets' he is not a true monotheist and believer 
in Allah Similarly it lie thinks that any other 
being such as a prophet, a saint, a "holy hum" or 
an astrologer has a knowledge of the unseen 
(ghayb) ur possesses any attribute exclusive to 
Allah, he commits the sin of shirk (setting 
partners with Allah). 



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18. 



Surah 2 : Al-Baqaroh [Part (Ju.-'.l 1] 





the names thereof 




He said: "Did I not tell you 


f&& 


that I know 




the unseen of the heavens 


^Vf; 


and the earth; 


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and I know 




what you disclose 1 


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and what you use to 


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conceal. 2 




34. And when We said 


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to the angels: 




"Prostrate yourselves' 


Pi 


to Adam", 




they prostrated themselves 4 


S0\ 


except IbJfs. 


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He declined, 5 turned proud* 


w^^TSsSS 


and became an infidel. 


© 






35. And We said; 


3$&fig£ 


"0 Adam, live 7 you 




and your wife 1 in the garden 




and eat 9 out of it at ease 10 







I TubAtina = you (all) express. Jet] in. disclose, 
make known, reveal {V, ii, m. pi impfct from 
'tibdsi. form IV oF badd \buditww\, to appear, 
became evident, clear) 

1. TtiktMM&iM - you (all) conceal, keep secret, 
hide (v ii m p| impfel from katama 

[luam/ki)m&n\, to hide, secrete, conceal). 

'Ajfohi 31 10 33 convey the lesson that man 
has been endowed with superior genius and 
capabilities over all the other creations. So he 
should have self-esteem and confidence and 
should not adore or worship any other crested 
ohjecl, animate or inanimate, however 
overwhelming and stupendous it might appear. 
Conversely, he Should adore and worship Allah 
Alone, his Creator and Rabb, remembering 
always that He sees and knows whatever he does 
and thinks, openly or secretly, Ami that He has 
His wisdom and purpose in all His Creation and 
plans 

3. Vsjudu - (you all) prostrate yourselves, bow 
respectfully, pay obeisance it ii. in pt, 
imperative from nijudu \iu}\id\. lu jHuMr.iti 
oneself, to make humble submission, pay 
obeisance). 

4. Sajadu - they paid obeisance, prostrated 
themselves (V. iii, m. pi. impfcl. from sajada) 

5. 'AbS = he declined, refused, turned down (v. 
ii). m- s. past Uom iba'/dio'ah. to refuse, to 
decline). 

h. Htakbara = he became proud, turned arrogant, 
was puffed up ( ». iii. m. s past, in form X of 
kaburu [kubr/kibar/kabSrah\ to become big, 
large, great). 

1, Vittut - you live, dwell, inhabit, abide <V ii, 
ID. t. imperative from sakana \sakan] to live, to 
inhabit). 

S. Zawj (pi. 'Azwafi = wife/husband, consort, 

couple (See at 2:25. p. 13, n. 12), Here the 

reference is to Hawwa', Adam's wife, whom 

Allah created after having created him 

9. KmU m you (two) eat (v. ii. dual, imperative 

from 'akalu \'akiAnti'kal]. lo eat, consume, 

devour). 

ID. gagkad m easy, carefree, profuse, opulent. 

affluent. 



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Surah 2 : Al-Baqarah [Van tfuz') I ] 







'J. as you wish; - 

\'Jci\ij^\^% but do not go near' this tree, 4 

i^i else you will be 

(jjp jJdJiii of the transgressing ones. 5 



36. But Satan toppled 6 them 
from there 

and ousted them 7 

from what they had been in. 

And We said: "Get down;" 

you are one to the other 

an enemy;'' 

and you will have 

in the earth 

an abode 10 and enjoyment 11 

titl a lime. 

37. Then Adam received 12 
from his Lord 

certain words. 11 
So He (Allah) forgave him. 14 
Verily He is Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 



19 









l **** 



""--IT' 



I ftaylhu = as. where (place and direction], 
whereas, since . 

2. Shi'mmS = you [two) wished, desired, liked, 
wauled (v. li. dual pa.it from shti a [mashi'ali) lo 
want. wish, desire) 

3. IM Tuqrabe = you (wo) do not go near, du not 
approach (v. u m. dual, imperative { prohibition | 
from ifitrul/ti [i/ufh/nuiurabiih] to go near. 
approach). 

4. Shajarah (pJ. itiajaral) - tree. The nature or 
the tree referred to here is not known, hul [blfs 
suggested to Adam and his wife thai it would 
make them live for ever or would make them 
angels ( see 7:20 and 20: 1 20). 

5. Zalimin = (accusative /genitive of wlimun, 
sing, zalim) = transgressors, oppressors, 
wrong-doers, unjust [active participle from 
^alama liutm/wlm], to exceed the limits, do 
wrong}. 

6. Azalla m he caused lo slip, to err, toppled (v, 
iii. m. s. past in form IV of mllu \-nlal\, to slip, 
hmnibk, to commit an error). 

7 'Akhraja - he ousted, dislodged, drove out. got 

Out, produced (v. iii. m. s. past in form tV of 

ktuirtija [khurujl lo go out, to leave. See at 2:22, 

p. Il.n.12) 

St. Ihbisu = you (ail) get down, descend ( v. ti. m 

pi imperative from hidmra \hubui\, to go down, 

descend, alight). Mole the plural form of the verh. 

The command was made lo Adam. Kawwa' and 

Iblis, the arch-Ulan. 

9. '.-liiww (pi. 'a'da') = enemy. 

It). Mustaqarr m resting place, abode, habitation, 

residence (adverb of place from wtaqtirru, form X 

of quira I uwrOr\. [o settle down, Co abide}. 

11. Matt' (pi umti'ah) = enjoyment, pleasure. 
gratification, object of delight, necessities of life, 
Chattel, goods. 

12. Talaqqa - he received, accepted ( V iii. m. s. 
past in form V of laqiya {ht/d' fiuqyan Autfim 
Auyy Autjyith[ to meet with, to come across). 

13. i.e. Adam received tvahy containing words 
wherewith to seek Allah's forgiveness Adam did 
so and A hah forgave hi in, The words received by 
Adam ate given in the Qur'&n at 7:23. 

14. TSba = he returned, turned to (v, iii. m. s. past 
[lawb/tawbah/matSbW Technically it means, in 
respect of man. lo lum lo Allah in penitence and 
with resolve to reform, and in respect of Allah, to 
turn in forgiveness and mercy. 



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20 



Surah 2 . Al-Baqurah [Part (JhjO 1] 



■ > f 


38. We said; "Get down 


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from it, one and all, 1 


(i^*iH"i* 


So when there comes to you 


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guidance 1 from Me, 


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and whoever follows 


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My guidance, 


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no fear' shall be on them; 


' *"' -'hi' 


neither shall they grieve. 4 


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39. But those who disbelieve 


ids 


and cry lies 3 


liiiej 


to Our revelations, 6 


JiLajl they shall be 


J&&A 


inmates 7 of the fire; 


Ij-s^ they in there 


©O/ili 


shall abide forever. 9 




Section (Ruku 1 ) 5" 


&£%!& 


40. O Children of Isra'Tl, 


ij£i*ft 


recall 10 My grace 


^I^-ji 


which I bestowed" on you. 


ftfc 


and fulfil 1 ' 


3*rt 


the covenant 15 with Me, 



1, This repeated command applies lo Adam as 
well Bl his progeny and means I hat Allah's 
having forgiven Adam did not mean the end of 
his and his progeny's sojourn on the earth They 
on? nonetheless each lo pass a term on it and their 
ultimate salvation lies in following ihe guidance 
to he given by Allah, whtch is assured nest tn the 

uyuh 

2. Huaan - guidance, i.e.. (he guidance 
communicated by Allah through His Prophets. 
The Our' Sn. as slated at the beginning or this 
saruh. is the guidance from Allah (see 2:2) 

J. Kttavf m fear, dread, 

4. i.e., on Ihe Day uf Judgement YahzanHna - 
they gneve, become sad (v lit. m pi. impfct 
from hanna [huzn/ham], to grieve, be sad) 

5. tiadhdhabu - they disbelieved, treated as false. 
cried lies to, alleged to be untrue (v in. in pt. 
past from kiitfhdbaha. form II of kutihal>ti 
[hdhh/kudhiMkadhbah/kidhbah]. to lie}. 

6. jlydf (sing, 'ayah} = signs, marks, miracles, 
revelations, units of statements in the Qur'an 
(often miscalled 'verses') 

7. 'AslfSb (Sine f/'{'il>) - companions, inmates, 
owners, masters 

X. Khalidun (sing khalidy = eternal, everlasting, 
perpetual, living forever unlive participle from 
khaladu. Sec at 2:25. p. 1 3, n. 14). 
9. This and the succeeding 12 sections up to 
'ayah I '12 or this surah speak about the Children 
of Isra'il and call upon them to believe in the 
Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings or Allah 
be on hint, ami it) the Qur'an sent down on him, 
reminding them of their covenant with Allah and 
the favours and graces bestowed on them and oT 
their past conduct in relation lo the Prophets sent 
to them. 

10 ttlhkurii = you (all) remember, (v. it. m pi 
imperative from dhakara | dfiikr/ttirfhkdr], to 
remember! . 

1 1 'An'amtu = I have bestowed, graced (v. i. s. 
past torn ntt'ania [na 'malt/man "am\ to Ite in case, 
comfort, See un'amia ai 17, p, I, n, 5). 

12. VtHf/fl b you (all I fulfil, carry out, redeem, 
give in full (v ii. m, pi. imperative from urafa 
[waft} ■]. to fulfil) 

13. 'Ahd (pi. uh&di = covenant, pact, pledge, 
agreement, compact The reference here is Eo the 
Israelites' pledge to Allah to obey and worship 
Him Alone and to believe in the Prophets to be 
sent subsequently. 



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Sirah 2 Al-Baqarah [Fart IJuz't 1 1 



2i 



tj.l 






1*— i l ^j 



S-'t 



r£*»W 






ojiiij 



I shall fulfil 
the covenant with you; 
and Me and Me Alone 
you be in dread of. 1 

41. And believe 

in what I have sent down 2 

confirming' 

what is with you 4 

and do not be 

the first lo disbelieve 

therein; 

and do not buy" 1 

with My revelations 

a little value; 6 

and Me and Me Alone 

you be afraid of. 7 



I^lJE^j 42. And do not clothe" 



5 -^ If 






the truth 

with the falsehood, 
nor conceal* the truth, 
even though you know, 






i M 



1 Iritabu + ni (originally irfnibu + ni) a you (all) 
dread me. be afraid of roe, fear me { v n ra pi. 
imperative fron rtikibu \rtthab/ruhb/rahbuh\. lo 
dre^l. fear). 

2 AnzaltU = I sent down (v. i, s past from 
'tm:aia. form IV of iiuzhiV [lf}&l\, W come 
down.) The reference here is to Ihe Qur'an, 

\ iiusaddiq = altcsting, confirming (active 
participle form snddaqa. form II of sadaqa 
^uiif/ftidq}. to speak the truth, to be true). 
4. i.e.. in confirmation of monotheism in the 
Tnrah and the tnzil and of the prophecy about 
Muli.iriiiii.iili p b.h.) 

$. IA Tashlaru ~ you loll) do not buy (v. ii, in pi 
imperative Ipiohibilion) from shunt [jfciran 
/shim], to buy. sell, See al 2: 16, p °, n 5) Here 
it means do not lumper with, distort Of conceal 
anything of Allah's revelations 10 gel little of 
worldly gain. 

6 I human I pi. ulliman/tilhmtnuhi = price, Value. 
The reference here is, in She first instance, to the 
practice of some Jewish savants of the tunc lo 
tamper with ot misinterpret their sacred leils in 
Order 10 gain some temporary worldly advantages 
or lo prevent men from believing in the Qur'an 
and the Prophet Muljsmmad (p,b,h) The 
exhortation i4. however, general. 

7. tttaqu+ni = you (all) beware Of me. fear me IV. 
ii. m. pi. imperative from ittaqa, form VIII of 
waqA \waqyfciqHyuh], to preserve, to guard. See 
al2;2d.p. 12. n 12). 

8. l/i TalbisS = do not Clothe, cover, garb, mix 
(v. it, m. pi. imperative 1 prohibition ) from Itibiia 
[ labs], to wear, put on. clothe). 

'i ital TakSumi = you (all) do not conceal, 
secrete, hide (v. ii. m. pi imperative 
I prohibition 1 from haama [ktUm/ltiDndnl. lo 
hide, conceal. See taktumxna al i.l.V p. 16, n.2), 
The Id in the previous clause governs this clause 
too and make* it a prohibition. 
10. Ta'iamuita a you (all) know (v, ii, m. pi.. 
impfct. torn 'aiima \'i\m\ to know, be aware of. 
See ya'lamSnii at I: J3, p. 8. n 6) The letter waw 
al the beginning of the clause is urcuriiMarHwi 
and the expression, wu tiatum la'lumuna. means: 
"nolwilbslandiBg your bring aware of oi "even 
though you know", The 'dyah asks the Children 
of IsrS'il not to wilfully distort the truth contained 
in their scripture, nor to conceal Ihe truth, 
particularly the prophecy about Muhammad 
(p.bA). 



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22 



SHrah 2 : Al-Baqarah [Pan Vuz) 1 1 



iji-jij 43. And properly perform 1 

V^Lili the prayers 

\p}\ Ijii^ and pay the zakah: 1 

'^Jh and bow ' 

1 with those that bow/ 



^IBfov&i 0- 44. Do you enjoin'' on men 

'Ji piety and obedience* 

■Jf'.'A^y.-Jj and forget' yourselves. 

i*J while you are those 

!&&& that read 8 the Book. 

!^ jjiijjyii Will you not see reason?* 

&-£# 45. And seek help"' 

•jLlifjj^ljC with patience 1 ! and prayer; 

VjJfS'Q.}^ and thai indeed is hard 12 

^^iify^i except on the humble ones' 1 

0&V& 46. Who firmly believe 1 * 

Jj\ that they are 

^j\y& going to meet' 5 their Lord; 

«J|~H; an d tttat l hey are to Him 

0^r«V going to return. 



1. 'Aqimu = you (all) properly perform, sel up (v, 
ll m. pi. imperative, from 'uqiinm, 1'nrih IV nf 
if Mmi [<ftnvmtth/qiyAm\. ID <;tand , See ymji™™ 
at 2J. p, 5. nJ) 

2. ZakBh = purity, growth. Technically it means 
the prescribed charitable contributions far 
specified purposes, especially on surplus wealth 
held for a full year. It is so tailed because it is 
considered to puriiy wealth and make tor its 
proper growlfi 

J, lika'u - you (all) bow. bend the body (v ii m 
pi imperative from mka'ti [*ti*iJ']. to bow. 
4 fWfn (accusative/genitive of niti'iin, sing, 
rati') = those who bow {active participle from 
rtiiti'a). The ayah constitutes u command in 
perform prayers in congregation. 

5. Ta'tttUfiaa = yuu (all! enjoin, order, instruct, 
bid (v ii ti pi, impfel from armira ['ami], to 
hid. Hi enjiiiri See 'limtin, at 2:27. p. IS, n.l) 

6. Birr = pieiy. obedience, righicousnc&s 

7. i.e., you forget to practise it yourselves. 
Tansawna = you (all) forget (v. ii. m. pi. impfel 
from nasiya [rsasy/nisyan\. to forget). 

8. TaltHaa - you (all) recite, read, study (v ii. m, 
pi impfct from itiki [liltiwijli), to recite, read), 

9. la'ifilsina - you ■ lT 1 1 sec reason, understand 
(v. ii ii, pi impfel. from 'asfiilu ['tufl]. to be 
endowed With the faculty of reason, to 
understand). 

10. i.e. Allah's help and assistance in alt affairs. 
hia'lnii = you (all) seed help, assistance (v ii, m. 
pi imperative from Lnanna, form X of "did 
| 'awn], lo be of middle age, i.e., 10 be robust Sot 
mtjlu'intt at 15. p,2, n, 2), 

1 1 . Sabr - patience, perseverance, forbearance. 

12. Kabir = big, gigantic, enormous. Here it 
means heavy, burdensome, hard. 

13. Mtashi'in (accusative/ genitive of kh&ihian, 
sing, khfyfif} = the submissive ones, humble 
(active participle fwm khasha'u [khw.hH']. lo be 
submissive, bumble). 

14. Yazunnuna n they In nils believe, they 
suppose, conjecture (v. til. m. pi. impfct from 
tanmi | MrfflJ. to firmly believe, lo suppose. 

15. Muliitjti {originally multiifua. pi. of multiqin, 
the final n&n being dropped in the genitive 
construction) = the meeting Ones, fact, participle 
from laqd, form III of laqiya [liqa'/ iuqyan 
/iuqyfiuqyiih/iuqan\ lo meet, encounter. See laqa 
at 2:13, p. 8, n. 7: and lataqqil at 2:37. p. 19. 
n 12). 



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Surah 2 ; AI-Hm/umli (Pan (Juz) I ] 

1 



23 



frtl' » -'\ 



Section (ffufcfi*) 6 
47, O Children of Isr&'il, 
recall 1 My favour which 

I be stowed 2 on you* 

and that I preferred' 1 you 

to all the beings. 5 



1 - jltul 



**jj<j*jy 



48. And beware 6 of a day 7 
^^ji'i no individual will avail 7 

any individual of anything; 
nor shall there be accepted 8 
from him any intercession; 9 
nor shall there be taJcen 10 
from him any equivalent," 
nor shall they be helped. 12 

49. And [recall] when 
We rescued 13 you 
from the Pharaoh's 14 people 
who were inflicting 15 on you 
the vilest of torture, 
slaughtering your sons 
and keeping alive'* 
your women folk; 



TlJlT 

V 




- . .i * — 



Mwil. sec al 2:40, p. 20. n. 10 
2 AaamtU, see *i 2 40. p 20. nil 

3, i.e., your foiefalhers, ancestors. 

4. Feddalta - I preferred, gave preference (v. i. s. 
past from fetddalti. form II of fadata [/adt\. to be 
good, be in excess). 

5. i.e.. all beings of the time. The meaning here is 
that preference was given to the Children of Isra'il 
in respect ol [he raising of Prophels and 
Messengers. I 'Alamin. sec 1 :2. p. I . n. 4). 

6. Ittaqu . sec al 2:24, p. 1 2, n. 1 2. 

7, i.e.. the Day of Judgement after resurrection 

8, Tajzi - she or it avails, requites, repays, rewards 
(v. hi f. s. past from jn:ti {jura']. ir> requite, 
recompense), 

9, \uqbaiu - it is accepted, received (v li. m. s. 
impfct. passive from qubitu [ifubal /ifubul], to 
accept}. 

10. Shafa'uh = intercession (derived from .ifctiT, 
i.e. even, opposite of odd, and is so meant because 
of the joining or one to another lu speak on behalf 
of the latter), 

I J. 'Adl = equivalence, compensation, justice, 
impartiality. 

12. Yunsnrtiiw = they arc helped, assisted (v in 
m. pi. impfci. passive from nasaru \r.a\i /mtsir . 
lo help, assist, make victorious}. The "tj\uh means 
lhal none shall gel any help against Allah's 
judgement and decree on the Day n[ Judgement 
(3. Najjayni = we rescued, saved, delivered (v. i. 
pi. past from najj&, form II of naj& [iwjw /nujd" 
Mttfiih], to make for safely, gel away, lo save 0.5 , 
be saved). 

14. Pharaoh = tills of ancient Egyptian kings. The 
particular Pharaoh during whose time Musi was 
horn and in whose household he grew up is staled 
to be Ramses II of the 19th dynasty; and the 
Pharaoh who came in pursuit of Musi and was 
consequently drowned was Ramscs's son Minlilah. 
The 'Hytih lefei; to the famous story of Musa's 
escape from Egypt ™iih ihe Children of J*ra*tl and 
the drowning of the Pharaoh with his troops. 

15, YmOmfitta - they impose, force upon, subject 
in iv in m. pi. imp Fa from sSma [sawm], lo 
impose, inflict, to offer Tor sale). 

16 Yastahyuna s they keep alive, arc ashamed of 
iv iii. ni. pi. impfct in form X of hayiya/ kuyya 
[fyaytih], to live. S« ytuiahyS u2:Ub. pl4, n.l). 



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24 



Surah 2 : AlBai/aridi 'Part <Xntl 1 1 



(fir** 


and in that was 


^j^ V$J> a test' from your Lord, 


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a tremendous one 3 


ip 


50. And [recall] when 


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and thus saved ' you 
and drowned" 


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(he Pharaoh's people 





while you were looking on. 7 


*|d 


51 . And [recall] when 


-' *l'"'.' 


We appointed 11 for Musa 


iiJo^j 1 


forty nights; 




then you took up* the calf 10 


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in his absence. 




and you were transgressing." 




52. Then We forgave 12 you 




after that 


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so that you might 


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express g rat i t u de . ' * 



I Bald' - trial, lent, tribulation Thni wiird is usee! 
in respect urbeth good and had things Notice the 
coiNiireniawrs interpret ihe clause id two different 
ways, namely, thai cither la> the persecution hv 
the Pharaoh wis a great lest or lb] the saving of 
you by Allah from the Pharaoh's persecution was 
a great favour (See Al-Tabari, I. 274-27*.. Ibn 
Kathlr, I. I2S-J29). 

2, 'Azim = big. great, enormous, tremendous. 

3, Fornq/tS - we cleaved, separated, divided, 
distinguished (V. i. pi. past from furntjii \fiirif 
ffurtfun\, to separate, divide, distinguish), 

4, Bi+kam has Here the sense of lu+ktim, fur you. 

5, 'Anjaynd - we rescued, saved, delivered <v, i 
pi past in form IV or najd [nujiv/utijil'/tiajd'h]. 
See najjiiyim in the previous 'liyuh both the 
forms II and IV of nciju give the same meaning). 
ft. 'AghregaS = we drowned, sunk, immersed (v 

I pi. past from 'ttxhrtitju. form IV of ghurtipi 
lyfctiffji/l, to be drowned). 
7, Tanzttruna - you (all) see. view. gaze, look on 
(v ii m pi. impfct from nostra [nazur/mimztir], 
id see, to view}, 

3 Wa'sdnd ■ we appointed, arranged (v i. pi 
past from mi'tulu, form 111 of wu'uda [»u'il\ to 
promise) After Musi had escaped with the 
Israelites from Egypt Ihey demanded ui him m 
bring down a Book from h>s Lord and be went ta 
the place appointed by Allah for him for a period 
of forty days 

1. Iitakhadhtum - you (all I look, look up, 
adopted Iv u m pi. past from illakhadha. form 

VIM of 'tiSdmdhn \ 'akhdh\ t lo lake, to receive). 
10. i.e., the image uf the calf made by Samiriyy 
for worshipping ii. 

I I /alimun (sing zi'ilim) m transgressors, (hose 
who cross ihe limits, wrong-doers (active 
participle from talttma [idlm/isilm\. to crass the 
limits, to do wrong or injustice) The clause, 'and 
you were transgressing", is a circumstantial 
expression and it means that ihey were 
committing the sin of shirk by taking up the calf 
for worshipping it Shirk is described as an 
"enormous transgression" liutm 'u^im) at 31:13. 

12. 'Afmrni = we forgave, excused, effaced (v. i 
pi. past from 'afti ['afwf'afd']. lo forgive, to 
obliterate), 

13, iiiifitt:ritna - you (all) express gratitude, be 
thankful (v ii in pj. iiripfcl. from thukara [sltukr 
/shakfdn] lo express thanks, to be grateful]. 



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Sandi 1 : M-Saqartih { part iJai ') ] 1 



25 



Hj 53. And [recall] when 
J-J'^i WegaveMQsa 
$$§££0 the Book' and the Furqan; 2 
:S& so that you might 
Ijp Ojjcv receive guidance, 1 






54. And [recall] when 
Musa" said to his people; 
"O my people, verily you 
have wronged 4 yourselves 5 
by your taking up the calf. 
So turn in repentance 5 
to your Creator 7 
and kill* yourselves.* 
Thai is the better for you 
in the sight of your Creator." 
So He forgave you; 
verily He is Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 



*Lj 55. And [recall] when 
j^43i you said: "O Musa, 
^ir\?i) we will not believe 10 in you 



I i.e. I he Tawruk (Tnrun). 



2. Furq&n = criterion, distinguishment li is a 
description or the Ttiwmh itself and is so called 
because in ii was a disunguishment between the 
inith and ihe untruth Another view is that the 
furi/On here refers to the help and victory given to 
Musa by rescuing and separating him and his 
people from ihe clutches of the Pharaoh ( 
Al-Tabari. I, 284-235; Ihn Kalhlr. I, 1 3D). 

3. Tahladana - you (all) receive guidance, be on 
Ihc right path (v. ii. m. pi. implct from ihinda, 
form VIII of hndd [hndy/hudan/hidaytih\. to lead, 
lo guide. See muhiadin at p. 9. n, 8) 

4. Zalamtum - you tall) did wrong, did injustice, 
transgressed (v. ii. in. pi. pasl from zalama 
[^utm/toim], to do wrong. See z/ilimSn at 2:51, p. 
24, n. H% 

5. Because the consequences of your wrong act 
will ultimately fall on yourselves. 

6. TuAii = you (all) turn in repentance (v. ii. nt, pi. 
imperative from siihu \iuwb, itiwbeh], lo turn in 
repentance When said of Allah it means to 
forgive, lo restore to His grace. See :3hti at 2:37, 
p. 14, n 14). 



7. fidn* 
nothing 



i Creator. Who creates flawlessly out of 



8 UqtuiG = Ye* (all) kill, slay (v, ii. m. pi. 
imperative from qotala [fori] , to kill, slay), 

9. i.e., let the Wrong-doers of you be killed by the 
innocent. The directive was given by Musa, being 

so commanded by Allah. (Ion Katbir, I, Ml 
Al-Tabari. I. 287-288). 



10. .Vu'minu — we believe, have faith (v. i. pi. 
impfct, from tirtuinu I'i/ndfl). from IV of amino 
{ 'umnTiiman]. to be safe, feel safe. See at 2: 1 3, p. 
8, ft.4). 



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26 



Surah 2 : Al-Baqarah J Pan (Jnzi I) 



ffldtjg- until we see 1 Allah 
i^i openly." 2 

So there seized" 1 you 

(he thunderbolt' 1 

and you were gazing.' 



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56. Then We raised 6 you up 
after your death; 7 

might be that you 
express gratitude. 8 

57. And We cast as shade* 
over you the cloud; 10 

and sent down ' ' on you 
the manna and the salwd* 2 - 
"Eat of the good things" of 
what We have granted 14 you." 
And they did not wrong 15 Us; 
but they were to themselves 
doing wrong. 1 * 



Hi 58. And [recall] when 
Ui We said: 



I S'ara - we see, view, behold, fv 1 pi impfct 
from ruVi \rti'y. nt'yiih] lo seel 

2. Jahrafon - openly, overtly, publicly. The 
Children or Isra'il made ihu demand lo see Allah 
with their own eyes either *hen MUsa was 
receiving <hc Commandment on (he Mount Sinai 
or when he had shown the Book 10 ihc Children 
of Isra'il , 

3, Akhadhat - she or it look, seized, grasped (v. 
iii, f, 5. past from ukhudlui [akhdh\. lo lake, to 
receive). 

<i, Sd'iqah (pi. jrWny) = ihunderhoil, boll of 
lightning. Sec ftm-dV? at 2:19. p [0. n. 12. 

5. Tataurtirta, see di 2:50. p. 24. n 7. 

6. Ba at find = we raised up. sent out, resurrected, 
revived (v. i. pi. past from bamfm [ba'lh], to 
raise up. resurrect). 

7. Mawl a death, lifelessncss It is said thai they 
remained lifeless for a day and a night. 

S Tashkuriina, see at 2:52, p. 24. n. 13. 

i /.attaint) - KM CSU*ed 10 0Vf -.h.nl;-. ..i.l u 

shade, screened iv i pi. past from piltalu. form tt 
ofjuifa [:iitlf:uiu<\. lo be, to continue. Jn its form 
II and IV the verb means to shade, lo screen ). It 
is slated ihey were so protected from the heal of 
the sun either at a place called TTh or in the open 
desert dim Kalhir. I, 134). 
10. Ghamdm (sing, ghnmibnttfi) = clouds. Jt is so 
called because j| coven or veils [xHtmwta. 
ghamrn. to cover) 

I I AmainS. see al 2:23. p. 1 1, n 9; sec also 
utizilu at 2:4, p. 5, n. 6, 

12. Manna and salwd are said lo be respectively a 
honey-like substance and a kind of bird or ihey 
stand for all the good foods provided foe ihetn, 

1 3. Tayyib&l {lent. sing, tayyibah; mas. tayyib) = 
good, pleasant or agreeable things. Here il means 
the good and wholesome as well as the lawful 

things. 

14. RazaqnS, sec al 2:3, p. 5, n. 4 

15. f.alamu = they transgressed, did wrong, 
committed injustice (v. iii m. pi, past from 
ailama See zutumium at 2:53, p. 25, n, 4), Even 
after the bestowal of so many favours on Ihcm the 
Children of Isra 'il transgressed and did wrong. 

16. ZSSmtn, see al 2:35. p. 19, n. 5, 



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Suntti 2 : AlBminrtih |Part (At") I) 



27 










I'- 1 



iinc, 



#♦ 



* .' ■ . 



"Enter' this towrr 
and eat 1 from there 
whatever you wish 4 
in ease and abundance; 5 
and enter the door 
making prostration, 6 
and say "Forgiveness", 7 
We shall forgive 8 you 
your sins;* 

and shall give more 10 
to the righteous. 11 

59. But there substituted, 12 
those who transgressed. 1 ' 
a saying other than that 
said lo them. 

So We sent down 14 
on those who transgressed 
a punishment' s from the sky 
because they had been 

sinning rebel! iously. lh 
Section [Ruku') 7 

60. And [recall] when 
Musa prayed for water 17 



I Udkhulu = you Hall) enter, go in (v ii m. pi. 
imperative Irani dakhula IduUml], lo (filer, lo go 
in) 

2. if Bayt ul-Maqdis. 

3 Aulji a you (all) eat (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
from cikaln [Vrtfl, "o eal, See kula al 2:35. p. 18. 
rt. 9) 

4 Shi'ium = you wished, wanteds n m. pi. past 
from fh&'u \tnmia'ah\. lo wish, See shi'iumA at 
2:35. p. I9,n.2). 

5 Raghad - ease and abundance; sec al 2:35, p. 
IK. n 10). 

6 i c in submission to Allah and in seeking lbs 
forgiveness 

1 Uil tab - a shortened form of halm anna 
dhanubana, remove/forgive our sins 

8 Nagkfir{uy = we forgive, pardon, remit (v i 
pi. impfel. tram ghttfiira \mog/ifir»h/ nhufrdtl. lo 
forgive, to cover. The last lelter i* rendered 
vocwlless because it is ihc consclusion of a 
condiliunal clause [jtiwdb of shart]) 

9 Khatayi tsing. khatitih) = sins, mistakes, 
faults .offences, 

II). Sazidu- we increase, enhance, give more (v 
i pi. impfct. from alrfa \tiyd4vk\. lo grow, to 
increase). 

I I \fvhtinitt { accusatiuefgenilivc of MHftsinun; 
sing, muftsm) - those who do righl things, 
righteous, beneficent, charitable (active participle 
from 'ahsami. form IV of hasumi [hum], to be 
handsome, lo be good). 

12 Baddala = he changed, altered (v. iii. m. s. 
past in form II of hudulu [baditl], to replace). The 
defiant Israelites changed the words of repentance 
they were asked to utter substituting them for 
something else showing disrespect and disregard 
of Ihe command of Allah 

1 3. Zaiamd - they transgressed, did wrong (v. iii. 
IB. pi. past from zalama. Sec al 2:57, p. 26. n. I Si 

14. AitzalnS = we sent down. See 2: 22, p 1 1 . n. 
9, 

15. Rijl = punishment, that which, confuses and 
consternates. It is reported thai the punishment 
came in the form of a devastating plague. 

16. Yufmquitti = they sin wantonly, rebeltiously 
(v iii. in pi past from ftisaqa. See filuifiu al 
2:26, p. 14. n 7) 

17 hm\qii = he prayed for water, asked for a 
drink (v iii. in s, past in form X of rnifH [.tai/y]. 
to drink, to give a drink, to make someone dnnk). 



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28 



-Tar-dA 2 : Al-8ai(arah (Part Uuz) I ] 



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for his people, We said: 
"Strike 1 with your staff 2 
the rock."* 

So there burst out 4 of it 
twelve springs/ 
Each group had, known 
their drinking spot. 6 
[We said] "Eat 7 and drink* 
out of Allah's provisions 
and do not cause havoc' 
in the earth 
creating troubles. 10 

61. And [recall] when 

you said: "O MfisU, 

we shall not put up with" 

one [kind of] food. 

So ask 12 for us your Lord 

that He brings" forth for us 

of what the earth grows 14 - 

of its vegetables 

and its cucumbers, 

and its garlic 15 



I Idrib = you strike, hit, beat (v, ii m. i, 
imperative Train dtiraba \durb). to beat, lo strike 

- *.'i|d (pi, "mji'v. ''Fly. a' fin) = staff, stick, rod, 
\ Hdjar (pi. utfiiii hijiuuhi = stone, rock, It ii 
said ifljl ii was a Hone form the Mourn Sinai 
i. Infajaral = she or it burst out, exploded, 
erupted (v. Ui. f. ». post from infajarut form VII of 
fajara \ftijr\. to break up, to cleave). It is a very 
effective style of narration in the Qur'an that it 
keeps something unsaid to be understood by the 
result which is. emphasized Here il is kept silent 
thai MM abided by the command and struck the 
rock wirti his sfarr as, commanded. Hence there 
bunt out ihc 12 springs by Allah's will and 
design, 

5. 'Aya (pi 'uyuit. n yun) = spring, fountain, eye. 
source, scout The twelve springs were for [he 12 
tribes of the Israelites It is said that the stone was 
square in shape and that three springs came out 
from each of its four sides, The incident took 
place at Al-Tih in the Sinai peninsula ( Ibn Kaihif, 
t. 14.1). 

6. Mcukrab (pi manh&rib\ - dn tiling place, 
drink, drinking ( rough. 

7 Hum . see at 2:58, p. 27, n I 
K hhrabu - you (all) dnnk (v ii rn pi. 
imperative from shanba [shark, mashrab |, to 
drink, sip), 

9. LI Tu'lhaw = you (all) do not cause disaster, 
havoc (v. ii. m. pi. imperative | prohibition] from 

ddui_[ ciyih], io create disaster, cause havoc), 

10. Mufsidin (accusative /genitive of mufsidin, 
sing, mafsid) = troublemakers, disturbers, active 
participle from "afiadti, form IV of fasadu 
[fasiid/fusud], to be bad. See nmf.ndun at 2:12, p, 
*. ii l> 

11. Nasbiru b we beajr wiih patience, persevere, 
endure, put up with (v. i. pi. impfel,. from subura 
\\ttt'r\. to be patient, to feller, bind). 

12. Vd'u m you call, pray, invite (v. ii, m. s. 
imperative from<toVi ldu'0']. 10 call, to Summon). 

13. Yukhriju = he brings out. produces (v. iii. m. 
s, imperative from 'ak/irvja. form IV of ktiuruja 
[khnruitj]. to come duI. See 2:22. p. 1 1, n. 12). 

14. Tuabilu - she or it causes to sprout, mokes 
grow, germinates (v iii f. s. impfc-i from 

unburn, form IV of milium [nnhr], to grow, lo 

:.|iriMlli 

15. fiJni = garlic or wheat. 



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Sarah 2 : M-ttat/aruh [Part iJui') 1 1 



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its lentils, and its onions." 

He said: 

"Will you lake in exchange 1 

(hat which is inferior 

for that which is better? 

Get down 1 to any town, 

you shall have 

what you have asked 4 for." 

And there were struck^ 

over them 

ignominy 6 and poverty; 7 

and they came back* 

with the wrath'' of Allah. 

That was so because they 

used to disbelieve 10 

in Allah's revelations 

and to kill the Prophets 11 

without justice - 

that was so because they 

rebelled 12 

and went on transgressing, 11 



l. Tanahdiluna - you (all) barter, take ifl 
exchange, (v. it. m. pi. impfcl. From tshibdutti, 
form X of buduta. See baddtila at 2:59. p. 27. 
n 12). 

2 Wdna = interior, lower, nearer, closer, closest. 
Elalive form of di'min 

I, ihbitu - you (all) gci down, descend, land. 

alight [v. ii. in pi. irnpcralivc from litihtitu 

[habit], to get down, descend. See 2:37/38. p 19, 

11.8). 

4 Sa'aliam = you (all) asked, implored, abjured 

i ;v ii ill pi past from sit' alts [iu'iW mus ultih]. Id 

ask, to enquire, (u implore). 

5. Daribat = it or she was struck, beaten, hi) (v 
in f s. past passive from dumba \4»rb\, tu bit. 
sinke. beat. See idrib al 2:60. p. 28, n. 1 9. 

6. libiilah - lowliness, depravity, ignominy, 
humiliation, degradation, debasement. 

7. bfvsk&uih b poverty, misery 

8. Ba'6 - ihey relumed, nunc aback (v lii. m. pi. 
past from bd 'a I haw '). to come bock, to return). 

9. Ghadab = wrath, fury, anger. indignalton. 



III Yakfvriina = ihev disbelieved, turned 
ungrate tut, denied (v. in mpL.impfct.from ktijuru 
(itu/rl, to disbelieve, to cover, See kujuru at 2:6, 
p 0, n I). 

1 1 , \nqtu!ima = they kill. slay, murder (v. iii. m. 
pi impfct. from qalula [quit], to kill, slay. Sec 
uuiuii ni 2:14, p. 25. n. 8}. They killed the 
Prophets like Zakanyya and Yahya 

12. 'jiiflw - they rebelled, defied, disobeyed (v. 
lii, in pi past from "aid ( 'ispati/ mu'siyah], 10 
Debet 10 oppose, lo disobey, lo defy). 

13 Yiriadunu = they irumgrcssed. crossed the 
limits, overstepped (v. iii. in. pi. impfcl from 
I'friu'ii form VIII 'adii [WwJ. to run, dash, 
gallop). 



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.10 



Suruh 1 : M-Baijamii | Part iJu.'l I ] 





Sfftii.iuff((A«'iS 


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62. Verily those who believe 


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and those who were Jews, 1 


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and the Christians 3 


< at ■ll) v 


and the Sabians '- 


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whosoever believed in Allah 


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and the Last Day 


L^l-.j-*j and did good deeds, 


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they shall have their reward 4 


jj^jJC^ 


with their Lord; 




and no fear s shall be on them 




nor shall they grive. 6 


ii; 


63. And [recall] when 


P&Z&& 


We took 7 your covenant* 




and raised' above you 


;> f 


the Mount Sinai [saying]; 




"Take 10 


JkU^sHt* 


what We have given you, 


Y&i 


holding firmly," 


0% 


and remember 11 


<jU 


what is therein, 




so that you might 


^^ 


save yourselves." 11 



1. Hadn d they became Jews (V iii, in. pi. past 
from ht'ultt, to embrace yahS&yyah (Judaism), to 
seek forgiveness. The Jews arc called Yuhddt in 
Arabic after Yahiidha. Ihc eldest son of Ya"qub 
(Jacob). 

2, Nasdra (sing itustiin. rtitsriiniyy) = (Jhnstians 
.1. Saisifn {accusative /genitive of xtitttan, sing 
silbi') — The Sabians. were a religious group who 
were neither Jews nor Christians, but I hey 
believed in Allah and used to perform prayers and 
keep fasi. For this reason the Makkan unbelievers 
sometime; called I he Prophet and the Muslims 
Sabians { Ibn KaihTr, t. 149). 

4. 'Ayr (p| itjuri = pay. recompense, reward. 

remuneration, wages 

5 fikawf ■ Tear, dread See 2:\ M. p. 20, fl .1 

(i Yahzanuna = ihcy grieve. become Sad (v. iii. 

m pi impfct from hattna \ huznSfyazan], lo 

grieve, he sad Sec 2:38, p 20, n. 4). 

The 'ayah sneaks of such Jews and Christians 
as were true believers and followers of their 
respective Prophets nil the advent of Prophet 
Muhammad (p.b.h). After his coming it became 
incumbent lo believe in his Messcngcrship and in 
the Qur'an The 'ayah should be understood 
along with IBS which says: "Whoever seeks a 
din other lhan Is Lain, il shall not be accepted of 
him. .." (Ibn KaihTr, I, 147), 

7. 'Akhedhnd = we look, received, (v. j. p|. past 
from akhadha | \ikhdh]. lo take) 

8. MUh&q (pi. "uiHtiihiijI = covenant, pact, 
agreement, contract 

9 Rafana = we raised, lifted up. hoisted up (v. i. 
pi. past from rtifati [raf\. lo raise, to lift Up). The 
mounlain was I if led up and held like a canopy 
over them, as mentioned again in 7 1 7 1 . 

10 KHudhu - you all take, receive (v ii m. pi. 
imperative from ukhuiihv, sec n. 7 above. The 
command "take" here means accept the 
commandments and injunctions by adhering 
firmly to them and carrying Iheln out faithfully. 

1 1 Hi+auwvah m with force, i.e., firmly. 

12 i.'dhkuru = you (all) remember, keep in nnnd 
See at 2:4(1, p. 20, n. 10. 

13 i.e.. you might save yourselves from troubles 
and difficulties in this world and from punishment 
and retribution in the hereafter Tattaqaaa - you 
(all) be on your guard, save or protect yourselves 
(v, ti. m. pi. impfct. from ituufd. see at 2:2 1, p. ] |, 
n. 6). 



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Strait 1 : M&aqartih 











64. Then you turned back 1 
after that; 

and had there not been 
Allah's grace on you, 
and His mercy, 
you would surely have been 
of those incurring loss. 2 

65. You indeed knew' 
those thai transgressed 4 
from among you 

in the matter of the Sabbath. 
So We said to them: 
"Be you alJ apes, 5 
despicably banished."" 

66. Thus We made 7 it 

an exemplary punishment* 
for those that co-existed* 
and those that succeeded; 10 
and a lesson" 
for the godfearing, 11 



1. Tavallaytum - yew (ill) fumed bank, turned 
away, refrained (V. ii m pi past from itmull,'i 
form V of wuttyu [tvaly], lo be near, 10 lie next: 
also to be a friend, to be in charge of) 

2. Kkdairtn t accusal ivc/genitive of khdstrun. sing 
tluuir) - losers, those incurring loss (active 
participle from khtuartt. See kliuiirun at 2:27. p. 
15. n. 4). 

3. Alimlum = you (all) knew, were awflre of (V. 
ii, m. pi. pas! from ulimii ['ilm], to know. See 
ya'lomunti at 2: 13, p. 8. D, 6 and to limiiun :u 
2:22, pi 2. n. 5). 

4 i'iadaw - ihey transgressed, crossed the limits 
<v iii m. pi, past from i'luM. form VI1J of 'add. 
Sec FuVcdunu at 2:61. p. 29, M 13), 

5. Qiradah (sing. ^irtf) = monkeys, apes, 

6. Khdsi'fn (accusative/genitive of Irfcun "mm. sing 
tWW) = the banished uncs, those driven away, 
outcast (active participle from Idwsu'ti \ khas'\. to 
chase away). 

The reference, as clearly mentioned at 7:(63, is 
lo a Jewish community living on [he sea-shore 
On the Sabbath day there used lo come up to 
them fish (or whales) from the se» raising their 
heads: but on other days they did not so come. 
The Jewish communily violated the Sabbath day 
by killing the fish on the Sabbath day- Hence they 
were disgraced and turned into apes and were 
thus made a warning example for their 
contemporaries as well as successors, as 
mentioned in the following civah. 

7. Ja'alnd — we made, set, rendered (v. i pi past 
from /a ala \ja'l\, lo moke, lo put. Sec yaj'al&na 
at 2:19, p 10. a. 9 and La lajalu at 2:22. p. 12. n. 
3). 

8. jYnW; = exemplary punishment, warning 
example, warning, 

9. Byna yaday+k& = m front of ihem, before 
them, in their presence, 

10. Khtdf ~ bock, behind, coming after, 
successors 

1 1 . Mav'iiah (pi. nuimutti = lesson, exhortation, 
counsel 

12. Mulfaqlit (accusative/genitive of nunmqun, 
sing, mvnaqnf) = god-fearing, those who be on 
[heir guard against [he displeasure of Allah. See 
at 2:2. p. 4, n.4). 



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32 



Surah 1 : Ai-Bitqamh (fort (Jitt) ) j 



543 



iStjUgal 
lit."* 

5&*s 









-^jjj*> 1 



67. And [recall! when 
Musa said to his people: 
"Verily Allah commands' you 
that you slaughter 2 a cow." 
They said: 

"Are you making' of us 

a laughing-stock?" 4 

He said: 

"I take refuge 5 with Allah 

lest I should be 

of the ignorant ones." 6 

68. They said: 

"Ask for us your Lord 

that He clarify 7 for us 

how she should be." 

He said: "Verily He says 

that she should be a cow 

neither old" 

nor virgin,* 

middling 10 between that. 

So you do 

what you are commanded." 11 



I. Ya'muru = he orders, commands, bids, 
instructs (v. jii. m. 1. impfct. from 'utnaru \'amr\. 
Id order, command). 

litre is mentioned the incident of the cow after 
which the suruh has been named ul'Biitftirah, 
and here again the upshot is mentioned bclore the 
background which is alluded to in the succeeding 
'ittah A quarrel broke out between two rival 
groups at the Israelites over the murder of a 
person, each group hurling the blame tor Ihc 
murder on the other. Ultimately the matter w-is 
refencd to Musa for finding out the murderer. He 
prayed to Allah For guidance and received wahy 
directing Itie slaughtering of aeow far Finding out 
the truth, How the Israelites took the command 
.and li"'A r I ■ , - tnilh w.n It- 'j ; ■ f . I <<ns \-\ Ihn nn.ni-. 
is described in the following few 'Ayahs. (Sec Ibn 
Kalhir. I. pp I5J-I57 fur various versions of the 
report show, the incident). 

2 TadhbahiUna) - you (all) slaughter (v. ii m 
pi impfcl. from dhuhukti [dh/ihh], In slaughter, 
kill. The final nun is dropped because of the 
particle 'an coming before it. 
1 Taltakkidhti yni take, lake up. adopi iv ii 
m s. impfct. from itlakhadhu. form VIII of 
'ttkhudha 5<xttlakhadhtum3X7M.p 24, n. 9). 
The Israelites could not understand the 
;rnpii. .1l71.il lit In- , milium. S-i llV'i Ih'illi'ht 1li.ll 
Musa was making a fun of them 

4. Huzuwan {hum') = m mockery, in ridicule, as 
a laughing slock 

5. Audita - 1 lake refuge, seek protection (v. i. 
s- impfct from 'adhtt ['nwdh/'iWldrVma'itdh\. lo 
lake refuge, to seek protection) 

6. Jdhilia (accusnlivcJgcnitive of jahilan, sing. 
.iii'.'in'i = ignorant ones, fools (active participle 
from/ufWu \jahl\. lo be ignorant). 



he makes Clear, clarifies, 
m. s. impfct. from bayyvra. 



7 Yiihuywiiiii , 
elucidates (v. iii 
form It of buna \bayan\, 10 he clear, evident) 

8, FSrid - old. advanced in age. 

9, B&tr (pi, abkuri = first-bom. virgin. 

10, '.\wan = intermediate between, middling, of 
middle age. 

II Tu'maruna = you (all) are commanded, 
bidden, ordered (v. ii. m pi. impfct. passive from 
'amuni See ya'muru am, i above). 



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S&rah 2 : AI-Baqarah [Pan Mu?) I] 

I. £wn [pi. tJwdn I -colour 



LfijJLi 









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69. They said: 

"Ask for us your Lord 
that He describe for us 
what her colour 1 should be. " 
He said; "Verily He says 
that it should be a yellow cow 
bright 1 in colour, 
pleasing 4 the on-lookers." 

70, They said: 

"Ask for us your Lord 

that He describe for us 

how she should be; 

for the cows 

look all alike* to us; 

and indeed we, Allah willing, 

shall receive guidance. 6 



71. He said: "Verily He says 
that it should be a cow 
not trained 1 
to till* the earth 
£ i $ijiJi'$j or to water* the cultivation, 10 



33 



2. Su/rtf ' (fern of tufar} = yellow. 

3. F&qi' a bright, intense [active participle from 
ftiifti'a \faq'/fui{u'\, to burst, explode) 

4. Tasurnt - it or she pleases, makes happy, 
delights, gladdens (v. iii. f. s. implct from farm 
\iururf)axirrah/nw\arrtih\. 10 Wake happy, to 
gladden), 

5. TathSabaka - ii or he reseinhkd. looked alike, 
was -siiiihr (v iii, tn, s. past in form VI of the root 

shibk/shabah. 

6. Muhtaiiun (pi. of muhiaiitn) = those on the 
nght track, recipients of guidance Sec muhladin 
al 2:16, p. 9, n. S 

7 JihaSul [pi dhulal) = docile, lamed, trained, 

n Tutfiiru = ii or she agitates, stirs, upturns . tills 
(v. iii. t s. impfcl. from 'uthHru. form IV of Mm 
[italic], to be stirred, roused). 

9 Tasqi = she oi it fives a drink. Waters, irrigates 
[v. in f s. impfcl from saiju {saqy}. to give a 
drink) 

10. llarlh = tillage, arable land, tilth, cultivation- 









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VI 



SaraJi 2 : Al-Baattrah [Ptutfjiu') 1] 



free from defects, 1 
K4J<L^i having no blemish 2 in her." 
ijij They said: 
Z^-ffi "Now you have come up 

4»<% with the truth." 
l*yf: J* Then they slaughtered 3 her, 
\jib 'Cj but they were about 4 not to 
iju* do [it]. 



Section {Ruku*) 9 
i[> 72. And [recall] when 
llii^iiii you kilted 5 a person 
l^i^j'Sla and quarrelled 6 about it; 

£>'-«»£ but Allah brought to light 7 
^J&^Jfc what you were concealing. 8 



Uii 73. So We said : 

fj>s±l "Strike' him [the dead man] 

£U1 with a part of her fthe cow] . 

&fjjii<4 , jS' Thus Allah brings to life 10 

d>lii the dead 

.1; (*=*yj and shows you His signs 
so that you understand." 



1 Musallamah (mas. muiallam) m (lawless, free 
from defects, unblemished. Passive pankiple 
from .icillwna, form II of salima [iulumah/faldm]. 
to be safe and sound. 

2, Sftiyah (pi. .ritiydf) - Haw, spol. defect, 
blemish, 

1 Tlhahahu = i hey slaughtered (v, iii. in pi. past 
from dhabaha. See ladhbahv al 2:67. p. 32. n.2). 

4. KM& - they were about, on the poinl of, 
almosl (v. in. in. pi. past from KMa [ktiud]), id 
be on Ihe poinl of). The account illustrates ihe 
recalcitrance of ihe Israelites under Muia, The 
command io slaughter a cow was intended not 
only lo expose die murderer by means of a 
miracle at the hand of Mflsi hu! also, pcrtiaps. lo 
disenchant the Israelites with Ihe cow as an 
animal which ihey had worshipped in hit absence 
iTufsU ut-Muwiirdi, I, 137). 

5. Qoialium b you (all) killed, munkred (v. li m 
pi pas! from ifatala. See lutftulunu at 2:61. p 24, 
n. 1 1 ; and itqlulii at 2:24, p. 25, n 8.). 

6. Idddra'ium = you (all) disputed, contended. 
quarrelled, defended yourselves agaihsl One 
another (v. n m pi pasi from uMuru'ti, form VI 
of tlnra « [d«f '], 10 avert, ward off). 

~ »i/ifcnj (pi mukhnj&it) = one who brings out. 
brings lo light, exposes, produces (acme 
participle from 'akhruju. form IV of khutaja 
[khuriij]. to go out See at 2:22, p 1 1 , n 1 2). 

3. tuklttmuna = you (all) conceal, keep secret (V. 
ii, m. pi. past (com kaiama. See at 2:35, p. IS. n. 
2)- 

9 Idriku = you (all) slrikc. hit (v. ii. m. p! 
imperative (rem daraba. See idrih, al 2:60, p. 28. 
n, I ; and yadnhu at 2:26. p. 14. n. 2). 

10 YuHyf = he brings lo life, gives life (v iii. m 
s. past from ahy<j. from IV at buyiyn. See 
yimuJtyl at 2:16. p. 14, n, 1). Here again ibe 
sequence is left to be understood from the, result 
The Israelite* struck ihe dead man with a piece of 
the slaughtered cow and he instantly came lo life, 
stood up and. on being asked who had killed him, 

pointed out the man and Iben fell dead again. 

1 1, i.e., you may thos understand that likewise 
Allah will bring you back 10 life on Ihe Day of 
Resurrection Ta'tfitQna = you (all) understand, 
realize (v. ii m. pi. inrpfct. from 'aqatu i'aqt], io 
have reason, intelligence. See at 2 44, p. 22, n 9) 



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S * -ft * 



2#fl 



A'uraA 2 : *f-&H|tff(!di (Fan t>z ' ) I] 35 

I Qosat - she 01 it became harsh, hud. stem, 
sii:l {v, 111 I 5 past injiiL i/iitd | fajwdh / 
quidwuhl. to be hard, stem) , 









:a 



, . ,' ►< fl* 



Jju^iUji 

jj 1 >« » iU-c 



74,Then your hearts stiffened 1 

after that, 

so they were like stories 

or even harder 2 in stiffness; 1 

for, of stones there indeed is 

that from which gush out* 

the rivers; 

and of them there indeed is 

that which splits* 

and water comes out* of it; 

and of them there indeed is 

that which falls down 7 

out of the fear 8 of Allah. 

And Allah is not unmindful 

of what you do. 



ii* 



75. Do you crave for 9 
^■i^jjioi thai they will believe you 
while there already is 
a group 10 of them who 



. Mi jf 






* V 



JjOLt 



U-1j> Cr" 



hear 

Allah's word 

and then alter 11 it 

after they had understood 11 it; 



2. 'Aihedd = harder, severer, worse, more 
intense. Elalive form of shadid. 

3. Qaswah - hardness. 

4. ValafajjarU - he or il erupts, gushes out. 
bursts out. breaks forth (v. iii, m, s, impfct. from 
mfiijjaru. forni V of ftijere [fwl ,0 break, lo 
eleavc. See infajtlral at 2:60, p, 28, n. 4). 

K rashihiujqaqu (originally yalaslwoqaifu) m he 
Of it splits, cleaves, breaks (v iii. m. s. im|ilrl 
:n hi i !:nhuifijuifa, (Dim V Of shaqqu \thutjif\, I a 
Split, (deleave) 

6. Yakhrttjtt = he or it comes out, goes out. 
emerges (v. iii. m S- impfc! From ktmraja 
[khurujl. to come out. 10 go out See 'ukhruja ai 
2:22. p IL.n, LI). 

7 Yahkiiu - he or it falls, descends, comes 
down, settles (v. iii. m. s. impfct. from habata 
\hut>ui\, lo come down, go down. See ihbilit ai 
1 ".p. |9.n R). 

8 khashjah - fear, dflesd- 

9 Tolma'una = you (all> covet, desire, crave for 
(V, it. in pi. impfct from [amau [ mmu'\. lo 
covet, to desire) 



10, Fatiq [pi- finvii/ufriaa/ii m group, band, 
company, faction. 

(I Yuffurrif&tut = they (all) alter, change, 
distort, tamper with, comipl, twist (v. iii. m. pi. 
impfct- from fyarra/a, form 11 i>J haraiu \hnrl}, lo 
deflect, to bend ). 

12. 'Agalu = they (all) understood, realized (v. 
tii. m p! past from 'aqala l'eq!\. to understand, 
to be endowed with reason), 



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36 



Surah 2 : At-Baqftftth \PsnlJuz') 1] 



^j^LujUj and they know [it]. 

\M ] kS © 76. When they meet 1 

^\'.i/Ji\ those who believe 

&;"$£ they say: "We believe"; 

"JiLiiJj and when they go private ty 2 

J?*>C*\r < - ^* i | one to the other, 

pijijjitija they say: "Do you tell them' 

!if JojIIj what Allah has disclosed 4 



to you, 

that they may contest* you 
poJjLt** therewith before your Lord? 
Jp ujUJo'&i Do you not understand?" 7 



,J&y$ 77. Do they not know 

JJflS that A 1 1 ah k nows 

mj3J£ what they hide 8 

g} 4££Uj and what they disclose?* 



rr-;j 



78. And among them are 
SJfS illiterate ones 10 
•~^y^*i* who do not know the Book 
'il\Sri\ exce P ! fond desires; 
IaOIj and they do nought 



1. Laqu - ihey met, came across encountered (v 
in. m. pi. past ftofn tuqiyu [iiifQ'i lin/yJn/ luifyuh/ 
luuan]. to meet, See at 2: 13, p. 8. n. 7). 

2. Khali — he or i I became empty, became alone, 
went privately (v. iii. m. j nasi from 
khuluw/khala ■'. See **a/a* at 2:14. p &, n J). 

I. Tahoddilhana = you (nil) Id I, speak about, 
relate tv. ii. m. pi. impfcl from hadttuiha form II 
of huditlhu Ihudulh], to happen, occur) 

4. Faleka - he or il opened, disclosed, conquered 
tv. iii m, s. past from/tfr/r. to open). 

5. i.e., about the coming of the bsi Prophel and 
his description in the Ttiveroh. 

6 Yuhajju {originally yuhajsunu) = ihey tall) 
dispuic, debate, argue, contest (v. iii. m pi 
impfcl. form htijjii. form III of Ijujju Ihtijj/hijj]. to 
defeat, to overcome, to intend, to aim at. The 
terminal nun is dropped because of ihe particle 
lam having the sense of kay coming before the 
vera) 

7. Ta-gUuna <r you tall) understand, realize, be 
reasonable, comprehend, (v. ii. m pi. impfcl. from 
ttatiiu fV'tD. m be endowed wilh reason, lo 

detain, OfTcSI See at 2.73, p. M, ft. 1 1 J. 

8. luiirruno - I bey {all) hide, conceal, keep 
secret (v. iii. m. pi, impfcl. from 'aiurra. form IV 
of mrra {sarur/ULUrfah/masurrnh\, to gladden, to 
delight ). 

9. rViiniina = ihey (oil) declare, disclose. make 
known (v. in m p|. impfti from a'lana, form IV 
of iiliinu/'ulunti \'u!wtiyyah\. lo be or become 
known, evident). 

10. 'I'mmiyyun U'ng- ummiyy) = illiterate, 
uneducated, unlettered, inwcripfured. from umm, 
mother. Hence 'nmmiyy also means maternal. 
motherly. 

II. i.e., Ihe fond hopes and desires roused by the 
rabbis and religious leaders among the innocenl 
ones of Ihe Jews, '.-tmnniyy (sing, 'umminA) m 
desires, vain expectations, fond hopes, whims, 
facrtciu. Two of those, fond hopes are mentioned 
in the following 'dyvhs, namely, that they will not 
be in hell except for a few numbered days and 
that theirs is the clcrnal bliss in the heaven 
exclusively of ill other people, 



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S&ruh 2 AlBaqamh (Part Uui) 1] 



37 



^oyJijVi but conjecture. 



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79. So woe 2 to those who 

write 1 the book 

with their hands/ 

then say: 

"This is from Allah", 

in order to buy* therewith 

a Utile value. 

So woe to them 

for what their hands wrote 6 

and woe to them 

for what they acquire. 7 

80. And they say: 

"The fire shall not touch s us 

except for days 
limited in number." 
Say: "Have you taken 9 



jo 



with Allah a covenant - 
for Allah never breaks 1 ' 
His covenant - 

*^(> oJ>^ or do y° u sa y a g aHlst Allah 
^jjXZy *£. what you do not know? |J 






1 Yazunnuna - they suppose, conjecture, think; 
also they firmly believe, have conviction (v iii 
m. pi. inipfct from pmrtu [jtfflt, to rirmly 
believe, lo suppose, 1 1, is one of many words in 
Arabic that bear opposite senses. See at 2:46, p. 
22. n. 14 ), 

2 Wafl = woe. distress, the deepest depth of win 
and degradation. 

3 YaHuMna = they (all) write, inscribe (v, iii. 
m pi iinpfei frorn kalaba [kitSbah], to write The 

d.Vtflt slates that some of the learned ones of the 
Jews not only misinterpreted but also changed the 
wording and made additions and alterations in the 
text of the Scripture. 

4. 'Aydin (sing, yad) = hands. 

5. Yashtarit (originally yatlaariauii a they all 
sclVbuy (v. iii. m. pi impfct from ishlara. form 
VIII of ikarii [jnird'/rfeiran), to buy, lo sell.The 
terminal nun is dropped because of the particle 
lam having the sense of fcay coming before the 
verb. See ishtarawu at 2:16. p. 9, n, 5). 

6 Keialmi - she wrote (v. iii. f. s, past from 
kalaba [kitdbah], to write, See n. 3 above), 

7 Yuksib&ntr = they (all) acquire, earn, gain (v. 
iii. m. pi impfct. from kaiaba {kasb\. to gain, to 
acquire] . The 'ayah speaks of two kinds of 
wrong; (a) making allcraliunS and additions in the 
scripture and (b) making a gain out of such acts. 
So due punishment will be meted out for both 
offences. 

8 romoijfl|if] = she or it touches, feels (v. iii. f. 
s. impfct from mum [rviSS/masTs). to feel, to 
touch). 

9 'A +ittakhadhtum = Did you (all) lake, take 
up. adopt !,v. ii. m. pi. past from iiwkhwilw. fonn 
VIII of 'akkadha [ 'akkda), lo take, lo receive See 
at 2:51, p. 24. n 9}. 

10. 'AArf (pi. "ufiHd) = covenant, pledge, pact, 
contract, treaty, commitment. See at 2:27. p. 14, 
a 9). 

1 1 Yitkhlifu « he breaks, fails to keep, goes back 
on his word (v iii, m. s. impfct, ffOtn athla/a, 
from IV of khulafa [khal/Ahulu/] to lag behind, to 
come iftet. to succeed, to change, to become 

bad). 

1 2. Ta'lamina - you (all) know, are aware or (v. 
ii. m, pi., imperfect from 'alima, to know. Sec at 
2:42, p. 21, n. 10). 



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38 



Surah 2 : Ai-Baqamh [Pan <Ju;') I ] 



S*1f * \ 




£ 8 1. yes;' whoever earns 2 



a sin 

*' — **"-> and there encircle him 

^■■'.L r.w»- hts sins, 

■^Uk£ such ones will be 

\{^s£^ tne inmates of the fire; 



^i t ^i they in there 
S Ojiti will abide for ever." 



\P-f>--ZCz$j 82. And those who believe 
^JLdtijJ-j and do the good deeds, 
iLfiiji such ones will be 

the inmates of the Garden; 



if > <? 



Ljj^fc they in there 
^•^i%^>- shall abide for ever. 

Section {««*«') 10 
31i 83. And [recall] when 
till We took 
Jt'vHS -i 1 ^, the covenant 7 of BanG Isra'ii: 
^jj-_-^ "You shall not worship 
'Zt\^[ anyone except Allah; 
CC-[ u-Vj^.'j m & Snai ' do good' to parents 
CtH^ij and to near relations, 10 



I Bala = o yes. Il is generally used in reply to a 
negative assertion, such as. "Am I not your Lord? 
Oycs (balii). You an?." 

2. Kaieba = he earned, acquired (v. hi. m s. past 
from fciitft. to acquire. See ynti/iiina at 2:79. p. 
37, n 7} 

3. Sayyi'ah (pi. i,iivi'iii>= sin, offence, misdeed. 

4. i c . he ii so engrossed in his sins thai there is 
no way of his felting nui and reforming himself. 
Whfilat = she or il encircled, closed irt on, 
surrounded, (v. iii. f. s. past from 'oJhJru, form IV 
of hiita [haunt, hltah/hiyHuili), lo gunrd. watch 
over, have ihe custody, encompass) 

5. 'Ash&b (sing, idhiir) - companions, owners, 
associates, given lo, inmates, inhabitants, 
dwellers. 

6. Khalidun (sing kfiatid) ■ living or remaining 
forever, everlasting, eternal (active participle front 
khalada [khulud], to live or remain for ever See 
at 2:25. p. 13. n 14. 

7. MithSq (pi, mtiwaihtq} =■ covenant, contract. 
pact, treaty, agreement, See at 2:63, p. 30, n &, 



8. Ta'budana ■ you (all) worship, serve (v. il. m. 
pi. inipfci from abuda [ibadah, ubudtyyuh], id 
worship, serve. Sec na'buda at 1:5. p. 2, n. I: and 
u*kM U,2;Zl, p. i ! ii -.'.' 

u . '/(ndfl = doing goad things, charily, 
benevolence. Here it means obedience and 
dulifulness. Il i& noteworthy that obedience and 
duti fulness to parents are placed second only to 
submission to and worship of Allah (see also 
4:36. 6: III. 1723 and 46". IS) the essence of 
thaw is that it is done nor in return for an 
obligation or benefit received but in addition 10 
and exclusive of that. Hence 'ihjun is distinct 
from 'adl, ic. justice and balancing 'thsdn to 
parents is thus not simply a return of their love. 
Care and attention but obedience and doing good 
to them in addition. 

(0. Dht at-qtirhd { accusative/genitive of dhu 

<il ' ij ii 'I'd) = near relations, kindred. 



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^ 



Sarah 2 Al-Bt»jorvh |Part Urni) JJ 

I. Yaldmi t si rig. yaiSm) = orphans 



.('i 






and the orphans' 

and the poor; 2 
w -da \j,jj and speak to people 
what is good, 1 
and properly perform' 1 
the prayers 

and pay the zakah. 
Then you turned away, 5 
except a few of you, 
and you were falling back. 6 



itntVi' 












84. And [recall] when 
We took your covenant: 
You will not shed 7 
your blood 

nor drive out 9 yourselves 
from your homes";* 
then you confirmed it, 
and you bore witness [to it]. 



*X£»l^p 85. Yet, you are the ones, 
you kill" yourselves 12 
and drive out 
a group 11 of you 



i *■* a ** s* 









2 Mtuolrtt tsing. mi.ttffi) = poor, miserable, 
beggars. 

J. i.e., with courtesy, ami modesty and speak 
whai is true and just, /fuiir s good, beauty, 
handsomeness, excellence, perfection, 

4. 'AqtntA = you tat!) straighten, straighten out, 
make nghl or correct, raise or erect, properly 
perform (v. ii. m, pi. imperative from 'aqiima, 
form IV of tjfima See yuifimuna at 2:3, p, 5. n .1) 

5. lawullayium = you (all) iitmcd away (also 
look charge of, took possession of (v. ii. m. pi 
past from tawalld, form V of waliya [waly], to be 
near or close to. to be next). 

6. Mu'ridtia (sing mu'rid ) = those turning away, 
averting, falling back (active participle from 
'a'rada. form IV of 'aruda {'ard\, to be broad, 
wide, to appear, to show). 

I TasfikSna - you (all) Shed IV ii m. pi. impfcl. 
from safaka [sajk]. 10 shed. See yttsfiku at 2:30. p. 
16. n 7). 

8. Tukhrijina = You (all) drive Out. Oust, expel, 
get out. bring out (v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 
'akhraja, form IV of kharaja \khurut], to go out, 
depart. See 'tikknija at 2:36. p. 19, n. 7). 

<i DiySf (smg dSr) = homes, houses, abodes, 
buildings, residence, land, country. 

10. Tmh-haduna — you (all) witness, sec with 
your own eyes (v. ii rn. pi impfct from shuhfdn 
[shuhud/shcthiidfik], to witness, to testify). 

II Taqtal&iut - you (all) kill, put to death, 
murder (v. ii m. p|. impfct. ftom t/fiteia [i/sll], 10 
kill. See uqiulS at 2:24. p. 25, n. 8: and 
yatlittlSrta, at 2:61. p. 29, ft. II. 

12- it,, your own people. 

1.1 Fartq (pi. ftiruq: afriqah, QfriqA') = group, 
band, company, faction, team. Sec at 2:75. p 35, 
n, 10, 



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Sirah 2 : Al-Bagarali [Pan (Juz'l I| 






I - < > 5 fK' 






from their homes, 
backing up 1 against them 
in offence 2 and enmity; 1 
and if they come to you 
as captives'* 
you ransom 5 them, 
while it was prohibited* 
for you - their expulsion. 7 
Do you then believe 
in part of the Book 
and disbelieve* in part? 
Then what is the requital 9 
of those who do that of you 
except disgrace 10 
in the worldly life? 
And on the Day of Judgement 
they shall be taken back" 
to the severest of punishment: 
and Allah is not unmindful 
of what you do. 

86. Those are the ones who 
have bought 11 the worldly life 



I la^aharuna (originally tatttiSJutr&na, (he 
initial <n having been dropped) = you Call) assist 
help, hack up one another, nuke common cause. 
demonstrate (v ii. jn. pi. impfct from livahtira. 
Forni VI of zahara [mhur]. Id be visible, to come 
into view. The sense is derived from :uhr, back, 
hence f<i:cUhi'u means pulling one's back Id ihe 
back of another in support and help). 

1. ftflor (pi dtMm) = (in, offefKe. misdeed, 
crime 

3. 'UdwSn = enmity, hostility, aggression. 

4. Us&rd (sing, urir) = prisoners, captives. 

5. Tuf&dH (originaJly iffatluna) = you (all) 
ransom, redeem, pay for freeing (v ii. m pi. 
impfcl. from /<Ml form II) of/«d« \fidtm/fidi'\. 
lo redeem, lo ransom The terminal tin a 
dropped because ii is ihe conclusion of a 
conditional clause) 

b Maharrsm - prohibited, forbidden, 
interdicted 

l.'lkkrty = expulsion, driving out, pelting oui 
(form IV of khiAruja See ukktaja al 2 12. p 1 1, 
n. 12). 

S. Takfurtjrm = you (all) disbelieve, deny (v. n 
m. pi. Linpfct from kufura. See tufuru at 2:6, p. 6, 
n I). 

<>. JazA' - requital, recompense, reward, return, 

10 A'Aiyi = disgrace indignity, ignominy, shuine. 

humiliation, degradation, abasement. 

I I Yurodduna - they are relumed, pul back, 
reverted (v. in m. pi impfcl, passive from tuddu 
|™rfJ], to send back, to return I 

The tiyoh refers to the conduct of the Israelites 
of old as well as of the Jewish Inbcs of Mailiriit 
who had been engaged tn internecine quarrels and 
fighting, killing one another till the migration of 
the Prophet to lhat place 

12 hhlaraw - they bought, bartered (v iii in 
pi. pasl from tshuirii. Sec at 2: 16, p. 9, n 5). 



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Surah 2 Al-Baqarati [Part (JbO U 



41 
















pflawft 



for the Hereafter. 

Hence no mitigation 'will be 

made for ihem 

in the punishment 

nor shall they be helped. 

Section {Ruku') II 
87. And We had given MOsa 
the Book (Tawrah) t 
and sent 1 after him 
the [other] Messengers; 4 
and We gave 
'tsa, son of Maryam, 5 

the clear signs;* 

1 
and aided him 

with the Spirit of Purity,* 

Is it then that whenever 

a Messenger comes to you 

with what 

your selves do not desire 9 

10 



you tum arrogant, 
'jSjt^Lja so a group you cry lies to 11 
B vliij and a group you kill? 



1 Yukhaffajv = ii is reduced, lightened, lessened. 

mitigated (v IE, m s impfcl passive from 

khufftifti, form II of khtiffa [khaff/khiffak], lo be 

light) 

2. Yunsar&na - they are helped, assisted. 

supported (v. iii. m. p!- impfcl passive, from 

nasata [iro.tr J to help. See at 2:48, p. 23. n. 12). 
J. Qoffaynd m we sent, despatched (v i pi, past 
from uuffii. from II of qnfd |</fl/iv| to follow s.o.'s 
tracks). 

4. The emphasis here is that tJie process of 
sending Messengers did not end with Musa and 
that other Messengers were sent :n his wake to the 
Israelites. 

5. It is a noteworthy style of Arabic language to 
nuke mention of a general group and then to 
mention a special one from among them. The 
mention of T ts4 after the mention of the sending 
of Messengers docs not mean that he was 
different from the body of Messengers, It means 
that he was someone especial among them, An 
important instance of such mention of the 
especial one after the mention of a general body 
is found at 4:97 : "Therein come down the angels 
and the R&h \Mbril\ by the leave of their liinl ' 
G. BayyinSt (sing, bayyinah) = clear proofs, 
indisputable evidences. Here the reference is 10 
the miracles provided for him by Allah. 

7 Ayyadna - we strengthened, aided, supported, 
backed up £v, i, pi. past from ayyada, form II of 
ada { 'uydl. to be strong) 

i.ROhal^iptduis The Spirit of Purity, i. e, the 
angel Jibril. That he was (he conveyer of wtihy is 
clearly slated at 16:102. He is also called Al-Ruh 
al-'Armn at 26:193. The Statement thai Allah 
aided 'tsa. peace be on him, with Jibril means that 
tvahy and a scripture were sent to him. The same 
statement "We aided him with the Spirit of 
Purity" occurs at 2:253- The emphasis here on 
'Isfi as a Prophet is * disapproval of the conduct 
of Ihosc who deny his Prophethood or deify him. 

9. Ttihwa - she or it desires, fancies (v. iii. f. s 
impfcl from hawiyu [haxxm], to desire) 

10. Istakbartum - you (all) lumed arrogant, 
became proud (v. n m. pi. past from istakbura. 
form X of kabura [habr\, lo be big, great See 
iaakbara at 2:34, p, 1 8. n 6). 

\\ Kadhdhabtum - you (all) called lies (o. 
disbelieved (v. ii m pi past from kudhdiiuha 
form II of kvdhnha \kidhb fcidhib], lo lie) 



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42 



S&rah 2 : AlBa/awM (Pan (/ai) 1 1 



ijljj 88. And they say: 

ijticb^li "Our hearts are enwrapped". 1 

l&i^J^ Nay, Allah condemns 1 them 

^j> ixL because of their disbelief; 

Sj>&£%&t so little is that they believe. 



A\ 



Oj 89. And when 

^it there came to them 
££ a Book from Allah, 

S-£-^ confirming' 1 

'J£*Q what is with them - 

j^>j *>^j and { hey had previously been 

■^, £.-.'.: '.* praying for victory 4 

tjyS^-jjf j£ over rhose who disbelieve - 

(Jfcitilij* but when there came to them 

ijjjLtl; what they knew, 5 

**j >j>i-^a t he y d isbel ieved 6 i n it . 

>af<-Jji So the curse of Allah is 

^jiOji upon the infidels. 



ilXir&^l 90. Bad is what they sell 7 
-1 -j themselves for, 

,1 in that they disbelieve" 




1. Ghutf (sing, tighltif) = enwrapped, covered, 

enveloped. 

2 Iji'ana = he condemned, damned, cursed Iv 

iii. m. s. past from (u'n). 

3. Musaddiq = thai which, confirms, venfits, 
jiil'sis (.active participle from sudjayti, farm II of 
tudtuju [.uidtf/sidif]. to speak the Imth. See ai 
2:41, p 2i K n. 3) 

4. >'uj(c/fi/ijina = ihey pray for victory (v. iii m. 
pi, impfcl. from islaftahu, form X >tf (aitityu limb], 
lo open, to conquer). The coming or the last 
Prophet was foretold and i desenptiun of his 
characlcrislics was given in the Tuwrtih The Jews 
of MaJma knew that and also thai the tunc for hi, 
Appearance had drawn near. In fact they used to 
talk about it to ihe Arab* of the Aws and Khanjj 
tribe! there and lo threaten lhem with defeat and 
elimination with the help and under the guidance 
of that expected Prophet 

5. 'Arafu = they knew, were aware of. were 
acquainted wilh (v iii. m. p!. past from uru/p 
[marifuh/'irfin], lo know, lo recognize). The 
Jews knew ahaui the coming of ihe lasi Prophet 
and of his description in the Tuwrak (See for a 
masterly treatment of the subject of Biblical 
prophecy about Muhammad, peace and blessings 
of Allah be on him, in 'Abdu 'l-Ahad Dawd, 
Muhammad in iht Bible, .lrffedn.. Qatar, 1980.) 

6 Kafarti = they disbelieved, dented (v. iii. m pi 
past from kufum. See ai 2:6, p. 6. n. I ) 



7. liht.irrth = they bought, sold, bartered (V iii. 
m. pi. past (rum ishlara. form VIII of shara 
[ihira'hkiran], lo buy, to sell. Sec at 2:86, p. 40. 
n.. !2:and2:16.p. o, n . 5). 

8, Yakfurii (originally yabfur&na, (he terminal 
nan being dropped on account or the coming of 
the panicle 'tin before the verb) = ihey disbelieve, 
they deny ( v. iii. m. p). trnpfct. Trom knfatu Sec 
lukfwuna at 2:85, p- 41). n S, and ktsfuru at n 6". 
above and at 2:6. p. 6. n I ). 



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S&ruh 2 : Al-Baaarah [Part (Jul) I] 



43 



in what Allah has sent down. 
£ji out of envy 1 
ial 'S£ J that Allah should send down 2 
*£j**iK of His grace [waky? 
S*^JJt upon whomsoever He wills 
"tX^ii* f rom among His servants. 4 
>iG Thus they incurred 5 

1^£, 2L wrath upon wrath;" 

l/y^Xi and there is for the infidels 
'j^JL\j! a humiliating' punishment. 

l^J Jjlijj 91, When it is said to them: 
LLr IjL. i; " B e 1 ieve i n what 

Sat4^ Aliah has sent down", 8 
i-> ijli they say: "We believe 

in what has been sent down* 
upon us"; 

and they disbelieve 
in what follows (hatb- 
and it is the truth - 
confirming" 
HJ what is with them, 
cjlilti j* Say: " Why then you killed 



&A t. 



/■ 









1. fiaghf a envy, grudge, injustice. *nmf, 
infringement The Jews refused to follow the last 
Prophet. Muhammad, peace and bk'isirigi liT 
Allah tie on him, s imply because of envy and 
grudge that he was net from among the Jews, but 
from the collateral branch, the descendant!! of 
Itmt'tl. 

2. YunozzHafu) = he sends down, causes to 
descend (v. iii. m. s. past (mm nuTiula, form II nl 
nazulit \r>u?.at\. lo come down The lasl letter takes 
fuihtth because of the panicle Van coming before 
the vert) See "imlala at 2:4. p. 5. n. 6) 

) Fatfl = grace, favour, surplus, excess, left-over 
Here Ibe word mean* the special favour of 
Prophctboud and withy This U clear from the 
context as well as from the fact thai so tat as 
Allah's genera! favour and prate are concerned, 
these ate bestowed more or less on all Ibe species. 
This part of the 'ayah rejeeia the claim thai 
Propphethuod is meani solely and exclusively fat 
any particular race or people In fact ihc Qur'an 
emphasises that Prophets have been sent to 
different peoples and places. 
4. 'tbSd (sing, 'ainti = servants (of Allah), human 
beings, .slaves, serfs. See 'abd ni 2:23, p. 12. n K. 
5 Bti'6 = ihey returned, came back, incurred (v 
iii in pi. past from baa [ baw'}, to come hack, 
to relum See at 2:61, p 29. n.8). 
6. C.hadab = wroth, fury, anger, indignation Sec 
at 2:61. p 29, n '). 

7 Muhin - humiliating, disgraceful, debasing, 
ignominious, (active participle from 'ahdna, form 
IV of liana [tmwn}. to be easy, to be of liltle 
importance) 

8. Anutta - he sent down (v. iii, m, s, pasl tn 
forttl IV of itaialo. See at 2:22, p. 1 1 , n. 9 ). 

9. 'Vnjsia = il was sen! down (v. iii. m. s, past 
passive from tinzala i.-nn IV ol naiata I nuifl/J, 
lo get down, descend, sec ni 2:4, p, 5, n .6). 

10. Ward' = behind, after, at the back of, in ihc 
rear or. in addition 10. 

11. Muiaddiq - that which confirms, verifies, 
airesls (acl participle Tfoni fiiddoqa. form II of 
sadaqa. to speak the truth See at 2'89. p. 42, n. 
i), This is an emphasis on lite Tact ihal Allah's 
message and teachings lo alt the previous 
Prophets have been the same and that the Quran 
is ihe continuation and perfection of Ihc same 
message, superseding the previously revealed 
scriptures 



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Surah 2 ; Al-Baqarah [Pail (Jut) \\ 






Allah's Prophets before, 
if you are 

believers?" 

92. And indeed 
there came to you MusS 
with the clear proofs;' 
yet you took up 1 the calf' 
in his absence, 
and you were transgressing. 4 

93. And [recall] when 
We took your covenant 5 
and raised 6 above you 

jjJaH the Mount Sinai [saying]: 
^rt*U Ijji. "Hold what We have given you 
with force and listen." 7 
They said: "We hear 6 













i Ip 



and we disobey." 9 

And they were infatuated 10 

in their hearts 

with the calf 

because of (heir unbelief. 

Say: "Bad is what 






1. Bajyin&t (sing, huyyumk) = clear proofs, 
indisputable evidences (see at 2:87, p. 41. n 6) 
Here the reference is In (he miracles provided for 
him by Allah 

2. tttokhadhtum = you (all) look, took up. 
assumed, adopted (v. ii. m. pi. pail from 
litukhtaiha, form V|(I of 'akhadhu \akkJh], (o 
lake See at 2:8(1, p. 37, n 9). Hers it mean.*, that 
they km A up the calf for worshipping ii 

3. '(/J (pi, •ujWtjtiiuh) = calf. 

4. /.alimun 'sing ;<Jiint) = iransgreuors. those 
who cross 'he limits, wrongdoers (atlivc 
participle from pilumu lyihn/zulm], to cross (he 
lirmls lodo wrong or injustice See al 2:51. p 24. 
n II) 

$ Mtthiq (pi iturwaihiq) = covenant, pact, 
agreement, contract. See at 2:63, p 30. a, K: and 
al 2:83, p. 38, n. 7. 

6. Rofa'nd - we raised, lifted up, hoisted up (v i 
pi. put from rq&'a |rn/"|, to raise, to lift up. See 
at 2:63, p. 30, ii 9). The mountain was lifted up 
arid held like a canopy over them, as mentioned 

again irt 7: |7I. 

7 hma'i = you all listen, hear, give ear to, pay 
attention to (v. ii. m pi imperative from .rami 'a 
I.Tom'/ciHul'l, to hear). The command here means 
lo pay altcntion to and abide by the 

commandments. 

8 Sami'nd - we heard, listened, gave year in (v 
i pi. past dam stimi'u. See n, 7 above). 

9 'Aiafitd - we disobeyed, defied, opposed (v. i 
pi. past fram 'aid \mu'siyak/'i)y6n\, lo disobey, 
defy See usaw at 2:61, p. 29. n. 12} 

10. 'Vshribu = they were given to driri, were 
drenched, saturated, filled, imbued with, infused 
with, infatuated with (v iii in pi past passive 
from askraba. form IV of iti&nba \nhurb 
/mashrab\, to drink, to sip). Ii is to be noted thai 
in Its passive form 'asliriba means he was filled, 
imbued, infused or mfaiuaied with. 



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Surah 2 : AiUf^itrnh {Pan (Jut 'J I J 



-is 



%=*£& there dictates' to you 
($££ij your belief, 
y- J . fo if you are believers," 



'■*.-* »<.*» 



jCj c-is jl l» 94. Say: "If it is that yours is 
&ft jLj]T the Last Abode [paradise] 
i^fc.^1* with Allah exclusively 2 
j.\J> jjj ^ in lieu of all the people, 

ojjlyli then long' for deatn > 
'&»£ Ss^a if y° u are tniUiful." 4 

i£^,Jj 95. But they will not wish 5 it 

OjlJ ever, 6 on account of what 
^ j.1 JJiji their hands have forwarded. 7 
££5$j And Allah is All-knowing 
Jill about the transgressors. 



rr 



ij 96. And you shall find them 
u gfJlL<J#jU the greediest" of men 
;j^.^ for living, 
1^ OMtte more than lhe poly theists. 
fjtXMy Everyone of them wishes 10 
r JJZ$ if he were given to live" 



I Ya'mara = he orders, commands, bids, 
instructs, dictates (v. iii m. s, impfcl, from 
'titmira [ W], 10 order, command). 

2. Rhalisoh (Bias iJidfii) = pure, unmixed, 
unadulterated, free from or exclusive of all 
extraneous things, sincere, frank (active participle 
from khatmta \khulit;], to be pure, unadulterated] 
Here the sense is "exclusively", i.e.. unmixed 
with and free from all others. 

}, Tamannawu - you (all) long for, desire, wish 
yearn (v, it- nv pi- imperative from tamanna. form 
Vafmttni) | mmy]. to put to tail, tempt, try) 

4 Siidiqin (accusative/gent live of satlitjun. sing. 
niiiKf) s truthful, i.e., l( you arc truthful in your 
claim Sec al 2:23, p. 12, a. 10 (active participle 
from satfaan (.Jiffy, «cly|. to speak the truth ), 

5 Yatamatinawna - they wish, desire, tons: nir 
(v. iii. m. pi. impfcl, from lamannti. from V of 
nuird. Sec n.3 above) 

6, 'Abad n ever, always, eternity, with a negative 
it means "never". 

7. i.e., of sins and misdeeds. Qfiddamat - she or it 
sent ahead, advanced, forwarded (v iii. f. s. past 
from utitidama form II of tfuduma/uadima I uadm 
/ijud&tiL/qidmun/»\tuidam] to precede). 

S Tajidaana you shall find, you will certainly 
find (v 1i. m s. irapfci. from itriMu [wujudj, la 
find, 10 gel, to meet with. The doubled nun at the 
end of die verb is meant fot emphasis and 
certainty) 

9. 'Ahras = greediest, most eager, most covetous 
(ctahve form of harl^, active participle from 
huriilti/ljtiri^ti [A'i".r|, to covet, to desire. The 
superlative sense is attained either by prefixing 
the definite ankle al or by a genitive 
construe lion, as here), 

10. Yawaddu = he wishes, loves, likes <v. iii. m, 
s. impfcl. from wuddu [trudaVwidaVwudd], in love, 
to like). 

1 1. Yu'ammara\u\ - he is given to live, given a 
life-span (v, iii. m. s. irnprcl. passive from 

ammani . form II of 'tumiru [ "untr/amr], 10 live 
long, to Dourish. to become inhabited). 



* 



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40 



Surah 2 : AlBtii/anih (ParK/u/'J I] 



a thousand years; 
but it will not get him away 1 
%-.<-uj^ f ron1 tne punishment 
Xj* & mat ne ' s g' ven ,0 live; 2 
For Allah is All-Seeing 1 
of what they do. 






f *" J 






u 









/. Jj? 



SSlrtA 









Section (fluiu') 12 
97. Say: "Whoever is 
an enemy" of Jibril - 
for he brought it down 5 
on your heart 6 
by Allah's leave, 
confirming 7 
what is before it, 
and as guidance H 
and good tidings 5 
for the believers - 



98. "Whoever is an enemy 
of Allah and His angels, 
and of His Messengers, 
and of Jibril and MTkal; 10 



I Muzahzih - one who removes or lakes away 
[active participle from itiititdm [whiuhah\\. to 
move, to tear or rip off 

2. Yu'antmara\it\ - he is given to live See II. 1 1 
on the Ins! page. 

J. (tafSr b All -seeing. The ,t\-n.h emphasises iwo 
things la) that one cannot avoid giving an 
account of his deeds before Allah anil receiving 
his due in reword or punishment however lung 
one might live ; and (b) thai the lime-span in this 
worldly life, however long il might seem to us. is 
nothing in comparison to the eternal life in the 
hereafter. 

4. 'AdSw (pi. 'ti'dti' i = enemy, arch-enemy, foe, 
adversary The Jews used to soy that Jibril was 
their enemy and denied lhal he brought withy to 
the Prophet. The Hyuh is a reply to that assertion. 

5. i.e.. he brought down the fjur'anic and Other 
wtihy to the Prophet Najzpla ■ he bttmght down, 
he sent down (v tii. m p| past in form II of 
twztitti [nu;ul\, to go down, to come down. See 
JtAzzMod at 2:23, p. 12, n, 9>. 

b The expression "on your heart" means here "on 
you". The word "heart" is used here figuratively, 
being symbolical of understanding and retaining 
in memory, as in English "In get by heart" and "to 
lake to heart" mean respectively "to remember" 
and "in be much affected ". 

7 Musaddiq = lhal which cunfinns, verifies, 
attests [active participle from loddatfa, form II of 
mduuu. to speak ihe miih See at 2:91. p. 4J. n 
ID- 

8 Hudan - guidance. See at 2:38. p. 20. n 2, 

'.» Hushrd - glad tidings, good news, i.e. good 
news of rewards and paradise for the virtuous in 
the hereafter 

10. This is an instance of Ihe mention Of some 
special ones from among ft general group 
mentioned first, here angels, of whom Jibril and 
Mikal were special ones 



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Mrah 2 ; Al-Baifurah [Pari L Jtt.-'l 1] 



47 



iln'^lj then verily Allah is 
l^jS3Tijl. an enemy of the infidels. 



Salj 99. And indeed 
•iCij, ~i3>i We have sent down to you 
9iwuyt; evident 5 signs; 2 
I^jy^Uj and none can deny them 
fyi>£*J*ltf\ except the defiantly sinful. 1 



Cl£s»j1 100. Is it not that whenever 

liifrijuji* the y duly make a covenant, 4 

iUI^^li a group of them reject 5 it? 

[U^jtj; Nay, most of them 

^C^jUjiV do not believe. 
££ 101. And when 

[Uiti there came to them 

i**-?— *0*Jj-*j a Messenger from Allah 



confirming 






j^dj, of what is with them, 
U&&#y^ there flung a group of those 
C££}\\yji that were given the scripture 
UC£z=> the Book of Allah 
(Uji^i^j behind their backs, 6 
i^r+>* as if they did not know. 



I BayyinJU (sing, bayyatah) = clear proofs. 
indisputable evidences. See at 2:87, p. J I. n. 6; 
and 2:92. p, 44, n. I. 

2. "AjKff (sing, 'dyuli) a signs, evidences, proofs, 
revelations, units or the Quranic text Here (tic 
reference is id the last mentioned meaning . 

3. Fasiqun tsing. fiiiiif) = disobedient, dcfunl 
wantonly sinful (active participle horn fusutju, to 
stray Tram the nghl course, to renounce 
obedience. Scefdsiqin at 2:2b. p. 14. n. 7). 

4. Aftadii — they made a covenant, a contract, a 
pact (v Hi. m. pi. pftsi from 'Ahadtt. form ft) of 
'ahida I 'tihd). to assign, to commit. See '«W al 
2:27. p. 14, it. 9). 






5, Nabadha = he hurled or flung away, rejected, 
discarded, repudiated, gave up, turned away from, 
forswore (v. iii. trt s. past from mtbft. to hurt, to 
fling). 






iS. /u/rur (sing. luArJ = bocks, rear . 



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is 



Surah 2 : Al-Butjarah [Part (-furl l| 



lj% 102. And they followed' 

i\\Jil\l what the satans rehearsed 2 

^l^Lcil j£ against the rule 5 of Solomon - 

J~X*J6 Uj and Solomon disbelieved not 
.^kLiT^i but ihe satans 
LjJjj disbelieved - 
irlili'ojli^ teaching 4 the people 
yjll sorcery 5 

j^t £j and that which was sent down 
Vjf £ on the two angels 
J?£ at Babylon, 

£.jjJi Harflt and Marflt; 

uCI2Hj but the two did not teach* 

XAiJ*-^ 1 ^ anyone till they had said: 

%$C2\ "We are but a trial; 7 

j&s% so do not disbelieve ". 

^-..jjlj^.j So they learnt" from the two 

•^-^LjJLj^y that wherewith they divided'' 

*fc£u^So£ between a man and his wife; 10 






■Jj 



«■< *." 



Uj but they could not harm 
f-^'jl** therewith anyone 
*»T j%^i except by Allah's leave. 

jjiUl'j But they learnt' 2 
r-»j— * LS wh at h armed ' ' the m 

Ls/Vj and did not benefit 14 them; 



1 lllaba'6 = They, followed, came after, obeyed, 
pursued (v, iii. m, pi pasi from i/i^bu'ii, fur VIII 
oftaiij'a [tiihi'/iahVuhl lu folio*, succeed) 

2 TallH = she recites, reads, iehtiin.es (V iii, f. I. 
impfcl. from lata [filii^ah/Mlw], Id read, to 
follow). 

1 Mult/ - rule, reign, dominion, sovereignly, 
righl of possession, kingship 

4. Yu'aUimuna - ibey teach, instruct, educate (v 
iii. m. pi. trstpfct, from 'ultama. form II of 'atima 
I'rJnrj, to knoiw. Sec uHumti and W/timru ,il 2 .11 
and 2.A2. p. 17. it, .1 and n, 8 respectively) 

5 Sittr tol fi-f/irir) a sorcery, magiv. witchcraft, 
bewilchmenl. enchantn>en< 

fi Yu'allimani - they (two) leach (v. iii tit dual, 
Unpeffct. from 'uthiaiti. See n J above). 

7, Fitnah (pi, fittm) « trial, lest, intrigue, 
dissension, discord. 

B. Yala'attamtina = they learn (v iii. m pi. 
impfct from la'alhimn, form V of "«J™« See n. 
4 above], 

4, iii/arriqiina = ihey divide, separate, scatter. 
make a ilisiinLium. iliifttcntiato (v ill. m pi. 
implci from furrat/a. form II of faratfa 
\furq/}urqfit\\ t lo separate, divide). 

10. 'Aawj (pi uimJjt = wife, husband, spouse, 
panncr. See at 2:35. p. 18, n. 12; and u;w<!j al 
2:25, p. U.n. 12). 

1 1, Q&rrfn [accusative/genitive of 4$ rran - sin* 
iftirr) = harmful, deln mental, injurious 

12. loia'alJami/na . see n. 8 above. 

13, t'odumr = he or o harms, huns. damages, 
impairs (v iii, m. s. impfci from fetru [dtirr], to 
harm). 

1 4 Yanfa'u = tie or il benefits, is of use [v. iii m 
s. impk'i from nafu'a |«wT|, lo benefit, be of 
use). 



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'ji\ r- V ill j 






and they indeed knew that 
whoever bought' it 
would not have for him 
in the hereafter 
any merit. 2 
Bad indeed was 
what they sold' 
themselves for, 
if they were 
aware of. 4 

103. And had they believed 
and were on their guard,* 
surely the reward*from Allah 
~j±±* would have been the best, 
jiUui^S^ if they were aware of. 



Strvk 2 : Ai-Batjarah [Part (./u.*') I } 4° 

I hhiara - he bought, purchased (v. Hi. m. s 
past in form V of jnura [shird'/thiran], to buy, 10 
sell. See inhtarawu at 1: 16, p. 9. n. 5; anil al 2;S6. 
p. 40, a 12}. 






ft£.J 






■^u 






$ 






Section (Ruku') 13 

104, O you who believe, 
do not say : "Attend to us" 7 
but say "Bear with us", 8 
and listen;* 

and the unbelievers will have 
an agonizing 10 punishment. 



2, Khalaq - rnent, shore of positive qualities, 
good luck. 

y Sharaw m they soJd/boughi (y, in. jr. pi. past 
from shard See n I above), 

4. i.e., if they were aware of the evil 
consequence* of (heir deed and the punishment 
that will be meted out to them for that. 
Yalamuna = they know, are aware of, realize 
(v. iii. m. pi impfcf- from 'ulimu. See at 2:13, p. 

5. n. 6) 

?> ltUufaw - they were on their guard, they 
protected themselves, feared Allah (v, iii m. pi. 
past from tttnifd, form VIM of h'cuu 
Iwaify/wiifSyah]. to guard, 10 proteel See iltaffu ot 
2:48, . p 2\ n 6). 

6. Mathubah = reward (given by Allah for good 
deeds), return, requital, recompense. 

7. ICi'i + na = pay us attention, attend to us (v. ii. 
m. f. imperative from ra'd \ra'y/ri'ayah/mnr'tut\, 
In lend, in care) The Muslims sometime* said 
this to the Prophet when listening lo his words so 
thai they could understand all thai he said. With a 
little twist this expression had a very abusive 
meaning in Hebrew The Jews of Madina gave 
such a cwisl to it and thus abused the Muslims 
and the Prophet The tiyah asks the Muslims not 
to use that expression. The manoeuvre of the 
Jews in this respect is mote clearly slated at 4:44. 

8 l!riiur+»4 s bear wilti us. give us a hi tie time 
(V, ii. fit s imperative from imzuru {nucr / 
mansar], lo look, to pay atlenlion), 

9. i.e., you all listen carefully and obey and 
follow what is said, hma'ti = you (all) listen, 
give ear, pay attention (v. ii. m pi. imperative 
ftom .nun i'm [iam'/sam&'/muxmti'\. lo hear See at 
293. p. 44. n. 7) 

J.Q. 'Atim = agonizing, sore, painful, excruciating, 
grievous (active participle on the scale of fa'il 
from atima | 'atom}, to be in pain, to feel pain). 



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50 



Surah 2 : Al-Baqurah [Pan^M!:') 1] 



'J* 



\J : mi\\ji 



105. There do not like 1 
those who disbelieve 
of the People of the Book, 
nor those of the polytheists, 
that there be sent down 2 
upon you any good' 
from your Lord; 
but Allah singles out 4 
for His mercy 
whomsoever He will; 
and Allah is 
the Owner of immense grace. 



it** w 

SUB 

"i'l i- K" 



X0 106. Whatever We abrogate 5 
of a revelation 6 
or consign it to oblivion 7 
We come up with one better 
than that 
or a like of that. 
Do you not know" 
that Allah is 
overall things 
Omnipotent? 









I. Yawaddu = he loves, likes, wishes, is fond of 
(v. iii. m. s. impfel from wedda [valid faudd/ 
wtdd/mawaddak\, lo love, lo like, See at 2:%. p. 
4J. n 10). 

1, Yunezz!tta\u\ = he or i I is sen! down, brought 
down (v tii, rn I impfc!. passive from ntaztila, 
form II of ri«c«([fThe bsi Idler bears (athah 
because u( the partite! an coining before the 
imperfect vert}, Sec nu.w.ttlna at 2:23. p. 12, n, 7). 
3. Khayr ~ good, anything beneficial and useful 
The word khayr. besides meaning Allah's mercy 
and grace in general, has here a Special meaning 
of wuhy and FiOphclhuod, just as Ihc v/ofdfadl in 
Hyah 90 (sec at p. 43. n 3) has I he same 
meaning. This is clear from the context of 'ayah 
$9 as well as from the concluding pari of ibe 
present 'Syah. (Sec Fakhr al-DTn al-Razt. 
AlTaffir al-Kabtr. II. 245; Tafilr atBvyf&m. t. 
p. 80) 

4 Yakhauai a ha angles out. earmarks, selects 
{v. iii. rn s. impfel. from ikhlasm. form VIM of 
kassa \klm<;s/khu.;uf] to distinguish. Single out). 
Allah entrusts with His special mercy. 
Frophethood and revelation, anyone He wills of 
His servants despilc [he jealousy and ill-will of 
any individual or group of individuals 

5. tVettsoihlu] - we abrogate, repeal, (evoke 
cancel, ijelete (v. i, p|, impfct, from nuxakha 
[aiukh\, to ahmgaie, delete, repeal, The last letter 
is rendered vowelless because or ihr conditional 
particle ma coinign before it). The ayah 
emphasizes thai, jusi as Allah bestows His special 
favour of Prophcthood and revelation on 
whomsoever He wills, similarly ii is His will and 
design to replace and abrogate one revelaljon by 
another. More especially, the revelation or the 
Qur'an constitutes an abrogation and cancel laiion 
of all previous revelations and scriptures. 

6. 'Ayah (pi. - dydt) = sign.evidcnce, miracle, 
revelation. See at 2:99, p. 47, n. 2. 

7 Svnsi - we make forgotten, consign 10 
oblivion (v i pi. impfel from Wsi. form IV of 
mm •/a [muy/nxsyAn |, lo forgcl). 

8 Ta'lamlu) = you know (v. ii. m. s. impfct. from 
'ulimu The lost letter is rendered vowelless 
because of Ihc particle turn coming before it. See 
TaiamunattZfQ.p. W.tt. t2;andat 2:42. p 21. 
n.lO). 



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Surah 2 . M-Baqarak (Part l/ml 1 1 



SI 



Jji^l 107. Do you noi know 

i&dj mat Allah, to Him belongs 

^y^ilA^'. the dominion 1 of the heavens 

"jfji'\j and the earth? 

/z-^u'.j And you do not have 

jSt^iAyj besides Allah 

Cij j* an y guardian -protector, 2 

Hj nor any helper.' 









!&£$ I OS. Or do you desire 
\y • •Iji that you question 4 
£3ji»j your Messenger 

3" as was questioned Musa" 
^jj^ before? And whoever 
jllij ta ^ es in exchange 5 
j&ftyi^ll unbelief for belief 

j-^Jjij has indeed strayed from* 
j^-lfjji the right way. 7 



"jt£^Y } 109. There do wish 8 many 

vJ-J'v_^ of the People of 

vi£j" the Book 
<&l/>sj if they could bring you back ' 
l~ ,<i X ' ff v after you have believed 



1. Mutt = dominion, sovereignty, supreme 
authority, right »f possession, ownership, royally 

2. y/otlyj (pi. unii wi ') = legal guardian, prolcclur. 
patron., relative, close friend 

3 Nattr (pi nujan}') = helper, defender, 
supporter, ally, protector , patron. 

4. Tai'atS[no) = you (all) ask, question, inquire 
(v, iL m. pi. ifhpfct. from w'aia [su'al/mas'tilah 
/las'dtl, lo ask. to enquire, The terminal nun is 
dropped because of Ihe particle tm coming 
before the verb ). As mentioned before ai 'Ayah 
55 ihe Israel ties asked Mfiss. among other things, 
to bring Allah before their very eyes so that they 
could sec Him. 

s \alabaddal[n\ - he takes in exchange for 
himself, he adopts in exchange, he changes (v. iii. 
m. s. impfet. from laboddoln, form V of 
badnia[bada(\, to replace, exchange. The last 
letter is rendered vowetless because of the 
conditional panicle man coming before the verb. 
See baddate at 2:59, p. 2?, n 12; and 
UatabdilSna at 2:61. p 29. n. I), 



6 Daiia = he tosl way. went astray, strayed 
(v. iii. to. s. past). 



7 5ow<S' al-iaha = the straight/right path It is an 

.llMlll 

8. Wadda - he loved, liked, wished (v. iii. m. s. 
post. See yawuddti at 2:96, p. 45. n. 10: and 
2:105. p. 50. n 1). 

9. i.e., to make you recant and return lo the old 
faith. Yarudd&na - they send back, put back, take 
batk. tiring back, drive back, return, restore ( v, iii, 
rn. pi. impfcl. from radda [rttdd], lo send back, 
return). 



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52 



SSrah 2 : Al-B<itfamh [Part (Juij I J 







* -I 






:;--:V 



* j - 






as unbelievers, 1 

out of envy 2 

on their own part, 

after even that 

clear has become 1 to them 

the truth. 4 

So forgive 5 and forbear 6 

till Allah brings forward 7 

His decree. 8 

Verily Allah is 

over everything All -Powerful 

1 10. And properly perform' 

the prayers 

and pay zakah; 

and whatever you advance 10 

for yourselves 

of any good thing 11 

you will find 12 that 

with Allah. 

Verily Allah is, 

of what you do, 

All-Observing. 



1 KuffBr (sing faJ/ir) = unbelievers, infidel*, 
ungrateful une* Sec ka/tiru at 2:6. p. f>. n. I). 
2. Hasad = envy, grudge, jealousy. ill-will, spite, 
malice. 

I lahayyana- he or il became clear, evident, 
manifest, manifested himself/itself (v iii. m. i. 
past in fnrtii V ill biina \bayim\. In be or become 
cleat. See yubayyinu al 2:68. p 32, n. 7). 

4. i.e., liir fact thai Muhammad, peace and 
blessing* of Allah be On him. was truly Allah's 
Messenger and thill the Quran is Allah's book 

5 t7'/ir = you (all) forgive, excuse, condone (v. ii 
m. pi, imperative from tr/ii | VyW"o/d 'J, to efface, 
to excuse, to forgive) 

6. lifahu m you (all) fortieoi. leave alone, 
overlook (v u, m. pi. imperative from .jafulju 
\fttpt). to forbear, overlook, broaden, flatten), 

7. Ya'tt * bi = he brings, brings forward, 
produces, comes up with (v iii. m. s. impfct Irom 
aid \ilyttn/aly/mu't«h}, to come, to arrive) 

6 'Amr tpl, 'tiwamirf 'unrnr} = command, order, 
decree, behest, instruction, also affair, maitcr. 
issue, tn this latter sense the plural is 'um&r 

Tne 'dyak refers to the efforts of the Jewish 
leaders of Madina to seduce the new Muslims 
from Islam and tlicu ui|.|mr( U>t the Prophet 11k 
clause, "So forgive and forbear till Allah brings 
forward His decree" means, in the context of the 
Madman situation, an exhortation to the Muslims 
and the Prophet to deal with the Jewish 
opposition with patience and forbearance In the 
wider context it is an exhortation to the Muslims 
In similarly deal with identical situations. 
9 'AqimQ - you (all) properly perform (v, ii m. 
pi imperative from 'atfSnw. form IV of qdnrn. 
\ijawiinth/qijiatii\. to stand up See at 2:83. p. 39. 
n. A, also see yuijimina at 2:3. p. 5. n. 3. 
10. Tuqttddimu (originally iuqaddim&nti) = yen 
(all) advance, send in advance, send forward (v. 
ii m pi, impfct. from qaddama, form II of 
qaduma [ymtum], to precede. The terminal nan is 
dropped becuase of the conditional panicle mi 
coming belore the verb i 

I I i.e.. prayers, payment Of Itlk&fi and Other 
charitable gifts and good deeds 

12, i.e.. its merits, Tajidu (originally lajitiina) - 
you (all) find, gel (v. ii. m. pi impfct. from 
wajada [wu/ud], to find, get- The terminal nun ii 
dropped because it is the conclusion of a 
conditional cs\usc t jawdb odhart) 



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Surah 2 - AlBauarah IParHJW) I] 



53 



■ ' it. 



-*— 






HI. And they say: 
"None will enter 1 paradise 
except the one who is 
a Jew or a Christian". 
Those are their fond hopes. 2 

Say: "Bring forth 
your proof,' 
if you are 
truthful." 4 









jg&£ 






" *!»'' fl{". "l 



1 12.0 yes, 

whoever surrenders* himself 7 

to Allah, 

and is a doer of good deeds,* 

he shall have his reward" 

with his Lord; 

and no fear 10 will be on them 

nor will they grieve." 

Section lRukH'}U 
113. The Jews say: 
"The Christians do not stand 
on anything" ; n 
and the Christians say: 
"The Jews do not stand 



I Vadkkula(-) = they (all) enter, go in Iv, tii, m, 
pi impfet. from datciwla [dukhul]. to emet. The 
Ijsi letter lakes fa/hah because of the panicle inn 
corning before the verb) 

2. Airtdniy? (sing- umniyyahl. vain desires, fond 
hopes, idle expectations See at 2:78. p. 36, a. II. 
See also lumunnow at 2:94, p. 45. n. 3). 

J Hurhda (pi. burdhin) ■ proof, evidence, 

4. i.e.. if you art truthful in your claims $adiqin 
(accusative/genitive of jadiyBn, sing, .tddiq,) - 
truthful. Active participle from sadaqa 
[sado/fidcil to speak the truth. See at 2:94. p. 45, 

n -i 

5. Bald a O yes. 1 1 is generally used in reply to a 
negative asseition, such as: "Am 1 not your Lord? 
O yes (Atffu). You are." See at 2:81, p 38. n. 1. 

6. 'Aifama - he surrendered, submitted. 
torn milled himself, resigned himself (v. tii. m. s. 
past in Trom IV of suhmu [satSnmh/ftitiim]. to be 
safe, secure). 

7 Wajh (pi, wujttA) = face, countenance. It is 

used here figuratively to mean one's self. 

K Mufein (pi mahsiitUn} = those Who do good 

deeds accotding lo the Qur'un and tunnuh. do 

good hi others, beneficent, charitable {active 

participle from iksan, farm [V of h^funa |Au.wJ, 

lo be handsome, lo be good), See muhjinSn at 

258, p. 27, n It. 

9, 'AJr (pi- 'xjSr) = reward, recompense, 

emolument, pay. See at 2:62, p 30, a. S. 

LO. Khawf- fear, dread See at 2:62, p. 30. n. 3. 

1 1. Yahwtn&na = they grieve, become sad (v. tii 
m pi. impfel from hazina [hmn/haztmi. to 
gneve. be sad). The assurance here refers mainly 
to the position of such people in Ihe hereafter. See 
at 2:3 B, p. 20, n. 4; and 2:62, p, 30, a. 6). 

12. This 'tiytth has in view the mutual 
denunciations of the Jews and (he Christians of 
one another, particularly the quarrels that took 
place at Madina between the Jewish savants of 
that place and the Christian delegates of Najran 
who had come there for a discussion with the 
Prophet, 



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54 



SSruk 2 : Ai-Batiitnib [Part l/n;') II 



ri-ij yurdP on anything; and 
.'a< \\^\ : they read the Book. 1 

jljfilSijS Thus do say 
Oj^iJw^uutf those who do not know* 
l^lyji. just as their saying. ■ 
j&£i& So Allah will judge* 1 
H^ between them 



m on the Day of Resurrection 
i£<t£j regarding what they use to 
oj*k^. Js» be in disagreement about. 5 
iii^iv 1 14. And who is more unjust* 
jpjl; than those who prevent 7 
jiiii 4»d^ Allah's mosques 1 ' 
^ Jo* jl from being uttered" therein 
"-^' His name 
**flr4*>*j a^d strive 10 for ruining them? 
Jjlgljj Such people, 
(i4i ilSt. it was not fit for them 
lijJi £ J mal lh ey entered 1 ' these 
c <j%iilLV( except being fearful. a 

^il^-*^ ^ e ^ s ^ a " ^ ave m this wor]d 
i^U. disgrace" 



I. i.e., in spite of the both (he groups' reading the 
same Book, the Bible (the Tawrah and the InjH), 
they accuse each other of having nothing to stand 
upon, 

1. Vu'lamuna = they know (v. it), in pi. ipfcl. 
from 'afimii, to know, be aware of, See at 2:102. 
p. it, n 4), "Those who do nol know" means here 
"ihost who do not have any revealed scripture", 
more particularly the Arab. 1 ! of the lime, 
3. i.e., ihc poly Insists of the Arabs also used to 
make remarks similar to those of ihe Jews and the 
Christians about I tic Prophet and the Muslims 
4 Yahkumu = be judges, passes judgement, 
gives Ins verdict [v. iii, m s. impfcL from hakama 
\hukm], to pass judgement). 

5. Yakhtalifuna = they differ, controvert, hoid 
differ cm opinions, are in disagreement (v. iii. rn 
pi, impfct, from ikhlala/a, form VII] of kitatafu 
\iihuif\. to succeed, come after, follow, lag 

Is'llLlllll 

6, Wzlamu = more unjust, more iniquitous, more 
tyrannical, viler, gloomier, darker (etalive form Of 
faiim. Sec fdlimun at 2:51. p. 24. n 1 1). 

7 Mana'a = he prevented, forbade, harred. 
hindered, obstructed, restrained, held back. 
Stopped frum (v hi. rn. s. past from num\ lo 
prevent), The Allusion here is to such people as 
the unbelieving Quraysh who prevented the 
Prophet and the Muslims from praying at the 
Ka'ba and such people at all times and places 
who prevent people from worshipping Allah. 
8. Masajid (sing musjiifi = places for making 
prostration UijdakY, hence mosques, places of 
worship (adverb of place from mjcidu). 
9 Yudh\ara[u\ = he or it is mentioned, 
remembered, talked about, cited (v. iii. m s. 
irnpfei passive, from tlhukaru [dhtkr/tadhkAr], a 
mention, to remember). The expression 'uttering 
the name" is used here idiomatically to mean 
praying and worshipping 
10. Sfl'd = he strove, attempted, endeavoured, 
headed for. moved quickly (v. iii, m. s, past from 
sti'y. to move quickly) 

1 1 ¥adkfi»!S (originally yuJlhuluna) m they 
enter, go in (v, iii. m. pi. tmpfct. from dakhalu 
[rfufthuT], to enter See yadkhuta at 2: 1 1 1 . p. S3, n. 
1). 

12. Kha'iJTn (accusative genitive of khtti/an, 
sing Wif) = fearful; i.e., being fearful of Allah 
(active participle from kMtfa \kkawf\. to fear) 
13 Khizy = disgrace, ignominy, humiliation. 



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Sirah 2 Al-Bai^rah [Part <Ju£') J] 



SS 



^xVjc^i and shall have in the hereafter 
^^litv 1 ^ an enormous 1 retribution. 

ki I 15- To Allah beiong 
ija^ j^ii the east and the west; 2 
iJ^Ulfo so whithersoever you turn 
itiJUC-lii there is Allah's Countenance/ 
L,'y&^L>\ Verily Allah is All-Reaching," 
j»y2__lt All-Knowing. 



f^Lij 1 16. And they say: 
%\j^\ "Allah has taken 5 to Him 

Uj a son". 
h^CL Sacrosanct 6 is He. 
• f XM Nay, to Him belongs 
O^Lllf^U all that is in the heavens 
jCJ-fc and the earth; 
^ 5^0aj^ all to Him render obeisance. 1 

y 117. [He is] The Originator 8 
jfj^'j " -f'^ of l * e heavens and the earth; 
C^i&Hj and when He decrees' a thing 
,ii jJuUli He only says for it : 



I 'Adm a great, big, grand, huge, stupendous, 
immense, enormous, tremendous When spoken 
nf punishment n means "extremely heavy" See at 
2:7. p. 6. a, 9 

2. The expression "the east and (he west" means 
here the enure world and all its directions. 

3. i.e., dial direction is die direct] an towards 
Allah. The «v«n is an exception for those who 
are unable to ascertain the direction of the qibiah, 
or hive mistakenly prayed to another direction or 
are unable to turn towards the tjiblah for any valid 
reason It should be understood along with 2:144 
which makes it incumbent to turn towards 'he 
Ka'ba while saving prayers. 

*. Wiii' a All- Reaching. All-Embracing. 

All-Encompassing in His knowledge, care, 

attention, favour and power 

*t Itiakhadha = he took to him, took for him, 

took up. assumed (v. iii. m. s. past in form VHI of 

■ttkhadltu \ukhdhY to lake. Sec HmMfuutklum at 

2:5].p,M.n,9). 

6 The word SubhSn is derived from whbetui. 
form II of sabaha [subk/fibahati], to swim. In us 
form 11 the verb means to praise, to sing the glory. 
Ii is an exclamatory expression meaning Free 
from and High above all kinds of associativity 
and undivine attribute. It is generally rendered as 
"Glory be to Him"; but "Sacrosanct is He" seems 
to convey the meaning better, 

7 Q&rtiiSn (sing, ?4mrt = submissive, obedient, 
humble (acuve participle from qotuala \tjmui\, to 
be ubedienl. submissive) This and the next 'ayan 
emphatically assert that Allah bas no son or any 
other relation, that He is the Creator and Master 
of everything, living or lifeless, in and including 
the heavens and the earth, that He originates 
creation and does not need any instrumentality to 
do so. He simply decrees and it comes into 
existence. The birth of any being, without parents 
or with a single parent does not invest it with any 
divine quality. The Creator and the creature are 
totally distinct and difftent, in entity and 
attributes. 

8. HatlC - originator, initiator, creator out of 
nonentity (active participle in Die intensive form 
of /a ii from baduu {bad], to innovate, lo 
originate, to introduce) 

9, (iadi - lie decreed, decided, pronounced 
judgement, determined (v, hi, m t. past from 
qadd'. to settle, lo terminate, to conclude). 



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v, 



Surah 2 : At-Btupurah [Part (Jut') I 1 






t^J>^j ji Be , and it is. 



I^jlsj ] 18, And there say those 
jjiHu^ that do not know; 
VjJ "Why is it not that 
*ikH£i Allah speaks' to us 
^Ulloijji or a miracle 2 comes 1 to us?" 
jig d$£ Thus did say 
y,^Jt& those before them 
jl^Jy Jii like their saying; 4 



t** a 



— «p»o».-..j -.*.:, 



their hearts are alike. 



CLJj We have indeed made clear 6 
o-^ilf the signs 
^jLjjJ^^J for a people believing firmly. 7 



ijVUI 1 19. Verily We have sent you 
^JL with the truth" 
b$-t* as a harbinger of glad tidings* 
v^jjj and as a warner; 10 
Ji^Wj and you will not be asked" 
JZ S'jj pk-Z. about the inmates of hell. u 



£/i)j 120. And happy will never be 



I Yukatlitttu = he spcakj. talks, cnrivcrs.es (v iii. 
m. s. impfcl. Troll) kitluma. form II of hilwna 
[kalm\ io injure, lo hurt, tn its form II the verb 
means to speak). 

2. 'Ayah tpt [?viir)= sign, muacte. revelation 
Sec 2:W. p 47, n 2: and 2: 106, p, 50. n. 6 

J IVrf = she or n comes, arrives (k. iii, m. s. 
impftt from 'ai3. Sw yu'li al 2; 109, p. 52, n, 7). 

4. For instance the Israelites demanded or Musa 
to bring Allah before their very eyes so ihat rhcy 
could sec Kim. (see a 2:55, at p. 26). 

5 Twh&bahal - she or it resembled, became 
similar, alike, ukm teal, one to the other; alio 
became unclear, ambiguous (y in. [. s p;int in 
lb™ VI from shahh/skuhuh. resemblance, 
similarity. See laihahaha al 2:70, p. 33, n. 5). 

6. Bayyanna - we have made clear, enplaincd, 
elucidated, clarified (v. i. m pi past from 
bayyatui, Innn II of bUna lbayan\. lo be clear, 
evident See yubayvma at 2:68. p. 32. n. 7). 
7 Yiitfiniino - llicy believe wtlh certitude, have 
firm conviction, know foe certain, arc suae (v. iii, 
m pi., imfci, funn 'atiftina , form IV of ytufina 
[yiignfyatfiit], to be sure, be certain Sec at 2:4, p 

5. n.9). 

8. i.e., the Qur'an and other nun-Qur'inic wahy 
(Simnah). 

u Bashir (pi. buthtirti') a conveyer of glad 
tidings, harbinger of £lad tidings, i.e.. the tidings 
of reword and paradise for the believers and 
iim.-r;, of good deeds according to the Quran and 
iamsah. Active participle on the scale of fa'li 
form btishiini/hashim \bu;hr/bitjiRrl, to rejoice, lo 
be delighted. 

10 Nadhtr [pi. ruulhur) = warner, i.e , giving 
warning about punishment and hell far the 
unbelievers and wrong-doers Active panicipb on 
the scale of fa 'it from nadlmra \nadhr/nudhur\, to 
vow, to pledge. 

II i.e., you will not be accountable far their 
deeds after you have delivered die message and 
have warned them. Tui'alu ■ you are asked, 
questioned (v. ii. tn. tmpfct passive from m'utti 
[is '6l\. Sec raru'u 31 2:108, p 51, n 4, 

12 Jahim - he 1 1 lire, hell 



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about you the Jews, 
ij^jWj nor the Christians, 
'{£&- unless you follow 1 
^L their religion. 1 
Aitaji djji Say: "The guidance of Allah, 
tsZiiJi that is the guidance." 
£^f^Jj And indeed if you follow 3 
A-ffi their fancies 4 
2;U.^Jijuj after what has come to you 
jiit^- of the knowledge/ 
Ju'C you wiil not have 
Cl^jitS* against Allah any protector* 
i>"ij nor any helper. 1 



J5tt™A 2 : Al-Baaatuh |Part (Jiw') U 57 

I Tmiabi'alu] ~ you iolluw. pursue, be attached 
10 (v. ti. m. i . impfct. from itlaba'a, form V of 
lubi'tt {wba/tabd'ak], to come after, to folio* 
The lust letter takes fathah because or the coming 
of the conditional particle Adird before the verb 
See iltabu d at 2:102, p. 48, n. ))• The Hyatt, 
though formulated as an address io the Prophet, 
has within iu purview the Muslims in general. 



1. Millah (pi, mittit) = religion, creed, religious 
community, denomination. 

3, totaba'ta — you followed, pursued (v. ii. m S- 
pasl from ittaba'u. Sec n. I above). 



yM 121. Those to whom 
C&3\ Yfy- We have given the Book, 
iijSS they read* it 
l £J$&- as it ought to be read; 
$Jj they are the ones 






' who believe in it;* 



*<*)£? j*j and whoso disbelieves in it, 
^iivti such people will be 
36jj_iLl^i the ones in loss. 10 



4 'Ahwi' (sing, kawtm} 
caprices, lilting, desires. 



fancies, whims, 



5, i*., the special knowledge contained in the 
Qur'anie and non-Qur'Snic wuftji [swumiKj. 



6. Watiyy (pi, mliyi) - legal guardian, protector, 
patron, relative, close friend See at 2:107, p. SI. 
n.2). 

7, Naftr (pi. MLfanl*} - helper, defender, 
supporter, ally, prtWetor. patron See at 2: 107, p, 
51, n, 3). 

6. Yailtina = they read, recite (v. iii, ra. pi impfct. 
from lata {litdwah], to read, recite. See tatlS at 
2: 102. p. 48, n. 2). 

9. i.e.. they believe in the Qur'in and the 
Messengcrship of Muhammad, peace and 
blessings of Allah be on him. The '&yah refers in 
the first instance to the knowledgeable Jews of 
Madina who. in consonance with the information 
contained in the Tawran, believed the Prophet 
and embraced Islam. 

10. Khiitiin (sing thdnr) = losers, those that 
incur loss (active participle from Mwiira 
[Vwr/kfuLsar/khasarull/kliuirAiil to lose, be in 
lost. See at 2:27, p. IS, n. 4), Such person* will 
be the losers in the hereafter. 



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51 



Surah 2 : At-Baaerah [Put (Jo;') I] 



Section (RukU ') 15 
&&$$ 122. O Children of Isra'il, 
jliijjili remember 1 My favour 
■py. /: , £ fi -$ which I bestowed 2 on you 
jjcil* jl> and that I preferred 3 you 
^^JtiJi*^ over all the beings. 4 



rf - 
UfHfi 

a. 






1 23 . And be afraid of i a day 

when there shall not requite* 

any individual 

for any individual 

in anything; 

nor will there be accepted 7 

from it any compensation,* 

nor will benefit* it 

any intercession, 

nor will they be helped. 11 






>£$> 124, And [recall] when 
*£h£i his Lord tested 12 Ibrahim 
yOfc* with [certain] words' J 
*£M and he fulfilled 14 them, 
jtf He [the Lord] said: 



1. Vdhkunt = you (all) remember, recall. 
recollect (V. ii. m, pi. imperative from dhakara 
[dhikr / ladhktir] to remember. See if 2:40. p. 20. 
n. 10). 

2. 'An'otmu m 1 hove bestowed, graced (v. i. s. 

p;i%< from ra amti\na 'miMmtm am). Hi he m c*SC, 

comfort. See at 2:40. p. 20. n, 1 1 ). 

3. f-'addaku = I preferred, gave preference (v. i. 

S, post from (tufdahi. form II of fadala Ifaijt]. to 
be good, be in excess. Sec al 2:48, p. 23. n. 4), 

4. i.e., oil beings of the time, The meaning here ii 
that preference was given to the Children of 
tsrfi'tl. from among all the people of the time, in 
respect of the raising of Prophets and Messengers, 
'Alantfn, see at 1:2. p, l.n.4). 

5. lllaqii t you (all) beware of. be afraid of, few 
{v ii. m pi. imperative from iltaqa, form V I II of 
wood [waqy/wia&yah}, to guard, to protect. See at 
2:24, p. 12, n. 12). 

6. Tejzt - she or it avails, requites, repays, 
rewards (v iii. f. 4.. put from jt»i£ {juts'], to 
requite, recompense- See 2:*B, p. *3, n,).9, 

7. Yuqbalu - it is accepted, received [v ii. m s 
impfct. passive from qsbila [aabSl/quhSl). to 
accept. Sec at 2: 48. p. 23, n. 9), 

8. 'AJt - equivalence, compensation, justice 
impartiality. See at 2:48. p, 23. nil) 

9. Tanfa'u - sbeor il benefits . becomes of use (v. 
iti. f. S. impfct. from nafa'a )nuf). to benefit, be 
of use See yon/a u at 2:102. p 48, n 14), 

10. Shafd'ah ■ intercession (derived from sfiaf. 
i.e. even, either pan of a pair, and is so meant 
because of the joining of one 10 another to speak 
on behalf of the latter. See al 2:48, p. 23. n. 10.), 
II YuitsarHna = they are helped, assisted (v. iii. 
m. pi. impfct, passive from rcorsra )nojr /nuf&r], 
to help, assist, make victorious. See al 2:86, p. 41, 
it 2). The 'dyuh means that none shall get any 
help againsl Allah's judgement and decree on the 
Day of Judgement. 

12. /ttoltt = he tested, put Co lest, iried, afflicted 
(v, iii. in. s. past in form Vtll of ba(A [bstw I 
bat&'). 10 test, to try). 

13. i.e.. certain injunctions and prohibitions. 

14. 'Aiamma = he fulfilled, completed, finished, 
i.e., he earned out to the exact requirements (v. 
iii. m s, past in form IV of tamtna [lamdm\, to be 
complete, 10 come to an end). 



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Surah I : AtBai/amh [Part iJus't I] 



59 



^hC^l "I am going to make 1 you 
^"iu;^ a leader for men." 
J'i He I Ibrahim] said: 
5#jCftj "And from my progeny?" 1 
JLj He [Allah] said: 
J^ JC *¥ "My covenant* reaches* not 
$$ jOJif the trangressors." 

iij 125. And [recall | when 
c$i \&r We made'' the House 7 
jJ&$iit* a resort" for mankind 

0j and a place of immunity' - 
ijj^fj and you take up 10 
JSfe^&a; of the Spot of Ibrahim 11 
j^U a place for prayer 12 - 
tsl^j and We gave a commission" 
OiJ*sM] to Ibrahim and Ismail 
££j that you [two] purify 14 

j^ My House 
jjjulliU for those making circuits, IS 
OjiSiilVj or sojourning for prayer, 16 
£=-JJ\j or bowing in submission 17 
^jj^ljf and prostrating themselves, 18 



I JA'il (pi, ydVI(i(r)= one who create*, puts, 
makes, sets, lays, places, appoints (active 
participle tttun ja'alit [ja'l\, lo creale. put. set. 

Sec al 2 30. p, 16. B, 4}. 

2. Irn&m (p| n'iitttTititi) a leader, prayer leader. 

< Hhurrhuh i [i I tltwrAriy) - progeny, offspring 

children, descendants. 

4. "Ahd (p! 'uhid) = cove nam, pledge, pact, vow, 

commitment. See at 2:27. p. 14. n. 9. 

5 Ym$U = he or it reaches, attains, gets hold 

of, affects (v. iii. m. s, impfct from ndla | 

miyi/mundt], lo reach, attain). 

b. Ja'alnd - we made. set. appointed <v i, pL. 

past from/d'dkj See n. I above), 

7, i.e., the Ka'ba. 

8. Stathabah = resort, refuge, meeting place, 
place where one returns 

9. 'Amn = safely, security, peace, immunity, 
protection. 

10, Ittakhidhu = you tall) take up. take for 
yourselves, adopt [v. ii. rn. pi. imperative from 
\::.ikl:ii,ih::. form VIII of 'ukhaAlm \'akhdh\. to 
take See ilfukhaiihlam at 2 St. p, 24, it 9), 

I I Maqam (pi. muqdmtjt) = spot, site, place, 
station, standing, position. The reference is lo the 
stone on which Ibrahim stood while building the 
Ka'ba. It is still preserved near lire Ka'ba door 

12. i e , make some of the prayers at or near the 
spot Mu saltan = place of prayer. 

13. 'AhidnS {'ild) = we assigned, committed to, 
entrusted lo (v. i. m. pi. post from ahida ['ah d\. 
to delegate, lo entrust, to commit). 

14. Takhira m you (two) purify, cleanse (v. it, m, 
dual, imperative from (nhluira. form If of 
taharu/{ahuru [tafwrah/juhr], to be pure, clean). 

15. TH'ifln (accusative /geaiuve oftu'ifun. sing. 
lu if t - those making circuits, going round, 
circumambulators. Active participle from uifu 
[mudf!tiiwj] t to go about, go round). 

!6 'AkifSa (accusative/gcnitivc of akifvn, sing. 
tlkif) - those who stick lo. cling lo, remain 
uninterruptedly, devote themselves to ( active 
participle from 'iikafa CukSf), to cling or stick 
to), 

17. Rukta' (sing, rdki't - those bowing in 
submission (active participle ten in mta'u ' ndtS') 
to bow, bend the body, especially in prayer. 
18 SujGd (sing, idjid) = Ihose who prostrate 
themselves. 






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60 



Surah 2 : Al-Buaurah [Part {Jai) 1 1 



Hj 



* * * -"i "ft* 



£.££& 



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Mm S^^.J 



126. And [recall] when 
Ibrahim said: "My Lord, 
make' this 

a place 2 secure, 1 

and provide* its people 

with fruits and yields 5 - 

such of them as believe 

in Allah and the Last Day." 

He [Allah] said: 

"And whoever disbelieves 

I shall let him enjoy 6 a little; 

then I shall force 7 him 

to the punishment of the fire - 

and evil is the destination." 8 

127. And [recall] when 
Ibralrfm was raising 9 the 
foundations 10 of the House, 
and Isma'il, [praying]: 
"Our Lord, accept" from us, 
verily You are 

the All-Hearing, 
the All-Knowing." 



1. ij'al - you make, appoint, Mt (v, u. m. i. 
imperative tram ja'ala). 

2. Salad (pi, bildd) = town, city, place, country, 
Hen: (he reference is CD [he habitation or town of 

J. Amin - peaceful, secure The prayer of 
Ibrahim was indeed granted In turuh 75 iu/-T7ni 
Makka is mentioned as "this city of peace and 
security" Ihcidha aibahtd at- 'amin I 

4. llrzuq - you provide with [he means of 
sustenance, bestow (v. n m «. imperative from 
rarjiqa [rrjf], to provide with the means of 
sustenance See rti7asjis^ at 2:3, p. 5. n 4; and 
2:57, p. 26, n. 13) 



5. Thamarat Ising. ihumaroh) 
crops. See a( 2:22, p. 12, n I). 



frails, yields. 



6. 'UmaUi'u - I make/let so. enjoy (v. i. m. i. 
impfc! From malta'a, Form J I of mula'a 
[miit'/muluh], tu tarry away, lake away). 

7 Atfiairu - I force, compel, coerce (v. I, m. s. 
impfcl. from tdtarru, form VfJl ofdarra \dan\, to 
harm, to impair) 

8 Masfr (pi. masayir)- destination, place u 
which one imves. outcome, result. Adverb of 
place from rara [sayr/sayrilrah], to become). 

9, Yarfa'u ■ he raises, lilts, lifts up (v. iti m s, 
impfct rrorn rafti'a [raf% to raise, to lift). 

10. Qawdid (sing. qS'idah) = foundations, bases, 
groundwork. 

1 1 Taqabbat = you accept, receive, grant [* ii 
in s. imperative fnim tuqahbula, form V of 
qabila \qabul/ifabui[, to accept Sec yuqbalu at 
2:123, p 58. n. 7). This and the preceding aytik 
state that it was by Allah's especial design and 
command that Prophets Ibrahim and Isma'il made 
and consecrated the Ka'ba for the worship cf 
Allah Atone and the riles connected with hay and 
'umrah. 



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Stiron 2 : A IBaqurah [ Part (/«z " 1 I ) 61 

1. Mustimayit {dual; sing, Muslim, plural 
Mailimati) = two Muslims, A JHnsi'm is one who 
surrenders himself completely and sincerely to 
Allah. (Active participle from mlama iVnn [V 
of -wfima [jfljamuWra/4m). to be safe, safe ami 
sound, secure, faultless, See astttma at 2:1 12. p. 
J3.n.<5) 






85 

fa 



4" 

#1£ 










128. "Our Lord, make us 
two Muslims 1 to You; 
and of our progeny 2 
a people 3 submissive to You; 
and show us" our rites, 5 

and turn to us in forgiveness; 

verily You are 

the Most- Forgiving, 

the Most Merciful. 

129. "Our Lord, 

and raise 6 amongst them 
a Messenger out of them, 
who will recite 7 unto them 
Your signs [revelations] 
and will teach them the Book 
and the wisdom 8 [sunnah], 
and will purify* them. 
Verily You are 
the Mi-Mighty, 10 
the All-Wise." 



2 DhurHyak (pi dhar&riy} = progeny, offspring, 
children, descendants. See at 2:124, p, 59, n, 3). 

3. 'Ummah (pi. 'umam) - nation, people, group. 

4 'Art + nS - show +■ us (v. it. m. s. imperative 
from ra'3 [ra'y/ru'yah]. to see, notice). 

5, Mandsik (sing, manxik) - rites, ceremonies, 
ways and formalities of prayers, 

6, ib'&b — you send, dispatch, raise, bring on (v, 
ii. m, s, imperative, from tm'aiha [ba'th]. to send, 
to revive, resurrect. See ba'athnd at 1:56, p. 26, n. 
6). 

7, YailC - he recites, reads (v. iii. in s. impfct. 
from talfi. See yattGita ai 2:121, p. SI, n. 8; and 
miluM 2:102, p. 48, n. 2), 

R. liikmah ipl. hikam) - wisdom, sagacity. Hen- 
it means the teachings and instructions of the 
Prophet isannuh). apart from the Book, i.e. the 
Qur*in. 

'■'- YuzakiS + him = he purifies +■ them (v. iii m. 
s. impfct, from zakkH, form II of zuka {laM'], to 
grow, be pure, be just), Here purification means 
purification from the filth of polytheism (shirk) 
and sins. The prayers of Ibrahim and Isma'il 
mentioned in Syahs 1 28 and 1 29 were accepted 
by Allah. The coming of Prophet Muhammad. 
peace and blessings of Allah be on him. and the 
emergence of ihe Muslim 'ummah are the 
fulfilment of those prayers 

10. 'Adz = AU-Mighiy. Invincibly Powerful, 
before Whom everyone else is powerless; also 
respected, distinguished, dear, beloved. 



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fC 



S&rak 2 : MBaqarah [Part iJuz') 1 ] 












Section (Ruk&') 16 
1 30. And who does shrink 1 
from the religion 2 of Ibrahim 
except he that befools 3 
himself? 

We indeed selected him* 
in this world; 

and verily in the hereafter he 
shall be of the righteous. 5 






131. When there said to him 
his Lord: "Surrender", 6 
he said: "I have surrendered 
p ju&\g^ to the Lord of all beings." 7 






***** 



1 32. And IbrHhim enjoined 8 

this upon his sons - 

so did Ya'qub - 

"O my sons, 

verily Allah has selected' 

for you the religion [din]; 

so let not yourselves die 10 



1. Yarghob - he detests, abhors, shrinks from. 
also he likes, desires, wishes (V. hi. rn. s. impfct. 
from roghitm [rcighbahtraghab] to detest, dislike, 
desire, wish). This word is used in opposite 
senses, The sense of dislike and detestation is 
indicated by using the particle 'cm after Ihe verb, 

2. Mittah (pi. milat) = religion, creed, religious 
community, denomination. S« at 2:120. p. 57. n 
2, 

}, Safiha- he became stupid, foolish, unwise (v, 
iii, in S. past from safahlsafdhah. 

4. tstafaynS +• hu = we selected/chose+him {v. i 
m. pi. past from iiwfd. form V[[[ of qafd [safw, 
ia}2w/saf&'\, 10 be Clear, pure). This 'dyali is in 
essence o reiteration of 'ayah 124 wherein Allah 
says in respect Of Ibrahim "I am going to inake 
you a leader For men". 

5. $&tiklit (accusative/genitive of sdtihun, sing 
sdlih) = righteous, those who are right and correct 
in their conduct and deeds according to Ihe 
teachings of Islam Active innticiple from sataha 
[soiWtui&h/masUthtth], to be good, right, proper, 
in ■ i ■_ ! - 1 ■ 

6. 'Ailim - surrender, deliver up, be a Muslim (v. 
ii. m. s. imperative from aslama. Sec asluma si 
2:1 12, p. S3, ii. 6) 

7. 'Alamln (sing. iJriiBi) = all beings. See at 1:2, 
p. I , n. 4. 

K. W<as4 ■ he enjoined, made a behest, dim; [cd 
made incumbent {v. iii. rn s. past in form II of 
mki& \waiy). to be joined, lightened, degraded)). 

9. Istafd = he selected, chose (V- iii m, s. past. 
Sec n. 4 above), 

10. TamSrunna — you must/of surety die. (v, ii. 
m. pi., impret, in the emphatic form of tamOtu, 
impfcl, of rtidftl [mawt], to die. The doubled 
terminal nun stands for emphasis W rdmiijiiitud = 
you should not die. do not let yourselves die. 



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Surah 2 : AlSaaarah [Pan {Jut) 1 1 



Ojiil^ij "j"! except as you be Muslims." 






• ■ - 






gK|^*»^St ]33 F Or were you witnesses' 
when death came to Ya'qub- 

when he said to his sons: 
"What will you worship 2 
after me?" 
They said: 
"We shall worship* your God 

and the God of your fathers, 
of Ibrahim and Isma'tl 



*\^ *. ^ 






^0*-J 



and Ishaq, 

the One God; 

and to Him we surrender." 4 



134. That was a nation 5 
who have passed away.* 
They will have 
what they earned;' 
and you will have 
what you earn;* and 
you will not be questioned* 
$£Z}s%& about wnat the y u sed to do. 10 



A 



yfcW; 



M 

1. ShuhadS' (sing, nhahtd) - witnesses, martyrs, 

2. Ttfbuduna - you (all) worship, serve (v ii, m. 
pi. imptVt (nun abada ( ibuduh /'ubuduh 
/'utniilivvtthl. lo worship, serve. See al 2:83. p. 
36. a. S). 

i. Na'buiiu - we worship, adore, serve: (v, t. pi. 
imperfect from ubuda, «o worship, serve. See u 
1:5. p. 2. si. I). 

4. The point Emphasized here is that all ihc 
previous Prophets communicated the same 
message of monotheism and charged their 
progeny and followers to worship Allah Alone 
and not to associate any partner with Him: but 
the subsequent generations deviated form ihii 
teaching. The Last Prophet Muhammad, peace 
and blessings of Allah be on him, was sent to 
revive arid complete the message. 

5. 'Vmmah (pi. 'umam) ■ nation, people. See at 
2:128, p 61, n. 3) 

6. KhstUu = she passed away, became empty, 
became alone, went privately u iii m ■, past 
(mm khulu \khxh\Ah,h\} Sec khtiht al 2:7(>. p 
36, n. 2). 

7. Kaiabat = she earned, acquired, gained [v. iii. 

f. s. past from kattiba [ktifb], 10 gain, to acquire 
See yakjibuna al 2:79, p. 17, n. 7). 

g, Kosabtum = you (all) earned, acquired, gained 
(v. ii. iti p! past from kusaha) 

9. Tin atuna - you (all) are asked, questioned (v. 
ii. m. pi. impfc! passive from so 'via [m'iK 
/mus'ulah/ras'al]. to ask. Sec IuS'oIh m T, II 9, p. 

S6,o, ii). 

10. Ya'matuna - ihey (all) do. perform (v iii. m. 
pi impfct from 'amiln {'timui\ to do. See al 
2: 1 3, p- 8. n, 6; and 2: 1 13. p. 54, n. 2). The point 
made here is that of individual responsibility, No 
One will be responsible Tor another person's 
deeds: none can or will account fur or efface or 
alone Ihc sins of Others and neither race nor 
ancestry nor relationship will be of any avail 
against Allah's judgement This principle is 
reiterated lime and again in the Quran - 'No 
bearer will bear ihc burden of another*', so say 
6: 1 64, 17:15. 35:1*. 39:7 and 53:38 



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64 



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Surah 2 \ AUBttqarah |Pan Uuz) I] 



i^j^siijyj 1 35. They say: "Be 

CsJ-^>$ \1£ Jews or Christians, 

\/j£ you will get guided." 1 

i;^' jj Say: "No, rather the religion 2 

iL^. >*£ of IbrShtm. the monotheist;* 

l^'C'i and he was none 

0,^-i^S? of the polytheists. 






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136. Say [you all]: 

"We believe 4 in Allah 

and what has been sent down 

lows 

and what was sent down 5 

to Ibrahim and Isma'tl 

and Ishaq and Ya'qOb 

and the tribes;* 

and what was given to M Lisa 

and *fsa and what was given 

to the Prophets 

from their Lord. 

We do not differentiate 7 

between any of them; 

and we are to Him Muslims.* 



1. Tehtada (nu)= you (all) get guided, arc nghtly 
guided (v ii m, pi impfci from ihrudii, form 
VIII of timid [liaitv f huilim t hid&yah |.(o guide. 
ID show, The lennrrial nun is dropped because H 
forms i he conclusion a I an implied conditional 
clause. See muhltidin al 1 16. p, !f, n hi 

2. Mtllah {pi mittil) = religion, creed, religious 
community, denomination, Sec at 2:120. p. 57, n 

2. and 2: 130. p. 62. n. 2). 

3. //<i'ii/ (pi. hunafa'i = one who shuns the 
surrounding fake religion* and follows the true 
religion, a true monotheisi The word hanif has 
been used in <he Qui an always in contrast wiih a 
polylheist The 'ayah is a reply to the lew; 1 and 
Christians' claims that [hey were the followers of 
the religion of lorahim It says lhat while be was a 
(rue flionolheist and not al all a poly Ihc ist. Ihey 
were not so. 

4. 'Amanita - we believed (v. I. pi pasi from 
iimuita ['inviflj, from IV of aminu, to be safe, 

feel safe. See tu' minimi al 2:3. p. 5. n. I ), 

5. 'VaiHa = he or it U sent down (v. lit. in. s. 
past passive from 'anmta. form [V of ntizala 
{auiSl}, lo get down, come down, descend. Sec at 
2:4. p. 5. n. 6). 

6. 'Asb&t (sing ribs) ± grandsons, the 12 inbes of 
the Israelites, SO called because they arose out of 
the 12 sons of Ya'qub. 

7. Sufaeriqu m we differentiate, make distinction, 
separate (v. L pi, itifptct,fmni farraqa, form II of 
faraqa \furifSn), lo separate, divide) The 
meaning here is that we do not differentiate 
between the Prophets in respect of our belief in 
them; but they were given different ranks by 
Allah, as staled at 1:253: "Those Messengers, We 
preferred some of thetn lo the others: soine of 
them Allah spoke to and raised some of them over 
the others in ranks. " 

X Musiimun {sing Muslim) - A Muslim is one 
who surrenders himself completely and sincerely 
to Allah (Active participle from astuma. form IV 
of talima [sulOmah/ialam). to be safe, safe and 
sound, secure, faultless. See aslama at 2:112. p, 
53, n. 6; see also mutlmwyn at 2: 128.. p 6 1 . n If 



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Surah 2 : Al-Baqurah [Pan [Ju:i )] 



63 



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137. So if they believe 1 
like what you believe 2 in 
then they are guided aright; 5 
but if they turn away 4 

then they are indeed in rift. 5 
So Allah will suffice you 
against them;* 
and He is the All-Hearing, 
the All-Knowing, 

138. Allah's colouring,' 

and who is better 

than Allah 

in respect of colouring? 

And we are His worshippers. 

139. Say : "Do you dispute' 
with us about Allah, 
while He is our Lord 

and your Lord, 
and for us are our deeds 10 
and for you are your deeds, 
and we are to Him 
sincere devotees?" 11 



1 . 'Amoni - ihey believed (v. iii, m. pi. pail from 
dmona Sec SmannS ai 2: 116, p. 64. n 4). 

2. 'Amentum n you believed (v, ii. m, pi. past 
from 'drowifl). 

3. Ihiadaw = they received guidance:, wens guided 
aright (v. iii. m. pi. past from ihfadi. Sec ftthttidi 
M2J3S.p-64.alJ. 

J. TavaUaw - ihcy turned away, desisted, 
refrained from (v. iii, p. pi. past (ram itmalld. 
form V of ivaliya [wly], to be near, be next. See 
mwallaylum al 3:83. p- 39. n. 5), 

5. Shlq&q (sing, shiqqah) = piece, splinter, 
difficulty, trouble, rift, schism 

6. Yakji + fat = he suffices you. he is enough for 
you (v. iii. m, s. impfcl. from Jta/u fJrj/<3yaA], to be 
enough, be sufficient, suffice). The prefix sa is a 
particle indicative of future tense. 

7. Sibghah = colour, dye, hue, shade, tinge, 
tincture, touch, character- Here ir means ihe dSn or 
religion of Allah - the way of life that imparts a 
distinctive touch and character to its follower. 

8. 'Abtd&n (sing. 'Hbtd) = worshippers, adorers. 

9. luhajjuna = you (all) dispute, controvert, 
argue in opposition, debate, confute (v. ii m pi 
impfct. from hajfa. form III of htijjv [hijj/hnjjj], to 
aim al. to overcome. Sec yuhajji al 2-16. p. 36. n, 
6). 

tO. 'A'mil (sing, amal) = deeds, performances, 
doings, acts, achievements. 

II. \fukhlifQn (sing, miikhtii) - sincere ones, 
devoted, loyal, faithful. Active participle from 
atfitttfa, form IV of khalofa [khultis]. to be pure, 
unmixed, unadulterated. Here the meaning is 
those who adore and worship Allah Alone 10 the 
exclusion of all other beings and objects and do 
all deeds exclusively for His pleasure, (n other 
words Muihlifun here means Hue and pure 
■nonotneiats. 



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66 



Surah 1 : Al-Baaarah [Fin (Ale') I ) 






h\i*jy* >' 140. Or do you say 
Jd£$£S4e2, that IbrShim, Isma'Tl, 
^JZ.'t$*\t Ishaq, Ya'qGb 
iU-iVf* and the Tribes 1 

&J-" ji ij.^ ijjB" were Jews or Christians? 

■* f, ■* 

[^Lj; Say; "Are you 

iiy^f more informed 2 or is Allah? 
iltl^j And who is more unjust 3 
* -f . J . than the one who conceals* 
J!lia,£T/Tl. a testimony* he has with him 

Jj^j from Allah?* 
«J^5 30* And Allah is not unmindful 7 
u& juil l f f what you do." 8 



*'i 



141. That was a nation' 
■^-■Jj who have passed away. 10 

U They will have 
iZlfc what they earned 1 ' 
JCTJ and you will have 
what you earn;' 2 



l""K< 



OjlliiV J and you will not be asked 15 



t + „'*,<,* 



jjLL^iylfli* about what they used to do. 14 



1 'AsbSf (sing, sibfl = grandsons, the 1 2 iribet of 
ihe Israelites, so called because they arose qui of 
ihc 1 2 sons of Y a'qub. See it 2: 1 36, p, 64. n. 6. 

2 ',Vitmu = more informed, Elatjve form of 
'Slim 

3. 'Aflamu = more unjust, more iniquitous, more 
lyrannical, viler, gloomier, darter (elative form of 
jalim. See at 2:114. p 54. n. 6; and rf/imfln at 
2:51, p. 24. n. II) 

4. Kalama = he concealed, hid. secreted (v. iii. m 
s. pasl from kutnitkilmiln, to hide. See laklitmiltia 
al 2 33. p IB. n 2), 

5. Shafiddah m testimony, evidence, witness. 

6. i.e.. received from Allah, The allusion is to ihe 
evidence in the Tawrak about the Coming of ibe 
Last Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of 
Allah be on him. 

7 Gkofit (pt, gh&fHHn) ■ negligent, unmindful, 
heedless, inattentive, indifferent lo. Active 
participle from ghafatn [glu^lah I ghafSf\. to 
neglect, not to heed, 

6. Ta'moMna ■ you (all) do. perform (v. ii. m. pi. 
impfci from umilu [ 'omul ], to do , perform See 
ya'matuaa at 2. 1 H, p. 63. n. 10). 

9. 'fuimflJi (p]. wnuim) = nation, people. See at 
2:128. p. 61. n. 3; *l**2:i33 t p, 63, a. ). 

10. KHaiaS = she passed away, became empty, 
became alone, went privately (v. iii. m. s. pasl 
from khtiM [UialS'/k/iuH'l, to be empty. See il 
2:134, p. 63. n. 5). 

1 1 Kasabat = she earned, acquired, gained (v. iii. 
f. f. past from kaiaba [hub], lo gain. See at 
2: 134. p. 63, n. 7), 

12. Kasabtum m you (all) earned, acquired, 
gained (v. ii. m. pi. past from kaiaba. See at 
2:134, p. 63. 0.8) 

13. Tw'alUna = yoo (all) axe asked, questioned 
(v. ii. m. pi. impfci. passive from la'ala. See H 
2:134. p. 63, n. 9). 

14. Ya'matam ■ ihty (all) do, perform (v. iii m, 
pi impfct. from 'anuta Seeal 2:13, p g, n 6: and 
2: 1 1 3. p .54, n. 2; also al 2:134. p. 63. a. 10). 



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Sirai 1 : AlBaaarah (Part {Jul) 2] 



07 



a£U.pi Part [/H2 'III 

Section {Ruku') 17 

i,:" $ 142. There will say 

^Q^ft^ili the fools' among the people: 

^JJjLi "What turned' them away 

Jr; f -,V,; 1 from the qiblah* of theirs 

^fc ij^ they had been on?" 

fi£ Say: 'To Allah belong 

pj£%t}j*j& the East and the West. 4 

Ui^cij^ He guides* whom He will 

f££ j^-rJl to a straight path." 



143.Thus*We have made you 

a balanced 7 nation 

that you be witnesses 

over mankind 

and that the Messenger be 

over you a witness.* 

And We have not set 

the qiblak which 

you had been on* 

but for thai We might know 10 

who follows the Messenger 



U-Uj 













1. Sufahd' (sing, -s<j/Wi) - Took stupid, impudent. 

2. H'aUd = he or it fumed away, diverted (v iii. m 
s. past in form II of witliya. to fallow, la lie ne*U 
to be near See tawallaymm at 2:S3. p. 59, a. 5). 

3. Qibtah - the direction which one faces. 
Technically il means the direction the Muslims 
face in praying, i.e., Ihe direction of the Ka'ba ai 
Makka At Makka Ihe Prophet and the Muslims 
used to pray turning towards the Ka'ba, Shortly 
before the migration to Madina he received divine 
directive to him towards Bayt al-Maqdis while 
praying He continued to do so Tor 16 of 1*7 
months after the migration to Madina, but at the 
same lime yearned for being directed to turn 
towards Ihe Ka'ba. This 'Ayah and the succeeding 
'ayahs up to 'Ayah 150 deal with the setting of Ihe 
qiblah finally towards the Ka'ba, which took 
place shortly before the Battle of Badr The 
present 'ayah alludes to the reaction of the 
unbelievers, particularly Ihe Jews of Madina, to 
this memorable event. 

4. "The East and the West" is here a figurative 
expression meaning that all the directions belong 
id Allah; but He guides whomsoever He wills to 
ihe right path and the right direction to face in the 
couise of praying. 

S Yahdt = he guides, shows the way (v. iii. m. s, 
msplct from hadS [hady/kudan/hidu'yuh], to 
guide, to lead 

6. i.e., jtul as We have guided you lo the straight 
path, Islam, and to the right directum to turn to in 
praying, so We have made you an elite nation, 

7. "Wosat (pi tfn'jtif) = middle, centre, heart, core, 
elite. Mere it means just, equitable, fair, balanced 
(Set BulMri. no. 4487; also Al-Suhr, (I, rj; Tafsir 
ai-BaytBtot. 1,91). 

8. i.e,. on the Day of Judgement the followers of 
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on 
him, wilt bear witness that the previous Prophets 
had delivered Allah's message to their respective 
peoples, and the Piophel will bear witness to the 
same effect against his own followers, (Bulthfiri t 
no 4487). 

9. i e , the direction of the Ka'ba to which you 
used to turn at Makka. The ordef 10 revert to that 
fust tfihltih the Ka'ba. was undoubtedly a test for 
the weak-minded and the hypocrites. Conversely, 
if the expression "the qibttik which you had been 
on" is taken 10 mean Bayt al-Maqdis, the directive 
to turn towards it for a time was also a test for the 
believers, 'See At-Bal}r. II, 14-15; Ai-Tafitr 
ai Ki>bfrA\. 114-115) 

10. i.e .. distinguish, mark out. for the Prophet and 
the Muslims; for Allah knows everything. 



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Sunn 2 : Al-Biitiiinih [Part ( Sin ' ) 2] 



J .Cr~; from him who turns 1 
ij^ on his heels; 2 
jjOO oils ji j and it is indeed very hard 
j j&\ Jp*^i except on those whom 
iii'i^'-jb Allah gives guidance. 

iMof£5 And Atlah is not 

l^ t' i-- w") t0 l et E° m vain 4 your faith. 5 
u-l^)l<juf ("Tl Verily Allah is for mankind 
\ *Z Most Beneficent, 6 
fg$ ^.t-J Most Merciful 

lSJ" Ji 1 44. We do at times see 
^i^^-jCiiJ the turning 8 of your face 
I j towards the sky; 
ll^Ji so We will surely turn you* 
ij to a qiblah 
l£^»J you will be pleased with. 10 
^jJi*~j j ji Hence turn your face 
IpLJt j-Hif^JiS towards 1 'the Sacred Mosque; 
l-.^ .l '" and wherever you all be, 
j^SjijIjly turn your faces 
*j£S towards it. 
^jjl^ij And verily those who 



J 



1 . Yangatibu - he turns, revolves, is upturned 
(v. in in s, iiiipfcl. fiorn ini/aluba, fr»nn VII of 
qataba [qalb], ID turn ai ound. turn about). 

2. r4futop+Ai (sing, aqih; p| u^dt) = hit two 
heels. The expression "whu turns on his heels" 
means who refuses in fallow the Prophet and 
reverts lo unbelief (itu/r). 

3. Hada = he guided, gave guidance (v in m. s 
past. See yahdl at 2: J 42, p.67. n. S). 

4. J'urf/i'M = he ruins, lels perish, lets gp in vain, 
frustrates (v. iii. m. I, impfct, from 'ada'a, form 
IV of dd a [ day '/(fjytf "], to gel losl) 

5. i.e.. the prayers performed in good faith towards 
Bay I al-Maqdis This part of the 'a\-ah allays the 
fears of some thai prayers already performed 
facing a direction other than the Ka'ba would go 
in vain. 

6. Re'6f = Most Beneficent, Most Benevolent, 
Most Compassionate 

7. Nari - we see (v, i, pi. impfct. from m'd [ra'y, 
ra 'yah), lo see. The word qad. followed by an 
imperfect verb, as here, gives the Sense of 
sometimes, at times, perhaps, may; but when 
followed by a perfect verb, it indicates the 
termination of an action. This 'SyaJt alludes to ihc 
fact that the Praphel, even while facing Bayt 
ill Maqdis. in prayer, yearned for being directed to 
face the KVba and sometimes raised his face, lc, 
eyes, towards the Ay praying for that, 

H. Taqallub - nuctualion. variation, turning and 
tossing (form V of qaSaba. to lurn round. See 
yanqalibu at n. 1 above). 

9. ffuwalliyaana + ka = we will surely turn you, 
make you face (v, i. pi, impfct. in the emphatic. 
Irorn waits, form II of waliya to be close, to lie 
nexl. The Icrminally doubled nto is Iht mark of 
emphasis, See walla ai 2: 142, p. 67, n.2). 

10. iartfd + Ad = you are pleased with her. you 
are fond of her. you like her (v. ii. m. s. impfct 
from radiya [ritfan/ridwSit/marJiVi], id be 
satisfied, be content). 

11. Shair (pi. shutSr, ashtHt) = direction, in the 
direction of, towards. The Sacred Mosque is the 
Ka'ba 



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SSrstl AI-BaifiltaH |Parl {Juz) 2] 



69 






V^SJIIjfjl 






■' ■*■■ * 



d^M^S 



were given the Book 

surely know 1 

that it is the truth 2 

from their Lord; 

and Allah is not unmindful 

of what they do. 3 

145. And even if 

you came up 4 to those who 

were given the Book 

with every sign [miracle] 

they would not follow 5 

your qiblah; 

nor are you to follow 6 

their qiblah, 

nor do some of them follow 

the qiblah of the others. 

And if you follow 7 

their desires* 

after what has come to you 

of the knowledge, 9 

you will then surely be 

of the transgressing ones. 10 



1 Ya'lam&na = (hey know, are aware of (v. ni. m, 
pi. intpfci From alima I'ilm], to know. Sec at 
2:13. p.8. si.6; 2: 13, p.54. n.2; 2: 134, p. 63, n,IO). 

2, i.e., the directive lo turn towards the KVba is 
truly from Allah 

3, ra'mal&na = they do, perform (v. lii. m, pi. 
impfcl from 'amila ['amal\, tD do See al 2:134, 
p. 63. n. 10; 2:141, p. 66. n. 14). 

4, 'Atayta..,(+bi) = you came up with, brought, 
produced (v. It, m s. past bum 'hjj<3 
[iiyitiAny/ma'lSh], w come. See ta'tl at 2: 1 IS, p. 
56. n. 3). 



S. Tabl'H m they followed, same aftet. trailed (r. 
iii m pi. past From labia [lab'/tabd'ah], to 
follow See nets. 6 and 7 below}, 



6. raw ( pi. alM'i = follower, successor (active 
participle from tub) 'a), 



1. Itlaba'ta m you followed (V. ii, m S, pail from 
ittaba'a. form VU1 of tabi'e. See at 2:120, p. 57, 
n.3). 



8. 'AhwA' (sing, hawan) - desires, fancies, 
wishes, caprices. See at 2:1 20, p. 57, n, 4). 



9. i.e.. the knowledge communicated through 
wahy, Qur'aiiic and non-Qirr'anic. 



10. f&liMtn (accusative/genitive form of iMimfin, 
sign. :_dhm) = transgressors, ihose who cross the 
limits, wrongdoers, unjust ones: also polj-rheistt. 
See at 2:35. p. 19. n. 5). 



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70 



SHrat 2 : Ai-Baqarah [Pan (Jin ') 2 ) 



^iSl^jji 146. Those whom We gave 

vivO'r the Book 
(S ^jjt/v they know him 1 as 
^tJOj^Ju they know their sons; 
fi4m*/ jlj and verily a section 2 of them 
(i*jf5j£0 conceal 1 the truth, 
SJlZjjk} while they know* [it]. 



i^i 



Jijf 147. [It is] The truth 
!itj ^ from your Lord; 
%'f^y* so you must not be 
it of the sceptics, 5 



U 












#'* 



'*ll^ 

?£-*, 






Section (ffuAii') 18 
148. And everyone has 
a direction* he turns to. 7 
Hence vie 8 with one another 
for the good things. 9 
Wherever you may be 
Allah will bring you 
all together. 10 
Verily Allah is 
over everything Omnipotent. 



I_ 







1 They know him. i.e., Ihe Prophet, because their 
Scripture (Tawrah and Injif) conuwu 
prophecy about his coming u well as hit 
description. 

2. Fattf (pi. fur&q, afriqvh) = section, poop, 
faction, party, bund. See at 2:75, p. 35, il S}, Hi 
it refers m the leaders and rabbis of the tews. 

3. Yektum&na - they conceal, keep secret, hide, 
secrete (v. in. m. p], impfcl. from kaiama | tarn 
Aitm&n], lo hide, to conceal Sec kasama at 2.140, 
p. 66, n. 4; and taKfamina at 2:33, p. 18, n. 2), 

4. Their offence is all the more reprehensible 
because they do it knowingly and wilfully. 



5, Mumtarfn (accusative/genitive form of 
mvmfarun. sing, mumiarin) n sceptics, Ihe 
doubling ones, those who doubt, cnlcrt&m doubts 
Active participle from antird', form VII] from 
miryah/murynh, doubt, dispute. 



6. Wijkah (pi, wijhal) - direction, trend. 
abjective. 

7. Mutmlliti (p|, <iiitv.,il!:ii\ ) m une who turns |g 
a direction, has an objective Active participle 
from watKt, See tamiltaytum at 2:83, p, 39, n , 5. 

8. hiabiqi = you (all) vie vuilh one another, try to 
get bhead of one another, compele. race for (V. it. 
m, pi. imperative from itfdbaqa. form VIII of 
titbuqa [sabq]. Id gel before, to precede, to go 
ahead) 

9 KkayrSt (sing. ihayrah) ■ good things, good 
deeds. Here it means obedience to the Prophet and 
carrying out the directives of Allah and ihe 
Prophet. 

10, i.e.. on the Day or Judgement, for rewarding 
the righteous and punishing the sinful, 






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Sural 2 : Al-Baqarah (Par! Uui "> 2] 



71 



-y6 149. And from wherever 






Cjyj. you come out 
"^4*^ jji you turn 2 your face 
fOJl-ta^jf >i towards the Sacred Mosque, 3 
^lil^tj Verily it is the truth 
•&Jo* form your Lord; 
Aii^t C\ and Allah is not unmindful 
£& ojLDiCl of what you do. 



•tf-i 



150. And from wherever 
^-*-j- you come out 
^Hrjsb* you turn your face 
r^Lfj^ljT^iLi towards the Sacred Mosque; 
and wherever you all be 
you turn your faces 
towards it;* 

so that there be not for men 
any plea 5 against you, 
yii-^jji"^ except those that transgress 4 
of them. 

So do not dread 6 them 
and dread Me; 
and that I may make full 7 









m 



I Kkarajta = you came oul. Emerged, started, left 
(v. ii m, s. past from khurtiju \khwui\, to come 
oul, 10 leave. See yakkruju al 2:74. p. 35. n.6), 

2. Wall! m you turn, you fee* (v. it. m. s. 
imperative team wuli&. See at 2:142, p. 67, n. 2; 
and tawaiiaylum at 2:83. p. 39. n. 5}. 

3- i.e., the Ka'ba, 

4. The repealed directives arc For emphasis in 
view of the criticism and opposition of the Jews. 
According lo the commentators the three 
repetitions have in view three situations, namely. 
(a) Tor those who are at Makia and in the vicinity 
of the Ka'ba; lb) for those who are away from Ine 
Ka'ba and at all oiher places (c) for those who are 
on travel Also, (a) the first mention is meant 10 
contradict the lews' assumption and to emphasise 
that the Prophelhood of Muhammad, peace and 
bkisings of Allah be on him. and the order to turn 
towards the Ka'ba are the truth and are from Allah 
as righl guidance from Him. and not merely lo 
please the Propbel. for the Ka'ba is the first and 
the oldest qiblah which Prophet Ibrahim, peace be 
on him. set under the direction of Allah: (b) that 
the order applies in respect of all places and at all 
times and (c) that there should not be any 
deviation from the qiblah so lhal others may not 
have any plea against the Muslims (See for 
instance Al QurpJbi, Tb/rir, [], I6&: Al Fakhr 
al-Razl, MTajsUai-Katftr. If. 152-154). 

i Hstjjah (pi hujaj)= argument, pretense, pretext, 
plea, proof The allusion here is mainly to the 
Arab poly the ists arid the Makkans on the one 
hand, who alleged that the Prophet, though he 
claimed to follow the religion of Ibrahim, had 
Mined away from his yibfoh, the Ka'ba, and to the 
Jews on the olher. who alleged that though the 
Prophet refused to follow Judaism yet he adopted 
the qiblah of the Jews, Bayl al-Maqtfis. This part 
of the 'ayah meets such objections of the 
unbelievers and the Jews. 

6. galamu = they transgressed, did wrong (v. iii. 
m. pi pasl from laiumn [;oW{ulm] h to do wrong. 
The allusion is to the obstinate opponents who 
refused to see reason. 

7. 'UtimmtHu) = I make full, make complete (v i. 
! unpfcl. from 'mtimma, form TV of tamma 
[iamum\, to be complete, finished Sec 'alumna It 
2:124. p. 58. n. 14). 



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SSrai 2 : Al-Boqurah (Pan i hi: i 2) 






My grace upon you 
^xJuJj and that you may 



S* *t 



yji+j receive guidance. 



Ci^fcT 151. As I have sent 
U~V[*^=*J amidst you a Messenger 3 

^s=ci from among you - 
i&fefjL^ he recites 1 unto you 

ki<ii Our revelations (signs) 4 
(l^sajCy and purifies* you 
—^Ai^=»l£j an( i teaches 6 you the Book' 
il^ lij and the wisdom 8 
^JJ^j and leaches you what 
uj^si^j^U you had not been knowing,* 



Z&>5iui 152. So remember 10 me, 
f^ril I shall remember you;" 
tS)jj£=*2,\j and express gratitude 12 to Me 
§P soj^-^j and be not ungrateful to Me. 

Section (Ruka 1 ) 19 
liu-jOU^ti 153. Oyou who believe, 

ask for help 13 with patience 



J&UL-' 



I . Tahtadtirtu - you (all) receive guidance, are on 
the right track (y, ii. m. pi impfel from ihtada. 
form VIII or Wu. See tahtudu al 2:135. p. 64, n. 
I) 

2. i.e.. Muhammad, peace and blessings of A Hah 
be on him. 

3. YattH - he recites, reads (v. in in. s. impfel 
from tai& [filawati). lo recile. read See ai 2:124, 
p. 6l.n. 7) 

4. 'AySi (sing. 'Ayah) = proofs, evidences, siens. 
revelations, marks, tokens, miracles. See at 2:99. 
p. 47. n 2) 

5. YazakJtt (+kam) a he punfies you, makes you 
clean tv tit. m. s. tmpfct. from aiUd. form II ni 
jtiku Izukw/itiky/zuid']. to grow, be pure. See 
Yuzukki +him al 2: 129, p. 61 , n.9). 

6. Yu'allimu a he leaches, instructs (v. iii. m. s. 
impfel. from tiltanvi, form II of ulinui | m ilm], lo 
know. See al 2:129; p. 61, n. ). 

7. i.e., Ihe fjur' in. 

8. i.e.. yunnciA, the non-Qur'ann: wahy to the 
Prophel containing information about ihc 
prapnelies and improprieties for a Muslim. 

9. i.e.. or ihe mailers of ihe din and rules of 
iharl'nh, Ta'tam&na = you (all) know, arc aware 
of (if. ii. m. pi impfel. from 'alimtt. Sec at 2:22. p 
12. n. 5; and 2:80. p. 37. n. 12) This 'ayah in fact 
speaks of the fulfilment of the prayer made by 
Ibrahim and Isma'JI, peace be on them, made al 
the time of their raising the foundation or the 
Ka'ba. See '&yuh 129 above >.: p. 61). 

10. UdhkurQ <+ at) - you (all) remember me, 
keep me in mind (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from 
dhakara. Sec at 2:122, p. 58, n I). Remembering 
Allah at all limes is ihc key to righteousness 
iruifH'ti), for if one keeps Allah in mind one 
cannot commit any misdeed or wrong thing. 

I ] . While remembrance is undoubtedly one of 
Allah's attributes, its practical manifestation is His 
awarding of merit to and bestowal of favours upon 
the righteous. 

12. Vshkuru - you all express gratitude, thanks 
(v ii m pi. imperative from shakam \.ihidrr 
/>huKnin\. to ili;mk, be grateful}. Expression of 
gralilude means no| only declaration of gratitude 
and thanks but also carrying out the injunctions 
and prohibitions of Allah and abstinence from 
sinful acts. 

13 rito'fni! = you (all) seek help, ask for help, 
beseech help (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from 
ism ana, form X from 'Una [ ami]. See at 2:45, p. 
22, n 10) 



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SQral 2 : AI -Brtfldw/t I Pan Urn ') 2] 



73 



^LilVj and prayer. 
'Z$l\ Verily Allah is 
U^r^"^ with £ he patient. 1 



• >. > ".*.* 



Wy^% 154. And do not say 
J--"^".! about those who are slain 1 
^fj.^,4 in the way of Allah: 
!ij2l "They are dead". 3 
;&],> Nay, lri ey are alive, 4 
sJs&i J$j DUl y° u do not realize. 5 



r£jLjj 1 55. We will surely test 6 you 
j^f^_ with a bit of 
£j^j,jpjj fear 7 and hunger* 
J^Vi^^j and loss 9 of properties 
^iil'jj-u^lj and lives and crops; 
Jjj; but give glad tidings' 1 
§1 ^4#%& to the persevering ones - 

c/if 156. Who, 

r+^* ll H if there afflicts 11 them 
^i 
< ^^* any calamity, 14 

■-. .- 

l jJi* they say: 



1. $3birt>r (accusative/genitive of i&ttiriin, ting, 
fdfrir) = the patient, the persevering, the steadfast, 
the forbearing. Active participle from satrnra 
[fair]. Id be patient), "Allah is with the patient" 
means His support and mercy are with them. Sec 
djufti 156- L57 below. 

2. Yuqtatu = he is killed, slain, murdered (v. iii. 
m. ». impfct. passive from qatala [qall]. to kill, 
slay, See yaqtutana ai 2:61 . p. 29. n. 1 1 ). 



dead, lifeless, See at 
4. 'AW (sing hayy) = alive, living. 



3. Amwil (sing. nwyyrt) 
2:28. p, 15. n. 6 



5. Taih'urOno m you (all) realize, perceive, ate 
■wuc of (v. ii. ID. pi, impfct. from iha'ara 
{thu'ur]. to know, to realize. See yash'arima at 
2:9. p. 7. b. 3. and 2:1 2, p, 8. o. 2} 

6. .Viihfu*unna i -nUiti! = we will surely test you, 
try you (v. i. pi impfct, in the emphatic farm, the 
terminally doubled nun being the mark of 
emphasis, from bald [balw/baM']. 10 test, to try. 
See iblalS at 2:1 24. p. 58. n. 12). 

7. Kkavf = fear, dread. See at 2:38, p. 20. n 3; 
2:62. p. 30. n. 5 and 2:1 12, p. 53. n. 10). 

8. JA ' ■ hunger, starvation- 

9. Naqf = loss, diminution, decrease, shortage. 

10. Anfui (sing, na/r) ■ life, person, individual, 
self. 

11. Thamar&l (sine. Ifoimottrt) = fruits, crops. 
yields, products, results. Sec at 2:12, p. 12, a. 1; 
and 1: 12*. p W,n.5). 

12. Hashshir = give gl»d Udings, announce good 
news (v, ii m, s, imperative from bashskara, form 
11 of btahara /bashira [bishr A/uskr], Co rejoice, 
be happy. See has Mr at 2: 1 19, p. 56. a. 9). 

1 3. •Aft&m = ishe hit, afflicted, befell (v, iii. f. s, 
past from 'm6ba, form IV of s6ba 
[iawWsayb(tbah], to hit the mark, to be right), 

14. Musibah (pi. mofd'ib) = calamity. disaster, 
misfortune. 



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74 



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Sural 1 : AlBat)unik [Pan Uw"> 2J 



*J)ty "Verity we belong to Allah, 
*-$>\j and to Him we all are 
%F& goi n g to retu rn . ' ' ' 

- - •: 

.iUJjl 1 57 . Such people, 

>l 1c I $ on tnem w iH t> e blessings 2 
from their Lord, 




^LJJJC^JJI 






and mercy; 
■ » S, j.\- and such are the ones 
in receipt of guidance.' 



158. Surely the Saf a 

and the Marwah 4 

are of Allah's signposts/ 

So whoever performs ijajj 

to the House (Ka'ba) 

or goes on 'wmroft,* 

it wilt be no sin 7 on his part 

that he makes circuits* 

between the two; 

and whoever willingly does' 

a good deed, 

then verily Allah is 




3l6li 



I fidji'un (sing, rafi'i = returning ones, those 
(he prucess of reluming. Ac live participle fron 
raja'a \rujQ"\, 10 return, to come back. See 
yarji'Sna at 2:18, p, 10. n. ). 
2. .S'atatea/ (sing. jfa&M) ■ blessings, grace (o 
Allah); prayers, benedictions mt men» 
J, Mahtadin (sing, muhtatitn) - those in recei| 
of guidance, those on the right track. Attn 
participle from ihwdil form VIII of hudd See a 
2:70. p, 33, n .6; and nmhmdin at 2: 16, p. 9, ft. 8) 
'/Jyu/ji 1 53 and 1 55- [56 speak of the distinctive 
and unique merits k>l" ;abr (patience) in distress 
and difficulties. 
A The Ssfa and the Marwah are two hills near tlw 
Ka'ba Prophet Ibrahim, under the direction 
Allah, had left HSpar and the baby Ismfi'il in 
valley where the Ka'ba stands. When the 
provision and water with her were exhausted sh 
ran frantically between the two bills in search 
water for the baby. When she had just ftnisf 
s*v*n runs between the two hills the angel JibiH 
appeared before her by Allah's command and 
caused the Zam Zam spring to gush forth front the 
earth, which provided the means of subsistence 
(or her and Isma'il Since that time it has been a 
perennial source of water for the succeeding 
generations. The rule to make Seven runs between 
the two hills in connection with hujj and umrtih 
is in consonance with the Abrahams trad Hi en 
(Buktitlri. no 3364). The pre-lslamic Arabs also 
used to make these runs: but as they had placed 
idols in and near the Ka'ba. similarly they had 
placed i»o idols. 'Isaf and Na'ilah, respectively 
on the two hills and used to touch and invoke 
them while making runs there. As such the 
Muslims hesitated nuking these runs during heiij 
and 'umrak The 'dyrrt alleys those misgivings 

5, Sha'S'ir (sing, sltu'irah) - signposts, tokens 
distinctive features in worship, religious riles. 

6. !'iamara - he performed 'nturuh (v. iii. m * 
past in form VU1 of Wkmi [ emrtvm^, to live 
become inhabited) 

7 Junoh - sin, wrong, inisderneruiuur. Jeviatmi 
into a wrung Course. 

S i'attawwafaiu) a he makes runs, circuits, he 
circumambulates (v. iii. m. s. impfel in form V 
of ttlftf | hiuuJ/uurf/towfSn], to go about, rufl 
around] . 

9. Tntewwa'a = he volunteered to do 
vnluntanly/willingly did {v. tii. m s past in farm 
V of iii u [ttnit '] to obey, he obedient) 



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Sural 1 ; Al-Baqamh [Pari Ou: ') 2] 



TS 



X£ 



* I* 



Most Appreciative,' 
Ail-Knowing. 



3 ^fi^i 



iJt 






1 59. Those who conceal 2 
what We sent down 1 
of the clear evidences 4 
and guidance, 
even after thai 
*^W We had made it clear s 
^i^Jlil^tl f or men in the Book, 15 
'^'^uASj\ such ones Allah curses, 7 
ji^ilj i j and there curse them 
^ &£*M all the imprecators. 8 



^Ji'aj 1 60. But not so those who 

'j»*L-il ji * ji £ repen t* and rec t ify ' & 

'j-4^j and state clearly" [the truth], 

-i-l^Jjl* then those people 

ft^c *•*»>»' I shall forgive 12 them; 

vt/HGlj for I am Most Forgiving, 

0J^rJ\ Most Merciful. 

lj£a aJafSl 161. Those who disbel ieve 



|. Sh&kir - appreciative, thankful, grateful. 
Active participle from shukura li^uda/shttkrSn), 
Id (hank, be thankful Sec lashkuninti al 2:52, p. 
24, n 1 1), 

3 Yaktumuna = they conceal, hide, secrete, 
withhold from the public (v. iii. m. pi impfcl 
from kntamii [ttilm/ktfinan]. Id hide, Sec al 2: 146, 
p, 70. n. 3), 

5 'Anzatna = wc scnl down (V, i. pi, pasl from 
'uii;ulu, farm IV of intuitu [nn:ul\. to come down. 
See 'uaiaia al 2:22. p. 1 1, n. 9), 

4. Bayyinat (sing, buyyintih) = clear evidences, 
indisputable proofs. See At 2'87, p. 4 1 , n, 6 

5 BayyaanS a we made clear, elucidated (v. i pi. 
past from bayyuna, form tl of h&ui[bay&e\, lo be 
evident See al 2: 1 1 8, p. 56. n. 6). 

6. i.e., the Scripture of ihe Jews and ihe Christians. 
Ihe Tuwrah and the Injtl, 

7 ro/'uflu — curses, banishes; from mercy, damns. 
imprecates (v. iii m. s. impfct from Iti'ann [Ia'n\, 
lo curse). 

K /ji'jnun (.ling, /u'iji) - cursers, imprccalore. 
Aclivc participle [rom ia'ana. 

9. J'aJ?u = they repenled. became penitent, turned 
from sin (v. iii, m. pi, past from tOba 
\jiiVfbh(n>t\HikJmatSb\, io repeni, be penitent. See 

uilxi al 2:37, p. 19, n. 14). 

10 i.e , they rectified the wrong done in the form 
of concealment, alteration and misinterpretation or 
the truth contained in Allah's revelations. 'Ajtnhu 
= rectified, made good, made amends, put fight 
(v. iii. m. pi. past from 'aslaha, form IV of 
saltihti See ntuflihCn at 2:1 1 p 7. n 10). 

j I Bayyaaii = they stated clearly, elucidated, 
announced unequivocally (v iii m pi past from 
bayyanu form II of I'dtti Sec bayyimnd above at 
n.5>, 

12. 'At&bu - I turn in forgiveness, forgive, (v. i. s, 
impfci. from jtfJw, See al 2:38. p, 7. n. 10). 






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Sural 2 : MUmttuvh (Pan Uuz'i 2] 



\j&j and die 
ffi i*j while they are unbelievers - 
iJ* jU& on such people will be 
*i^ili the curse of Allah 
uSt5l\j4S>^3\j and the angels and mankind, 
i§! Ss^$ of all of them - 






0-j^ 






>l''i7 






■£$00 







162. Abiding for ever ' 
therein/ 

No mitigation* will be made 

in respect of them 

of the punishment, 

nor will they be respited.* 1 

163. And your God s is 
the One God. 

There is no god but He, 
the Most Compassionate, 
the Most Merciful. 

Section (Ruku') 20 

164. Verily in the creation 6 
of the Skies and the earth, 
the alternation 7 of 



I KhaliiSn ( accusal ivc /genitive of kttdlidun. 
sing, khalid) = Remaining for all lime lo come. 
abiding For ever, everlasting, eternal Active 
participle Iron khaluda \khutiti\, lo remain or Us! 
for ever), See kkuim» at 225. p n, n |4 ; 2:81, 
p. 38. n. 6). 

2. i.e. under the curse and in the fire of hell, 

X Yukhaffafu = he or it is lessened, lightened, 
mitigated (v. iii, m s impfct passive from 
khujfafa, form II of khuffa \kfiiffah]. lo be light 
Vv.il 2:86 p 41, r> I). 

4. Yunzarana = (hey arc resptlcd, reprieved, 
given lime, deferred, looked at. glanced at (v. iii. 
nt pi. inipfcl. from mitora \mi:r/mtmzur\, lo see, 
view. look al>. 

5, 'fISh (pJ dlihak) = object of worship, God. 
The 'ayuh is an emphasis on monoihetstn in 
respcel of worshipping (al-lim^id ul-'«tiihiyyah). 
This emphasis On monotheism in respect or 
worshipping is the distinctive feature of Qur'anic 
teachings and of Islam: for even arch polythdsts 
recognize the existence of One Supreme Ood hut 
in practice worship a multiplicity Of pudi. holding 
Ihem to- be intermediaries and intercessors with 
Ihe Supreme God. as the pre Islamic Arab 
polytheisls used to do. See 1:5, p 2. n. 2). 

6. Khali} = creation, origination, making; also 
creatures, shape, constitution 

7, !khli!Af = alternation, coming of one after the 
oiher, diversity, variation, Difference; form VIII of 
khalafu [khalf] to Come afler. lo succeed This 
Tiytih 164 is an elucidation of (he doctnne of 
monotheism, particularly monotheism in respect 
of worshipping, emphasized in the previous '&yuh, 
calling attention to the fad that the entire universe 
and all ihe natural phenomena have One Creator, 
One Lord and One Director, so that worship and 
adoration are due only to Him and that to 
associate anything or being with Him in respect of 
His Lordship {rububiyyah), in the mailer of 
worshipping Vuiuhtyyah's and in respect of His 
Names and Attributes till 'At ma' nu al-Sifdl] 
constitute? the gravest of sins and the height of 
ingratitude, The consequences for such grave 
sinner, are mentioned in the Succeeding '&yuhs 
1 65 and 166. 



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Suritt 2 . AI-SaifaFtih |Pait Uuz') 2] 



77 



jl+I'i J-^' of ihe night and the day, 

^i^yy the large ships' that 

j3&Sjjc. ply 2 in the sea 

J^UJig^CL with what benefits' man, 

Sij^ti and what Allah sends* 1 down 

*«^ *'£Hf S^ from the sky of water 

sj^VljjftiS and thus enlivens*" the earth 

Ir^jJ**- after its being dead 

^-xt-^t) and disseminates 6 therein 

f-ii^o^ al | j,j n( i s f moving animals, 7 

gt^^-S^r"* and the circulating* of winds 

■"idl^Uijij and the clouds subjugated 9 

*"— ^ ! ->f between the sky 

£>y% and the earth, 

■f^ are sure signs 

^Ojii^j.JiJ for a people who understand. 



u;GJI CLfj 165. And {yet] of men 

* "* J in 

J^G* are those who lake up 

?il ujj g; bes i des A 1 1 ah 

(lljj compeers," 

(*4-j^_ adoring 12 them 

^^~iT like the adoring of Allah; 



l Falk (man and Tern., sing, and pi.) ~ ships. 
lorgv sen-going vessels. (Noah's) Ark. 

2. Tajri = she or il (lows. funs, plies (v. in, f, s. 
impfcl from jura JJary], to flow, lo (run) 

3 Yanfa'u = he (or hi benefits, is of use (v. iii. m. 
i. lmpkl, from nafa'a fnu/"], to be useful, be of 
use. See at 2:102, p. 48, n 14) The allusion is 
here lo Ihe great blessing of (he open waterways 
provided by Ihe seas and oceans for commerce 
and communications. 

4 'Antala = he sent down (v. iii m. s, past from 
miula. See at 2:22, p. 1 1 . n. 9}. 

5 'AhyS m he brought io life, enlivened, revived, 
gave life la ( v. iii. m s. pasl in form IV of huytyn 
[hayah\. In ijve, See yttstahyi 4t 2:26. p. 14, n. I). 

(> Ruihtlm - he disseminated, scattered abroad, 
liispcrsed (v iii m s. past from bttritlit, lo scatter], 

1 Dahbali (p] dawubb) = animal, beast, riding 
animal, crawling creators. 

K T&jtif a io make flenv. to turn about, to 
circulate, to dispalch, [a distribute; verbal noun in 
form II of .tu/vfti l$itrf\. to lam. to divert). 

9 Musakhkhar ~ subjected (o older, subjugated, 
made serviceable, compelled; passive participle 
from mkhkhtint. forni IL of suktrira 
Uakhf/sukimr/tukhur/jiukkrah/maskhiir]. io obey 

10, Yaltakhidhu - he takes to himself, lake; on, 
assumes (v. Mi m. », impfct. in form VIII of 
tokhudhu \itih<lh\. io lake Sec ittakhniihti al 

2; lift, p. SS.n. 5). 

11. Anted (sing, niddi = equals, compeers. 

I ■ : i r r 1 1 ._■ r -. rivals. 



12. Yuijibbuna - they love, adore (v. iii. m. pi 
impfel. faini httblm [habh], lo (ove, io like) 









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78 



Sural 2 Al-tiuijarah (Part (Jot) 2J 



n^ii ^j5f; but those who believe 

lit ill are more intense in adoration 

'^ for Allah - 

isy}'} and if only there could see 1 

[JJ&ctif* those who transgress, 2 

^Jtrt\ when they will see -1 

^Zi\ the punishment, 

jji«j*llijl that power belongs to Allah 

£-»£ altogether 

kdioU and that Allah is 

Jjtwi j-j_^ severe in punishment - 



if 166. When 4 
^p-5 there will disavow 5 
\j*-f\^-& those who were followed 6 
i~—*i^j*, the ones who followed, 7 
L>bj and they will have seen 
v-4-LJl the punishment 



**jj and cut off from them 
™J 4/rfi will be* all the relations.* 

JUj E 67. And there will say 
[>*^,>iK those who followed: 



I . I.e.. if ihcv niiiM realize and understand 

2 i.e.. Iransgress by associating partners with 
Allah. Zafanttr = they transgressed, crossed the 
limit*, did wrong and injustice, committed the 
grave .sin of associating panncrs with Allah, vftirl 
(v. iii iti pi past from {ultima See rtihmm .i 
2:35, p. 1°. n S). Here Ihe meaning is clearly the 
,-jjiV'i of associaiinjt partners wilh Allah, for this is 
Ihe context of the ayuli 

1 i'aravna = they sec, observe with (heir eye*, i 
realize (v. iii. m. pi. impfel from ra'J 
[ruy/ru'yaM], to see). Here Ihe meaning is that m 
ihe polytheists will be hroughi face to face, with 
Ihe punishment they deserve, Ihey wilt realize ilur 
power and dominion belong entirely to Allah, nut 
lo any of their supposed gods and goddesses, and 
thai Allah is severe in punishing Ihe sin of 
associating partner* with Him 

4. This "when" is in apposition lo (he "when" 
['idh) mentioned in the previous 'tiyuh and 
continues the description of Ihe si I nation in which 
the polylhcisls will realize ihe gravity of iheir Sin. 

5. Tabomt'a = he clears himself, rids himself of. 
disowns, disavows, declares his innocence of, 
acquits himself, absolves himself (v. iii. m. s. pasl 
in form V of ban'a [bara'ah], to be clear, free) 

6. Ullubi'u - Ihey were fallowed (v. iii m. p| 
pasl passive from illaha'ct. farm VIII of lubi'a 
[taba'Atib&'tik], in follow, lo come after. See Ihe 
next note). 

7 /ftofraii- ihey followed (v, ill m, pi. pasl in 
fnnn VIII of labi'ti See M 2:102, p. 48, n. If. The 
emphasis of this Ayah is on the fact I hat i r, 
generally the leaders of the society and the 
immediate beneficiaries of Ihe system of false 
religion, the pnesis and defies, who mislead their 
people into Ihe error. Bui such people will disuwr 
and nd themselves of their followers when ihey 
arc brought face to face wnh the punishment. 

| H. Taqat(a'ai - she or it became severed, cut. 
J separated (V, iii (. s. past m form V of qnjiia 
{tjtit'l, to cut Secyutfta 'una al 2,27, p. 1 4, n. fO>. 

9 AsbSb (sing nabob) = relations, lies, 
connections (between people) This meaning is 
especial to Ihe plural form, the singular form has 
Ihe meanings of rope, reason, cause and these 
apply also to the plural form, 



I 



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Sirat 2 ; AI-8a<)tiHt/i [PttuJiu') 2] 

I Kmrah = comeback, recurrence a return, 



74 



ipu £\$ "If we had a comeback' 
"£ll» we would rid ourselves 2 
pr-i of them 
iLijl^u? as they rid themselves of us." 
■u/ %-ggkfiS Thus will Allah show 5 them 
p i 1 *- ** i their deeds 
rF fc V>---** as lamentations on their part; 
rr^^J and they will not be 
/kfo-ifij^ coming out 5 of the fire. 



'1*111 i' 



Section (ffuJfcji') 21 
168. O mankind, 
l-fj^K^U^^r eat* of what is in the earth 
C£ yi of lawful and good things; 7 
i^Lyyj and do not follow 8 
^tilllfo^i the footsteps* of Satan, 
po^ Verily he is to you 

t * !'*)> m ii 

'^->-'*j- i * a patent enemy. 

j^iLLSl 169, He but commands' 2 you 

%£±\i for the evil" 

t^*jjij and the atrocious deeds 14 

wiijcijlji; Jj and that you say against Allah 



2 Naiabarra'u m we rid ourselves, absolve 
ourselves, disavow, disown f>. i, pi. impfcl. from 
lubarr'a, form V r>f bari'a. See tttbtttru'tt at 
2:166. p. 73, n. 5. 

3. yu/f = he shows, makes see (.v. in. m. s. impfct. 
from una, form IV of ra'u [w'y'ju'yaA], lo see. 

Sec urmii ul : I:K. |i [i|. u 41. 

4 Haiartit (sing, hasruh) - lamentations, regrets, 
grief, distress. 

5. Kh$rif!n (accusative /genilive of khUrijun, sing, 
khurifi = those going out, leaving. Active 
participle from khartija [khurHj]. to go out, to 
leave. See yakhmju at 2:74, p 35. n. 6), 

6. Kula = you (all> ea! (v. ii. m- pi, impcralive 
from 'akala [ akUma'kai\, to eat. See at 2:5*. p, 
27, n. I). 

7. TVvWA = good, pleasant, agreeable, salutary, 
■.I: I;.. n. u. Note that the permission has two 
conditions atrached to ii, namely, (a) thai the 
edible thing must be lawful and (b) that u should 
be good for health 

». LB + Tattahi'u = you (all) do not follow (v. ii. 
m pi. imperative [prohibition} from maba'a, 
form VII! of labia. See laiiuht'u at 2 121). p. 57. 
n. I). 

9 KhutuwSt (sing, khatwuh) a footsteps, steps, 

10. Mubin = obvious, evident, dear, patent 

II Vtduif (pi. a da) a enemy, foe, adversary. 

See at 2:97, p, 46, n 4. 

r 

12. Ya'mttru a he commands, orders, bids. 
instructs <v. iii. m. s, irnpfci, from 'umuru [ <irnr], 
to orier, to command Sec 'amr at 2:109, p. 52. 
no. S). 

13. S6' (pi. "itswS') = evil, bad, foul, offensive 
thing*. Here it means sinful acts. 

14 f-'a(mha' = alrotity, monstrosity, abomination, 
adultery, fornication. 



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Sural 2 : Al-Baqarah [Part Uai'i 2] 






^ 5j£ii"^U what you do not know. 









] 70- When it is said to them: 

"Follow 1 

what Allah has sent down", 1 

they say: 

"Nay, we will follow"* 

that which we have found v 

our fathers on." 

Is it so even though 

their fathers had been 

not understanding 6 anything 

nor receiving guidance? 7 

17 L And the simile 
of those who disbelieve 8 
is like the one who yells 9 
to that which do not hear 10 
except a call 1 ' and a shout 12 - 
deaf," dumb," blind. 1 ' 
so they do not understand. 



^ £***§ 1 72. O you who believe, 



\r** 



J2« 



I i.e., lo say that n has been made lawful or no 
lawful by Allah, while the cases might be juil 
opposite, Talamuna - you (ail} know, arc ai 
or (v. ii in pi unpfi't from 'uHttm [ 'ilm], I 
know. See at 2:22, p 12. 5 5: 2:40, p. ,17, n, 12). 
I. Ittabi'H = you all Inllowjv ir in pi imperative 
torn muhik'u. form ViJI of tabi'u [uibu'/inbuafil, 
w follow. See ilfaba'i al 2:102, p. 48, n 1 ) 

I i.e. ihe Quran and the non-Quranic wahy 
the Prophet {futiituli} 'Aniala - he sen! down (v, 
iii. m. s past in for IV of nn&ila. See al 2 22, p 
lt.Jl.9). 

J, Naltbi'u - wc follow (v, i pi. impfcl. from 
ttlttha u, form VJJI oi tain u Sec n. 2 above). 

5, W/arynd = wc found (v i. pi past in form IV of 
hitt'i \Uifw\, to find. 

6. i.e.. not undemanding .iryihinj; of ifw/tfd and 
mailers relating thereto. Ya'qilunu = they realize, 
understand, comprehend <v. iii m pi irnpfct. 
from "uquki I'nif!]. lo understand. 10 be 
reasonable, to have intelligence). 

7. Vahladuna = [hey receive guidance, ore on live 
right Irack (v in in pi impfct from ihtudii, fritin 
VI 1 1 of hudd | hudy/tiudun/'hiddyah], to guide, to 
s,how the way. See muhimtw at 2:16, p. 9, n.B). 

8. ic. (hose who disbelieve and Ihc one who calls 
ihein 10 ihe milh The expression "and the one 
who calls them to Ihe truth" is lefi wit here to be 
understood from the sequence of Ihe ayah (see 
Tafrir al-Jatdlayn on, Ihe 'dyah}. 

9, Yan'iqU = he cries, screams, yells (v tit. m. s. 
impfcl from na'utfa [ na'tf/im"iif\. to caw, lo cry. 
to (cream), 

10, i.e., a flock of sheep or Collie that do no! 
understand. Yasma'u - he hears {\ iii. m s. 
impfcL from sumi'ti [ sum' /timet' /sainHah 
/mejtma'], lo hear. Here the word has the meaning 
of understanding. Sec Auati'tid al 2:9.1. p. 44. n 
S> 

I I Da'd" ipl "ad'iyah) - coll, prayer, invocation. 

12. NidS' (pi nitid'dt) - shoui. call, address, 
public announcement). 

13. Summ (ling iuudim) deaf. See al 2. IS, p. 10, 
,i I) 

14. ftukm (sing, ubkum) = dumb. See al 
2: IS.p 10. n. 2 j 

15. 'limy (sing, until) = blind. See m 2:18, p. 10, 
n. J), They ore called deaf, dumb and blind not in 
the physical sense but in the sense of iheir being 
incapable of listening to the Irulh, ur speaking it 
out and seeing if through. The meaning is made 
clear by the last clause: "so they do not 
understand". 



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Siiml 2 : Al-Baiftirats |Part (Jm'i 2) 



SI 



w'ji^- 



UA 



«VjL?Olj 






j^L. 



4i5l 






eat of the good things 1 of 
what We have given 2 you 
and be grateful 1 to Allah, 
if il is Him that you use to 
worship. 4 

173. He has but prohibited* 
for you 

the dead animals* and blood 7 

and meat* of swine' 

and what has been offerd'°up 

to any other than Allah 
but whoever is constrained," 
not being outrageous 12 
nor being aggressive,' 1 
no sin will lie on him. 
Verily Allah is 
Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 

174. Those who conceal' 4 
what Allah has sent down 15 



-MJ' & of the Book 



I Tayyibdl a pleasant thing*, good ihings. i.e.. 
lawful things. 

3. ft#zaqtt& m we provided, bcslowcd, gave (v, i 
pi, past from rowan [fifq\, to provide with the 
means of subsistence. See al 2i3, p, 5, n.4; 2:57, p, 
26, n 14), 

V L'lhtuni = you all express gratitude, give 
thanks, be grateful (v. ii m. pi imperative from 
fiitikarti [flnikr/shukrun\. to [hank, to be grateful. 
See imlikuruna at 2:52, p. 24. n 13), 
4 Ta'buJuna - you (all) worship, serve (v. ii, m, 
p! Tinpfct. from m nbu4a {"ib&tah f'ubadali 
/'itbudimii], lo worship. See ntihada al 1 :S, p. 2, 
n.1) 

5. Herrama = he prohibited, made unlawful, 
proscribed, made sacred/inviolable (v, lit, m. s 
pasi in form [1 of tyurmnu/iitirumu [hiritwn\,lQ 
forbid, tu be unlawful, prohibited). 

6. Maylah = corpse, tarcass. dead animal, i.e. one 
not slaughtered according to Ihe requirements of 
Islamic law. exclusive of fish. 

7. Dam = blood, i.e.. spilled blood. 
S. Lahm (pi. \uhHni) - meat, flesh 

■> Khiwzir ikhimtiiir) = swine, pig, The 
prohibition applies lo every port of swine. "Meal" 
here stands for the animal as a whole. 

10. L'hiila = it is offered up, slaughtered in the 
name of, cheered, exalted [v. iii. in s. past passive 
from halla ltuil!\, to appear, come up, show 

II i e . constrained either by hunger and want of 
lawful food or by an mimical force, Idtitrra = he 
is constrained, coerced, forced, compelled, 
obliged (v. iii m. s. impfcl. passive from ij/fumi, 
form VIM of jfeirru [diurr], io harm, impair). 

12- Baghin = outrageous, oppressive, desiring, 
coveting (active participle from btighH \bu%hil'\. 
to seek, desire). 

1.1. 'Aifin (pi Wiln) = aggressive, attacking, 
enemy (aciive participle from Wd I'odw], to run, 
to speed), 

l-l VnklumAno - they conceal, hide, secrete (v 
iii m pi. impfct from kuttimtt [kulmAitm&n], lo 
conceal. See at 2:146, p. 70, n. 3). 

15 i.e.. about the prophecy and description of (he 
lasi Prophet io come. 



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Sural 2 : At-Bauaruh [Part Uuz') 2] 






^ jit, , s *i 

* ■ ('■* " 



-Ull i 



'2c 



Pi 

"•1' 



and purchase 1 therewith 

a little value,' 

such people do not devour 1 

in their stomach 

except fire; and 

Allah will not speak to them 

on the Day of Resurrection, 

nor will He purify* them: 

and they shall have 

an agonizing punishment. 



j^iJl£j\ 175. Those are they who 
have bought' error 6 
for the guidance 
and punishment 
for forgiveness. 
How enduring 7 will they be 
on the fire! 












176. That is because Allah 
has sent down* the Book 
with the truth;* 
and verily those who 



1. Yashtarina = thev purchase, buy. sell (v m in 
pi impfel from ishhtrii, fomi VIII tif thari 
ltltirnn/shira'\, lo buy, let sell. See VtMfirri! at 
2:79, p. 37, n. S). 

2. Thaman (pi tfrAmiin/iiiAfflinuA) = price, value 

i. Fd'£rif£nw = they eat. camume. devour l.v lil 
m. pi. impfel from 'attain [ ulcl /iw"tut\. tool. 
See tuia at 2:S8. p. 27, n I) 



4. i.e., Allah will not absolve them from I he if sins. 
Yutoklci - he purifies, vindicates, declares just, 
increases (v iii. m. s. impfel. in from It of oiki 
[iaka'\, lo grow, be pure, just. See at 2: 129, p. 61 
n 9) 

Sishtaraw - they bought, purchased, sold (v iii 
in pi .past from i.thttinl fortn VIM of fhttru Sees 
n. i above), 

6 Datatsh -emit, wrong way 

7. AM 'ttsbara = how enduring, how very patient 
Verb of wonder from fabciru [sabr]. to haw 
patience. 

S Ntmata - he sent down (v in ro s pa^t in 
form It Of ni'ttiiu [iiuzhI]. 10 tornc down See it 
2:97, p. 46. n. 5). Ayah* 174-176 speak about 
those of the People of the Book who conceal, alter 
or misconstrue the truth revealed by All ih, 
particularly about the comine of lite last Prophet 
and his description given in their book 

9. i.e.. the unbelievers will be duly punished 
because they disbelieve even after ihe Book of 
guidance has come id thetn with ihe truth and 
with all Ihe evidences, and as sueh their disbelief 
is wjih knowledge and on purpose. 






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Sural 1 : At -Btuiarah IPWt (Jilt 2] 



83 



.^1&\j\Jj,-l'\ disagree 1 about the Book 
^^ i^jf are in a rift 2 far away. 3 
Swtian (RuM'} 22 
^"JJJ^ 177. Piety 4 is not 
'SUjLj'<JyJt that you turn 11 your faces" 
J^^lii jIj towards the east 
v>«J l j ^d the west, 
$ l$j but piety is in 
^\ r J^U- those who believe in Allah 
>ST#j$1j and the Last Day 
^-iipif^Jj and the angels and the Book 
^SW and the Prophets; 
JQi Jl*j and give money, 
**£ij£ in spite of love for it, 






'-hti^iSp to relatives and the orphans, 
^j-^^ ! jC<!§^5 the poor 15 and the wayfarers 9 
jiffiS and the beggars, 10 
^—jGjjf jj and in manumitting slaves; 11 
ijLlJl ^Ljtj and perform 12 the prayers 
i^jji Jlij and pay the zakdh; 
^Jjtjtf} and who fulfil' 1 
^j^ji their covenant 
'jA^jtlij when they make one, 



1 i.e disagree in the matter of altering and 
misinterpreting the Book. i.e. the Tawmh 
Ikhiala/u - they disagreed .differed from one 
another, were at variance (v. iii. m. pi. past from 
tkhtalafu, form VIII ui khalafa lUtotf], lo follow, 
lo succeed. Sec at 2 1 13, p. 34, n, 5). 

2 StiioSq {sing. rlitiftjtih) = rift, split, fissure, 
crack . See 01 2: 1 37, p, 65, D. 5. 

1. tfa'td 1 (pi. bit 'at Iti) - far away, remote, distant; 
i.e., they arc in a nft and far away hum the truth, 

4. Birr - pie'y- righteousness, reverence, 
kindness, charitable gift The 'Ayah has in view 
(he lews and the Christians who used lo (urn 
respectively to the west and the cast during 
prayers, each claiming that piety lay in doing so 
The ayah says that true piety lies not in turning lo 
the east or the West but in believing Allah and 
faithfully following His directives and in the acts 
and qualities enumerated in this ayah, 

5. 1'iiwutlu iiunulhiiuii - you (all) rum (v. ii. m, 
pi. impfct from walla, form II of waliya, to be 
close, lo follow; the terminal ruin being dropped 
on account of the particle 'tin used before the 
verb. See wiilUn\ 2; 1 41, p. 67, n.2). 

6. Wujuh (sing, wtijh) = faces, countenances. See 
at 2: 1 12, p. 53, n 7). 

7. likiiKi ttl-fjiirb,i ( accusal! vc/gcrtiuve otdhawi 
at'Qurbd, Sing dhS iti-ifurba\ - relatives, 
relations See dhi ui-qurbu al 2:83. p. 38. n. 10, 

8. Masakin (sing, rttiskin - poor, humble, 
miserable See at 2:81, p. 3.9. n. 2, 

9 tba al-snMi = wayfarer, traveller. 

10, S&'titn (accusative/genitive of Sa'iiun. sing. 
«ii/) = beggars, petitioners, questioners. 

1 1 Mitfdb (sing, raqabah) = necks, shoulder. In 
its plural form {hq&b) the word means slave: ft 
ul-nijiih is a phrase meaning (awards or for 
manumitting slaves. 

12. 'AqSma - he properly performed, set upright 
(v. iii. m. i past in form IV of qoma. to get up. 
stand up. Sec yuqimSrul at 2:3. p. 5, ft 3} 

13. Md/una (sing, m&fin) = those Who keep (heir 
promise, fulfil their covenant or agreement (active 
participle from aw/a. form IV of wo/a[w<ifa'|, to 
be perfect, to fulfil). 



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Sunit 2 : Al-Baqamk (Part Uuz>) 1} 






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and are patient 1 

in adversity* 2 and affliction* 

and in the thick of fighting. 4 

Those are they 

who speak the truth;' 

and those people, 

ihey are the godfearing. 6 

1 78. O you who believe, 
prescribed for you is 
the taking of equal reprisal 7 
in respect of the murdered 8 - 
the freeman* for the freeman, 
the slave IB for the slave, 
the female for the female; 
but if anyone is excused" 
on behalf of his brother 
of a thing, 

then the pursuing 12 is to be 
according to equity 13 
and the payment to him 
is to be made in good grace. 
This is a mitigation 14 



1, Sabirin (accusative/genitive of svlnrun, sin^ 
jiiiiM - the patient, the persevering, the steadfast, 
the forbearing. Active participle from inborn 
[svtitv]. to be patient See at 2:153. p. 73. K I) 

2. Ba'tt' = adversity, distress, difficulty, poverty, 
.1. Qarri' - affliction, suffering, illness, distress. 
i Ba'% = the thick of fighting, extreme torment 

5. i.e., they arc true in their assertion ol piety 
fadaou - they spoke the truth, proved ihemsclvi 
true (v, iii. m pi. pasl from stutat/ti [judtrf/jjifyj, to 
speak the truth. Sec suiliaii at 2:23, p. 12. n. 10) 

6. Mutlaqun (sing, immaqin) - godfearing, those 
who are on their guard Active participle froi 
Mhiqti - to Ik.- tin one's guard, to prolecl oneself 

form VIII Of niiij:; \;ni,j;'uiif,i\,ih'.. 10 }:u;int. 

protect. Hence maitaijin means one who protects 
oneself against Allah's displeasure 
punishmcnl by scrupulously obeying 
injunctions and prohibitions, hence godfearing 
Sec mmmtfin at 2:2, p. 4, n 4). 'Ayahs 2:2 an 
this ityuh 2:177 constitute a definition of 
godfearing person {multmjin). 

7. Qiiii = the rule or equal retribution, reprisal, 
retaliation, equipoise. 

S {talld (sing, qmifl - killed, murdered persons 

(passive participle on the scale or fail from 

tjatalii), 

9. liurr (pj. m ahrar/f. iuini'ir) = freeman 

10 'AM (pi 'abidVubdfa/'ihdun/'ibdd) = slave 
serf, servant. This part of the ayah has to be 
understood along with 5:45 (jurat al-Md 'idahy 

1 1. 'Vfiya — he is excused, pardoned, forgiven (v 
iii. m. s. pasl passive frojti 'nfti | 'ujWqfBI to be 
effaced, wiped out, obliterated, See I'fS at 2:109. 
p. 52, n, 5) 

12. Ittiba" ■ pursuing, following up ( form V I It of 
udii'a [liihaVtabd'ah}, to follow, Sec itlaba'u al 
2:102. p. 48. n I). 

13. i.e., of demanding blood-money, Ma'rif = 
usage, generally recognized or accepted practice, 
good, beneficial, fairness, equity (passive 
participle from 'ur<ifa [iim rifaH/'irfan], 10 know) 



14. Takhfif = mitigation, redaction, lightening 
(verbal noun in form 11 or khaffa, to he h flu. lose 
weight See yukkaffafa at 2:86. p. 41, n I), 



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Sural 2 : At-fiaqurah [Pan (Jul) 2| 



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^HJj fejJi from your Lord and a mercy; 
but whoever transgresses 1 
after that 3 shall have 



■'? ****** 
3JLAj& an agonizing' punishment. 






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179. And there is for you 
in the taking of reprisal 
[the saving of] life, 4 

O you men of understanding, 
so that you may 
be on your guard. 5 

1 80. Prescribed for you is, 
when death approaches 6 
any of you, 

if he leaves a fortune, 7 

the making of bequests* 

for the parents 

and the relati ves' J 

with justice and equity, 13 

as a duty on the godfearing. 11 

181. So whoever changes 12 it 



1 flada = he overstepped, transgressed, crossed 
ihc limits., acted outrageously Iv. in. in. s. past in 
form V||( nf Wd | '«4v»\, t° run - speed, gallop 
Six mluduna at 2:61, p. 29, n. 11). Transgression 
here means taking Mood money and then killing 
ihc murderer, or killing the murderer and then 
extorting blood- money from his kinsfolk. 

2. i.e., after excusing or after taking blood-money 

3. 'Afim = agonizing, excruciating, extremely 
painful. 

4. because it will prevent people Troth fighting 
and killing one another 

S v . Taitaquna - you (all) be on your guard, protect 
yourselves Iv. ii. m. pi. impfel. from Ulaau. form 
V!!! nf iyaijt} \tetit/yAvitjiivtttt\, to guard, to 
protect. See at 2:21. p. 1 1. n. d: and mullaain at 

2 2.p4, n.4) 

o fiadara - he attended, was present (v. iii. m s, 
pail I torn hutlur) Here htttiam has the sense of 
coming near, approaching. 
7. Khayr (pi, khtytir/akhy&e) = fortune, wealth, 
property, good thing, See at 2: 105. p 50, n :l 

8 Waiiyyalt {pi. Kusayu) = will, testament. 
bequest 

9 Aqmbin (pi. of aqrtih [uqrnbiti\\ in the 
accusative /genitive) q relatives, relations. 

10 Ma'rif - good, beneficial, fairness, equity, 
usage, generally recognized or accepted practice 
(passive participle from 'urate [mu'rifah/'irfiin], 
to know. See at 2: 1 7$, p. $4. n 13}. 

1 1 Muttaql* (pi, in the genitive of itmuaain. 
active participle from itsaaii - to be on one's 
guard, to protect oneself, form Vtl] of tviUji 
''u,<jiAfiirtiK(<j|. to guard, to protect. Hence 
muiieifin means one who protects oneself against 
Allah's displeasure and punishment by 
scrupulously obeying His injunctions and 
prohibitions: hence godfearing. See at 2:2. p. 4, n. 
4|. The injunction nf this 'ayah has been 
superseded by the rules regarding inheritance laid 
down in 4 1 1-12 (jurat ai-Nisa") and the right of 
making bequests is now limited to one-third of 
one's properly. 

12. ilatictalu - he changed, altered, substituted (v. 
iii. rn. s past in form 11 of badaiu , to change, 
replace. See at 259. p. 27, n 1 2J-. 



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SHral 2 ; Al-Btiqarah |Part [Jni> 2] 






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after what he had heard 1 of it, 
then of course its sin 2 lies 
on those that change' it. 
Verily Allah is All-Hearing, 
All-Knowing. 

182. But he who fears 4 
from a testator 5 
partiality 6 or wrong 
and hence settles 7 
between them," 
then no sin will lie on him. 
Verily Allah is 
Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful, 



Section (/?«*«') 23 

iji.s^jjiLiJis 183. O you who believe, 
< * fi ^*~ } f- v-? obligatory is made* on you 

?£2tf fasting 10 
J^ v^alli as it was made obligatory on 
&■* y Uj* those before you, 
5jii;>liJ that you may be godfearing. 



1 Sami'a a he heard, liMcncti {v. iii in, s p 
from .tiim'/sama'/.tumii'iihfmtifma' Sec utiiu'nij 
at 2:93, p. 44. n &}. 

2 'llhm (pi Hrfrdni) := sin, crime, offence, wrong 
Steal 3:85, p. 40. ft. 2, 

* 1 uMt&ttfftro = they change, alter, substitute (v 
iii. m. pi. impfct. From badAtla. form II of 
htiiiala Sec baddala ai 1:59. p 27, tl 12 and at n 
I : mi [In- previous page). 

4, Khofa = he feared, was afraid of (v. iii. m. t. 
past from ktuiwf See nl 2:38. p. 20. n 3). 

5- M&fbi = leslator. Active participle from 'ttwiS, 
form IV of wttiil. 

ft Jaaaf- partiality, deviation, mistake. 

7. 'Ailaha = he set right. Milled, adjusled (v. iii. 
m. s. pail in form |V of lultiha | .lultih/sul&h/ 
nwsialwh], to he good, proper* See mastih&nu at 
2:1). p. 7. n. 10; *fld lulahU at 2:16o! p! 75, n. 
10). 

8, i.e., between the beneficiaries or the panics 
concerned. 



>, Kutiba = it is written, put down in writing, 
inscribed, prescribed, made obligatory (v. iii. tn i. 
past pmrin VB from katubtt [katbJkitbuh/kil8bah\, 
[o write) 

10, Siyura - fast, Tasting, abstention Technically 
II means abstention from food and drinks and sex 
from early dawn till sunset with intention lo fast 
'Ayuhs IS3-1B? speak about fasting ami these 
should be understood and interpreted together, 

It Such as the followers of Prophets Musi and 
"Isa, peace be on them. 



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SSrat 1 : AlBai/arah [Pan {Jul ') 1] 



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j'jjJL^&SI 184. For days numbered. 1 
fn-Q^ir* So whoever of you is 

ill 1 or on travel 1 

then a number 
^lii^ of other days, 4 

And on those who 

use all their strength 5 to do it 

is a redemption - 

the feeding of an indigent 7 ; 

but whoever willingly does" 

good, 9 

that is better for him; 

and that you fast 10 

is better for you, 

if you are aware [of]" 



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1 85, The month of Ramadan 

is that 

in which was sent down 12 

the Qur'an, 

as guidance for mankind 

and as clear proofs' 3 

of guidance and Criterion. 14 



1. Maduddt (ling, ma'dudah) m numbered, 
countable, a few, some. The period is in fact 
specified in '4yaA 185, i.e.. the monlh of 
Ramadan So this, ay^h 183 is lo be understood 
log fiber wilh 'Hyah I S s 

2. Maid Wjnarda/iwGde) - ill. sick, diseased. 

3. i.e., travel up lo a prescribed distance which 
allows reduction in praying i,t/oir). 

4. i.e., ihe same number of days lhal are not fasted 
during ihe monlh of Ramadan due to illness or 
travel 

5. yuri'^iSiM = they can just do, they cxcit all their 
strength to do [see Al-Isfahini. At-Mufrcidul. p. 
312] (v iii- m. pi. impfcL from 'aiiiqti. farm IV of 
latja [Jttivy], to be able). This provision is for :he 
□Id and ihe infirm, just as ihe previous clause 
provides for the sick and those on travel. 

6. FidyaM (pi. fidyuiffidan) - redemption, ransom, 

7 i.e.. 10 feed one indigent person for each day 
nut fasted Mistdn (pi. muSkSti) - poor, indigent, 
Sec at l:IT7,p.83,iL». 

8 Tafawwn'a = he voluniecred to do, voluntarily 
/willingly did (v. iii. m. s. past in form V of Jd'fl 
(Ian'] lo obey, be obedient). Sec 21 2rl SK-, p- 74, 
n.S. 

Q . i.e., by increasing Ihe extent of redemption, 
e.g., by feeding a larger number of indigent 
persons 

10 7aj<3m(j[/iaJ = you (ail) fast (v. ii, m, pi. 
impfcl. from wiww IfQwm/siy&m], in fast, to 
abstain from food, drink and sex. The terminal 
nun has been dropped on account of the particle 
'an coming before (he verb). 

1 1 . Ta'tamuna = you tall) know, are aware of (v. 
ii. m, pi. impfct. from 'alima. See at 2:22. p. 12, 
n 5. 

12. i.e., ihe beginning of the process of sending 
down the Qur'Sn lo me Prophet was made during 
the month of Ramadan, in a "Blessed Night" 
Uavtnh mubaraiak), the "Nighl of Power" (Uiylni 
uL-qadr), See 44: J and 97; 1 'Oinilfl m it was sent 
down (v. iii, rn. s. past passive from amolc. form 
IV of lunula [nuzOl\- '° co™ 11 down, descend). See 
at 2:4, p. 5, n. 6. 

13. Bayyin&t (sing, bayyinah) = clear proofs, 
indisputable evidences. See at 2:87, p 41. n. 6 



14. Furtjin 
evidence. 



criterion, distinguishmenl. 



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88 



W.ir 2 : Ai-Baqarah {PanUai') 2\ 









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So whoever of you sights' 

the month 

shall fast it through; 

but whoever is ill 

or on travel, 

then a number 2 

of other days - 

Allah intends 3 

for you ease/ 

and does not intend for you 

hardship 5 - 

and that you may complete* 

the number and 

proclaim Allah's supremacy 7 

in that He has guided you 

and in order that you may 

express gratitude. 9 

1 86, And if there ask* you 
My servants about Me, 
[teN] I am indeed close by; 10 
I respond" to 
the prayer 12 of the supplicant 



I Skahida - he saw. witnessed, lighted (V. lit. m. 
s. past from s/iahad. lo see, to witness. 

2. 'Iddah - number; legally prescribed period; 
t.e ., whoever is ill or on travel and does mil fail, 
should fast at another time for an equal number or 
days not fasted during the month of Ramadan tm 
account of illness or travel. 

I iutidu = he intends, wishes, desires (v iii m 
s. impfct. from 'airada. form IV of rudu [ruwd]. in 
walk about, search See 'oeiidti at 2:26, p,l4. n. 
5) 

4. Ymr - ease, facility 

5, 'Vsr = hardship, difficulty, distress. 

6 Tukmitu\nti\ * you tall) complete, make full (v 
it. m impfct from tikmulu. form IV of 
kuHulti/ktimulti/kimuitii \luimiit/kumut\, lo be 
complete, perfect The terminal nun is dropped 
here on account of the panicle turn (signifying an 
imperative) used before the verb. 

7. Tvkabbtrit[nu) = you (all) proclaim supremacy/ 
greatness of, magnify, extol, glorify (v ii . m pt 
impfct frnm kahburct. form U of kalmru/iahura 
\kuhr\. to be big,, to grow The terminal nin is 
dropped here on account of the particle Un 
(signifying an imperative) used before the verb. 

8. Tashkuruaa = you (oil) express gratitude, be 
thankful, be grateful (v. ii. m pi impfct from 
shakara [shakrtshukrim\, to thank, express 
gratitude. See at 2; 52. p. 24. n. 1 3. 

t. Sa'ata = he asked, enquired, (v. iii. m. s. past) | 
.fit Wtnaf 'ulak/uu «(] Sec "i* 'nM al 2 : 1 OB. p. 5 1 . 
B.4, 

10. Qarib - near, close by, not far away; i.e., 
close by in knowledge and hearing so that there is 
no need for intermediaries. 

II 'Vjibu - I respond, I answer <v i. impfct from 
uj&ixi. fonrt IV of jabti \jwvb], to travel, to 

explore. 

12. Da'wah m prayer, coll, supplication, 
invocation, appeal, 



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Siiruf 2 ; AlBaijtiffth [Pan (/« ') 2) 



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when he calls' on Me. 
So let them respond 2 to Me 
and believe in Me 
so that they may 
follow the right course. 1 
1 87. Lawful is made 4 for you 
during the night of fasting 
to go in 5 to your wives. 
They are your covering, 
and you are their covering, 6 
Allah knows that you 
use to betray 7 
yourselves; 

Hence He forgave 8 you 

t 
and exempted you. 

Now then join 10 them 

and seek" for what 

Allah has ordained for you; 12 

and eat and drink 

till distinct becomes 13 to you 

the white thread 

from the black thread 

of the dawn. 



1 Db'S * ni i' originally fiF} - he called, prayed, 
supplicated, invoked (v. iu. m. s. put), 

2. YasiajTbuinu) - they respond, answer, listen to. 
defer to (v. iii ra. pi impfct from ismjibn, from 
X ofjtiba. Sec 'u/ibu in the previous clau&c of this 
'dyakp. 88. n. 1 1 P. Listening or responding io 
Alton means believing in Him, refraining from 
associating any partner with Him and abiding by 
His injunctions and prohibitions. 

3. YarSkmtOna - they follow Ihe right course, are 
well guided (v, iii m. pi. impfct. from raakadu [ 
ruxlirf]. to be on the right Way). 

4. 'VhiUa - he or it is made lawful, made 
permissible (v. iii. m. s post passive fruin tihulln. 
from IV of holla \l\nlUhiil\, io unbind, lo solve, lo 
be lawful Sw also' at 2173. p, 81. n. 10). 

5 Rofoth = obscenity, indulging in the 
satisfaction of desires, going in lo one's wife for 
sexual enjoyment. Initially eating, drinking and 
having sex were allowed only helwecn sunset and 
the "iiM" prayer The Hyuii modi Ties Ihe rule and 
makes these lawful nil the break of early dawn. 

6 tib&s (pi. tilbisah) - doming, apparel, 
costume, garment, dress, covering. Husband and 
wife are each a "covering" lo the other in [be sense 
thai each is a means of tranquillity lo the other 
and each protects the other from unlawful 

./MlllllUl 

7, JiiAAranrina a you (all) betray, deceive, dupe 
(v, ii. in pi impfcl. from ikhlanu. form VIII of 
khitrtv Ikhnwtt/kfiiyiiinihl, lo be treacherous ), 
S TSfia - he returned, turned to (v. ii, hi, S, pail 
[ from lawh, ttiwhah I maldb)). Technically it 
means, in respect of man, to turn to Allah in 
penitence and with resolve lo reform, and in 
respect of Allah, lo turn in forgiveness and mercy. 
See ->l 2:37, p. 19, n 14. 

9 ,-t/o m he effaced, wiped out, obliterated, 
exempetd, relieved (v. tii m. s. past [from 
'ufw/afS'll 

10 HtitArru = you (all) join, touch, be in direct 
contact, have sexual intercourse (v. ii. m. pi. 
imperative from bdihurti, form III of bashara, lo 
peel, to scrape off, to be delighted). 

1 1 IblaghS = yuu (all) seek, desire, wish Tor. 
aspire after (v. ti_ m. pi. imperative from tbianhd, 
form VIM of bagtvi [bugha'], lo seek, lo desire]. 
12, i.e., or offspring. 

U, Yataba\-yana\ii\ m il becomes distinct, clear, 
evident (v. iii. m, s. impfct. from tubtiyyurtet. form 
V of bma \lxi\iin], to come out, be clear, be 
evident. See mbnyytutti at 7- 109, p, 52, n. i. 



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90 



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Sural 2 : AtBatjtirah [Port (-/i/r'l 2) 



' r 'C2\'\^J^ then cpmplete 1 the fasting 
'ijf^i till nightfall; 
^+j L ^£'ij an d do not go in to them 
jy£&£?\j while you are in isolation 1 
'-^yjfj in the mosques. 

^z These are 
«iiijjji the bounds 1 set by Allah, 
■C^jtjii'Xi so do not go near 4 them. 
^JL'C^^S Thus does Allah make clear 5 
^^ '«~ ,; His revelations 6 to men 

*-*^ so that they may be 
l§P ^j*^ on their guard. 7 






188. And do not devour* 
your wealth 
as between yourselves 
with injustice 9 
nor make an offer 10 with it 
to the adjudicators" 
\Xj ijis>l5l in order that you may eat 
a part of men's properties 
sinfully 
and you are aware [of it]. 






^i&j-mi 



Jril 






1. 'AtimmH - you (all) complete, make full (v. ii. 
in pi imperative from utammii. form |V of 
uimmti, lo be complete. See 'uMmmu :n 2:124. p. 
58. ti. 14 

2. -Akifittt (sing dtr/l = (hose in a stale of 
isolation or uninterrupted devotion and prayer 
(active participle from 'uttifti | ukSf}. 10 elm}; lo. 
ts devote or apply oneself to Sec ukifm at 2:125. 
p, 55, n.6}. The reference here is lo the acl of 
uninterrupted prayer and devotion in ihe mosque 
il in i up the closing days of Ramadan The 'ayah 
makes II unlawful Tar one during such slay in the 
mosque ii'tiiaf) to go out and have sexual 
intercourse wilh one's wife even during the night 

3 ffu44d (sing Weft = edges. limits, bounds, 
borders, boundaries. Allah's injunctions, legal 
punishment. 

4. i.e., do not go near to violating the 
prohibitions. LA Taqrabi - you (all) do not go 
near, approach (v ii. m. pi imperative 
| prohibition) from ijiirubti [sfurh / maqrabah], to 
go near, approach 

5. Yubayyinu - he makes cleat, elucidates 
explains, expounds (v. tii. m. t. impfct. from 
btivymni. form II of b&na [tmyun\. to be plain, 
clear) See at 2:68, p, 32, n. 7 

6. Ayi! (sing 'Ayah) m signs, tokens, marks, 
units of statements in the (Jur'an, revelations 

7 i.e., against pitfalls and violation of Allah's 
injunctions. Yettaifjina = they are on their guard, 
protect themselves (v. iii. m. pi impfct. from 
\aaifd form VIII of waifu [waqyfwiuSytih\, lo 
guard, to protect. See muaauna at 2:21. p. II, n 
6). 

8 La Ta'kuiU = you (all) do not eat, consume, 
devour (v. ii . m, pi. imperative (prohibition J from 
'akaia [ukht/ma'kal\. to eat. See kuii at 2:58, p. 
27.nl).), 

9. i.e., unlawfully, such as by stealing, usurping. 

taking forcefully or deceptively. BSlil u false. 

baseless, invalid. 

10 i.e.. of bribe or illegal gratification. (Li)+ 

Tuiili m you (ail) do (not) make an offer, east 

down, deliver, adduce (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 

[prohibition), from adia. form IV of daii 

\JaIn | . to drop down). 

1 1 . ffukkam (sing. Mkim'\ = judges, adjudicators. 

rulers (active participle from hukumu [hukm\. lo 

pass judgement). 



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Sural 2 ■ Ai-Bmtumk |Part Uuzl 2\ 



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Section (Ruku ') 24 

it^j0 189. They ask 1 you 

^-»V^ about the new moons. 1 
liJy^ji Say: They are time-lables3 
Xiiv^ui for men and the pilgrimage. 

,S£5ij;tS jL in, that you enter 5 the homes 
^jj*£ C7i by the backs 6 thereof, 
jJf^dj but piety is 
l/-^o- in him who fears Allah, 7 
i_j^4Uj;!j Enter your houses 
^j^ by the doors" thereof; 



ijiijAjij and fear Allah 






,^=*LJ so that you may 
p-^ijj^JJu be successful. 10 
ijgSj 190. And fight" 
^^r"<4 in the way of Allah 
-jS^u^jft those that fight 12 you; 
\jxJjSij but do not be aggressive. 13 
ZJ$7&\ Verily Allah docs not like 
if the aggressors. 



££iij 191. And kill them 
^^lII*- wherever you find 14 them; 



1. Yai'aluna = they ask. enquire [v ill m pi. 
impfcl. from Hi'aia [$u'&V)w.i'ataUtas'al], to 
ask. S« NB 'ataita at 2. 134, p. 63. n. 9), 

2. "Ahitlah (sing. Mdf) = the new moons, i.e.. the 
cyclic appearance of the new moons, 

3 Mav&qit (sing, mtyai\ - appointed limes, 
dates, meeting points, deadlines, timetables. 

4 mrr s piety, righteousness, reverence, 
kindness, obedience, charitable gift. See 2:177, p. 
83, n. 4 This part of the "t'lyuh disapproves of a 
practice of sortie pre-lslamic Arabs who used to 
enter their homes by the backs thereof after 
having resolved on pilgrimage or 'umrah but 
before having performed it. 

i Ta tu[na\ - you (all) come, enter, go in (v, ii. 
IB, p|. impfct. from "a/u \'wyfity&nfma'tuh\. to 
come, to arrive The terminal uiin is dropped on 
account of the particle 'an coming before the 
verb. Sec alayla at 2: 145, p. 65, n 4 I. 

6 ZuhOr (sing- zrihr) a backs, rears, rear sides. 
See at 2:101, p 47,0-6). 

7 Htt/i/ii - he was on his guard, protected 
himself, feared Allah (v. iii. m. s. post in form 
VIII of wm/4 [wut/yM-iifAyuh], to guard, to 
protect. Sec •iiiiuojunu 31 2: 1 ST. p. W. n. 7). 

8 Abwtib (sing, btlbj = doors, gales, sections. 

9, Itiaqil s you (all] be on your guard, beware of. 
fear (v. ii. m. pi. imperative. See n, 7 above). 
Hi Tujlihuna - you (all) succeed, be successful, 
prosper (v. ii m . pi, impfcl, from 'aflaha. form IV 
aiftiitiha j /a/It), to cleave, split). 
I I Q6Mu a you (all) light (v. ii. m. pi. 
imperative from gululu. form III of qatuta [tjail]. 
to kill, slay). This Ayah gives permission for the 
Muslims to Tight on three conditions : (a} that the 
fighting must be in the "way of Allah", i.e., for 
the sake of serving the cause of His din: (b) that 
the opposite side must be "those that fight you", 
i.e. tbey must have started fighting, and (c) thai 
the Muslims must not be the aggressors. 
12. Ymf&tilAmi ■ they fight [v. iii. m pi. impfcl, 
ftom niitalu See no. 1 1 above 

13 La le'ttidQ = you (all) do not commit 
aggression/ If unstress /overstep / act outrageously 
(v. ii. m pi imperalive from I'tudd. Tor VIII of 

udt'i [ Wh'|, (o speed, race) See yn'tudunu at 
2:61 , p. 29. n. 13) 

14 riitiijiftnm ■ you (all) find, meet (v. ii, 
in pi. past from thatnjti [ihaqf], to meet, be 
skilful I 






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92 



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Sural 2 A l-Bwjanih | Part {Jiu ') 2| 



p^Er'J 







^ >> f* 



&4i 






-r: '*c-v 

- I Jpw J 

i "if ' K- 

4la 



and drive 1 them out 

from where 

they have driven 2 you out; 

and persecution* is 

worse than killing. 

And do not fight 4 them 

by the Sacred Mosque 

unless they fight you 5 

therein; 

but if they [so] fight you 

then kill them. 

Such is the retribution 6 

of the unbelievers. 

1 92. But if they give up, 7 
then of course Allah is 
Most Forgiving, 

Most Merciful 

193. And fight them till 
there be no persecution 
and the worship* becomes 
for Allah [Alone]- 



I 'Akhtyti = you tall) drive oui, turn oui. oust, 
dislodge (v. ii. pi. pi. impernlive rrom ukliraja. 
form IV of klttirujii \ktiiiru;\, to go OUI. See 
uUiraju a! 2:22. p. ll.ri. 12). 

1. Akhraju = they drove urn, lamed oui, ousted, 
dislodged (v. lii. m. pi. past from ukhrnju. See a. 
I above). This 'iiyuA and the previous 'Ayah make 
it clear lha! the permission io Tight was given 
after the Makkun unbelievers had already sinned 
Tighting against (he Muslims and had driven ihem 
Out from their homes. 

H. Filnah (pi. filan) = persecution, trial, test, 
intrigue, dissension, discord. See at 2:102, p. 48. 

n. 7, 

J /J (tiqilUS - do not Tight (v ii m pi. 
imperative {prohibition). m<n qiLiutu, form HE of 
qtiiuiti {qufl[. to kilt. See aitiila at 2: 190. p. 9 1 . n. 
II). 

5. YaqSsUina = ihey fight (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. 
from qatala. Sec n. 4 above and m 2. WtJ. p 91 , n 

ill 

6. Jaid" = rctribulion. repayment, recompense, 
requital, 

7. Inlahaw - they came Io an end, gave up, 
terminated, desisted, ceased. Stopped (V, iii. m, pi, 
past from ittuihti, form VIM of naha [nukw/nahy[, 
to forbid, ban). 

8. Ptit (pi. udyan't = religion, fuilh. creed, 
worship. Here the sense is that of warship and 
sincere submission Io Allah (See At -Bohr, tl, p. 
246; Tuf.iir at'JaMloyit on the dyuft). 






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Sural 1 Al-Batttiwit [Part Uiu'] 2| 



93 



in^ 1 ^ So if they give up 1 
jj^M then let there be no hostility 2 
JfYi except against 



O^i** 1 the transgressors. 1 



lri.;;3 [94. The sacred 4 month 
t$*fr)\ is for the sacred month, 

o^TAij and the sacred things 5 
j°u*» counterpoise [one another]. b 
^^iulj So whoever makes an attack 7 



on you 

^*~ Li-uili attack* him similarly 
>~£i>-il»'U a s he made the attack on you. 
ifli'jSjVj And be afraid of Allah 
*ai^i 'j-rf-iij and know that Allah is 
^l^ulii ^ with the godfearing. 10 

^iulj 195. And expend" 
^iW-J in the way of Allah; 
Lh^j and do not throw 1 " 
£*$. yourselves 11 with your hands 
^U! to destruction.' 4 
i^t-'j And be generous; 



1. Inlahaw = sec n 7 on the previous puge 

2. 'Udwdn - hostility, hoslile acliOIL aggression, 
enmity. See al 2:85. p. 40. n..V 

3. Z&timin (accusative /genitive or nJlimiin, sing, 
.vii'init - transgressors, wrong-doers (active 
participle of mtama [zalm], lo transgress, do 
wrong. See al 2; 35. p. 19. ni). Here 
"i tan stressors" mean ihose who do not give up 
and conlinue righting. 

4. Hardm = sacred, inviolate, forbidden, 

5. Hurum&t (sing, humuth) = sacred: things, 
forbidden things. 

ft {toflf ■ the rule of equal retribution, reprisal. 

retaliation, equipoise, counterpoise. See at 2; 1 78, 

p. 84, n 7 

7 ftadti = he committed aggression, did a hostile 

act. overstepped (v. iii. in s. paSI in fomt VIII of 

\i da ( 'aA'l, to run, to speed.. See at 2: 178. p, 85. 

n. I). 

B. I'iadu - you (all) make an aitack (V li. in pi 

imperative from i'tadd\ 

9 IttatjH — You tall) be on your guard, prolccl 
yourselves, be afraid of (v. ii. m pi imperative 
from iltuc/tl form VIM of wnqa ( wuqyfmqayuh'i, 

10 guard, Safeguard. See al 2:24. p. 12, n 12) 

10. Multaqin ( accusative/genitive of muttnijun. 
sing, mullttqiii) = those who are on their guard. 
godfearing. Active participle from Hwq&- See n. 9 
above and al 2:2, p. 4, n. 4) The 'ayah sels I he 
roles of guidance for the Muslims in case ihe 
Utitjelievei s commit an aggression on ihem during 
the sacred months or in the sacred precincts, 
directing Ihem 10 counterattack ihe aggressors at 
the same time and in the same place as equal 
reiribufion iqifHi). 

I |. 'AtiftqS = you (all) expend, spend, lay out (v. 
it. m, pi imperative from imfasja . form IV of 
iwfuqa [tiufnq], lo be used us. lo be spent). 

12. IA+ lulqti - do noi throw, ihrow away, cast 
(v. ii. m. pL imperative from 'utqii, form IV of 
(uqiyn {liafrAutirwrtuqunl, lo meet encounter). 

13, The Object of "throw", i.e. "yourselves", is 
silcnl here See Tufslr at-Bttydiim, I. p. 109; also 
TtifsXr itl'JMttiyn). The meaning is: Do not ruin 
yourselves by not spending in the way or Allah. 
i.e. jihad, or by nol joining il. 

14 Tahtukah - rum, destruction. 

15 'AhtinS = you (all) be generous, be good (v. 
ii. m. pi imperative from ahsanu . form IV of 
huiima [huxn], to be good, handsome]. 



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Siintl 1 : Al-Buoarak fPart [Jm') 2) 



C^ '^k\j^ verily Allah loves 
jf the generous. 1 



... M'i r 
it* Ad*J jU 



>i^t 






■* "-tf ''' -* 

;'■ ? -f 

M _ , 

: ** -t 

-j. i -., , 

i ■* * 

in-* 1 * 



196. And perform fully 2 

htajj and 'umrah for Allah. 

But if you are barred, 1 

then make whatever is easy 4 

of the sacrifice ; s 

and do not shave* 

your heads 

till the sacrifice reaches 7 

its slaughtering place;" 

but if any of you is ill 

or has on him an ailment" 

at his head, 

then the redemption 1 " is 

of fasting or charitable gift" 

or making a sacrifice. 1 ' 

And when you are in safety, 11 

then whoever prefers 14 

being on 'umrah 

till the hajj, 

then make whatever is easy 



I MukfWn [accusative genitive of mtih.unun 
sing. muhsiir) - lhase who do right things, 
beneficent, chamablc, generous (active participle 
from "thmn, form |V of hasu/Ul [husn]. to be 
handsome, lo b« good, See at 2:58. p. 27, nil) 
2, AtiaimO = you {all) complete, make full. 
perform fully (v. ii. tti. pi. imperative (rum 

iimmirm, form [V of tamnut. to be complete. See 
at 2:167, p, 90, n. I. Sec alio 'ataitvw at 2:124. 
p 58, n 14), This and the succeeding urate nil 

'•iyah 20.1 describe the rules of performing: ha/f 
and 'umrah dunng the time of peace as well as of 
war. 

3 i.e „ if you are batted by an enemy from going 
lo the Ka'ha Or entering Makka 'Uhyirtum - you 
were barred beleaguered, besieged, blockaded, 
restrained, contained, encircled (v ti in p|. nasi 
passive from 'oAfrra. form IV of huMtrti (JrairJ. 
lo surround, blockade), 

4 htaysara = it became easy, comfortable fv hi. 
m. s past in form X of yuSMi [yasarfyar]. to be 
easy See yusr ai 2: 185, p, 88. n 4). 

5 Had} = whal is offered as sacrifice, sacrifice, 
the &acrtficial animal 

6 Ls+ luhtiou a you tall) do not shave tv. ii. m. 
pi. imperative [prohibition) from ha\aqa \kulu] 
lo shave} 

7 Yablughalu] = he or it reaches, arrives at, 
comes lo. matures, ripens, comes of age. attains 
puberty (v. Mi. m. s. inipfci. from balagha 
[bal&gti], to reach). 

S. i.e.. the animal is sacrificed Muhisl - ifie pface 
or sacrifice, t.c , the Ka'ba precinct, the valley or 
Mina or, if besieged, the place of besieger, 
o Adhtitt = ailment, injury, trouble, offence. 

10 Fidyah (p|. fMydt / /idem') = redemption, 
ransom See at 2:184, p. 87, n. 6). 

II Sadaqah I pi. s<idvtft}() = charitable gift, 
charily, voluntary contribution, alms 

11 Nasuk = viLrifiiv. niual. especially dunng the 
pilgrimage. 

13. 'Amititum - you (all] became safe, were 
secure (v. ii m pi, past from mmmi | 'amu/timiln 
]. to he safe), 

14 Tamatia'a a he preferred, enjoyed, relished 
(V. in m. S. past in form V of annua 
[mat /ipiuifj'J. 10 take away). Technically mmaiiu' 
means performing umrah and hajj in one go 
during the sacred months, but relinquishing the 
slate of ihrdm after performing 'amnili but again 
assuming the state of shrmn for performing hajj 



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Sural 2 : At-Batfumh IPart (/«£') 2) 



95 



+ r. 



ti^ltas of the sacrifice; 
■*f.ris> but he that cannot find [it],' 
&»s£feJt s hall fast three days 
S*^ during the tyajj 
^— 3 and seven [days] 
yiii when you all have returned, 1 
-&, that is ten in full. 
i>»Mp This is for the one 
''>•*,* whose family are not 
"V? 1 ^- dwellers' by 
/JIIj-lL^i the Sacred Mosque. 
'*m&$& And be afraid* of Allah 
and know that Allah is 






.^ji 



-MS \' 



% 



^-j'iiijt 



.-_ 



severe 5 in retribution. 6 



Section (Rukft') 25 

j£jf 197. The pilgrimage is 

^jLTJ^ii during well-known 7 months. 

u*j So whoever 

xj->*i»>» makes incumbent 8 therein 

.ijii the pilgrimage 

lij^i shall not enjoy sex, 9 

,^j^Wj nor indulge in sins, 10 



I it. cannot find ihc means or the animal for 
making the saenfice. Yejid(u\ = he finds, gels, 
comes across (v. iii. m s. past From wujiidn 
\--unu,t\. to find). 

2. Raja'tum = you (all) relumed, came back <v ii 
m. pi. past from fUl/a'u |ny£'|. to come back. See 
wini ' tiHcJ al 2: 1 8 . p. 1 0. n. 4}. 

3. Hnrfiritd] (accusative /genitive of liudiniit, 
sing Aiirfir) = dweller;, residents, present {active 
participle from hudafa [hudSr], to be present, to 
be settled). The rtile laid down here is tor 
mm residents of Makka and dees not apply to [he 
residents thereof Offering a sacrifice is incumbent 
on non-resident pilgrims pcrfonmnp (a) hajj of 
MiwSH*. i.e.. performing umruh and htijj in one 
go hut relinquishing the slate of rjirawi after 
performing 'umnth but assuming the state or 
ihrtim again Tor performing ha;), or (hi My; of 
ijirtin. i.e., performing 'timmh and '/<ij/ in One go 
but remaining in the stale of ihre'un all through. 

4. InagS = Von (all) be on your guard, protect 
yourselves, be afraid of (v. ii. tn. pi- imperative 
(rum iiwqd. form VIII of waail ( wai/yftv'<iiiyli). 
to guard, safeguard. See at 2.18", p. 9 1 , 0- 9) 

S Shadid (pi. ashidda'IshidaiTp severe, hard, 

stem, rigorous, strong, forceful, intense, See 

'rtiWd at 2:74, p35.n.2. 

A. VijoA ■ punish mem. retribution, infliction of 

punishment. 

7. Ma't&mM ( f. sing, malumoh) = known, fined. 
Jetrmincd. also, a.* noun, known facts, data, 
informal i on). The months of huj; aie the 10th, the 

I I in and the first 13 days of the i2lh month or the 
lunar calendar. 

8. i.e.. Sin iii.il K resolves on by making niyyak and 
pulling on ihriim. Farads - made incumbent, 
detremined. imposed, undertook the duly of. 
decreed (v. iii, m. s. past tromfurd). 

9. Rafath = obscenity, indulging in tin.- 
satisfaction of desires, going in to one's wife for 
sexual enjoyment See al 2:187, p, £9, n. 5. 

10. Fuiuq n sinfulness, iniquity, outrage. See 
fitsiq&n at 2:99, p. 47. n }j and/drifin at 2:26, p. 

14.(1.7. 



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<W 



Sural 2 : Al-Buaurah [Pan<Ju7'l 2] 

1 Jittit = quarrel, quarrelling, dispute disputing 









J^-^Vj' nor engage in quarrelling 1 

Efl^ during the /m//V 
iy*Jutij and whatever you do 
of good 
Allah knows it. 
And take provisions along, 2 
f^j*--^J^A but the best of provisions' 
is£i\ is godfearliness;" 

and be afraid* of Me, 

O you men of perception. 6 



1 98. No sin' will be on you 

that you seek* a bounty 

of your Lord. 

So when you have emerged* 

from "Arafat 

then remember 10 Allah 

at the Sacred Spot 11 - 

and remember Him 

as He has guided you, 

for indeed you had been 

before it 

of those gone astray. 11 







2- Tozawwadii = you (all) take alnnp pro unions. 
tK supplied with provisions (v n. in p| 
imperative from lu;uwwudu. form V nii/n | -rind], 
to make provisions 

.1. Zirf (pi u.'ivitiffi.'H'h/u/i) - pinviuons. 
supplies. 

4. ruyju-d = eodfcarliness, devotttness, piety. The 
best of pfftviMiini is gudfcarlincss because il 
protects one from being involved in sins, renders 
ares huj) and other deeds exclusively far Ihe sake 
Allah, making way for Allah's pleasure and the 
accumulation of merits thai are the real provision 
for ihe hereafter 

J, luuqu + mi (originally hi) =You (all) be on your 
guard, protect yourselves, be afraid of (v. ii, m 
pi. imperative from innijti. form VIII of wtujt) < 
wu^yAvitytiyuA), lo guard, safeguard, Sec ai 2:24. 
p. 12, B. 12). 

(j Alb&b (sing lubbi - sense, reason, intellect, 
intelligence, understanding, percepliun, heart, 
core, gjst essence 

7. Juit&ft = sin. fauli, misdemeanour See 2:158, 
p, 74. n.7 

8. Tabtagk&[nti\ a you (all) SrtJt. desire, aspire 
after, strive for (v. ii in. pi. impfci from ibwgtid. 
the terminal nan being dropped on account of ihe 
panicle "tin used before ihe verb: form VIII of 
imghu \bunhtj'\. lo seek, lo desire. Sec ibinghu at 
3: 1 87. p. 89. n II. 

9. Afadlum = you (all) emerged, moved oui with 
force, streamed, overflowed, became nn>IU (v. ii. 
m. pi. past in form IV of faJa \ftiyd/fuydan\, lo 
overflow, inundate) 

10. VdhkurU - you (all) remember, call lo mind, 
i.e., make prayers and glorify Allah (v. ii. m, pi 
imperative from dhakmra [dhtkr/tadhk»r\. to 
remember See at 2:40. p. 20, n. |0) 

11. Al-maih'ar at-haram - Ihe sacred spot, i.e. 
Muzdalifsh. a valley between 'Arafat and Mini 

12. prfJJTn(accu&Uive/ genitive of dfiltun, sing. 
ttiill) - those who go astray by abandoning 
monotheism and the "straight path" enunciated by 
Allah. (Active participle (ruin ddlta 
[dalat/dtit&lah). lo go astray, lo stay, to tTT, See at 
IJ7, p 3, n.7). 



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Sural 2 : Al-Batftirah [Pan tJui't 2) 



97 



^fl__ji;_5 199. Then emerge 
•i^Si 1^*1^ whence emerge 



jL^ji the people 



SHj^LltJ and seek 2 Allah's forgiveness, 
df^i Verily Allah is 

jjij- Most Forgiving, 

•^jL^j Most Merciful. 

v.^iijp 200. Then when you finish' 

T^ y ;'■ your rituals and worship," 1 

iii ij^=» ii* reme mbe r A 1 1 ah 

^jli as the remembering of yours 

^^'J&l of your fathers 5 

j^j.Vj\ or a more intensive 6 

v^=>i remembrance, 

jil^lf^-j But among men is such 

^jJ>"^ J" as says [only]: "Our Lord, 

t-^JSI^L^Ii give us in this world "; 

-*JUj and he will not have 

if-^M^J in the hereafter 
ion. 7 



&s ^ Jf any port 



i t 



^^i^j^t'j 201. And of them who say: 
&\'X%i "Our Lord, give us 



1 , 'AjfdH - you tall) emerge, move out, overflow 
(v. ii m pi. imperative from 'u/O^u, form IV of 
!&4ti tyuydffaydun], to overflow, inundate. See 

a/aiflum a! 2: 191. p. 96. n. 9). 

2. Istaghfiru = you (all) seek forgiveness (v. ii. ni 
pi. imperative from istaghfarti. form X of ghafiira 
[xhafr/nuixtifirah/xhufrdn], to forgive. 

J, (itstliiyium = you finished, completed, 
accomplished, concluded, carried out, executed, 
performed, effectuated, discharged, decided, 
determined, decreed (v. it. in pi. past from autf/l 
fytfdVT). to finish, to settle. See tfadu at 3:117. p. 
55, n. 9). 

4. Manasik (sing, mansik) = riles rituals, 
ceremonies, ways and formalities or worship. See 
112:128.. p. 61, n.5. 

5. The pre-ls!amic Arabs used sing the gloiy of 
their forefather* after having completed the 
formalities of hajj. This Viwuj asks to substitute 
thai practice by the practice of singing the glory 
and praise of Allah in a more intensive form. 

6. Aihadd - more intense, more intensive, 
stronger (elative of ihadld. See at 2:74, jt, 35, n. 
2)- 

7. Kkaiaq - portion, men I. See at 2:102. p. 49. n. 
2, This section of the 'ayah points out the folly of 
seeking only worldly benefits and favours front 
Allah. The right course, as pointed out in the next 
'ayah, is to seek Allah's favours and mercy for 
both worldly and spiritual benefits and His 
forgiveness and denial bliss for the life in the 
hereafter. This should be done especially on such 
rare and solemn occasions os Iwjj and 'umnih 



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n 



Ssitvt 2 ; Al-Baqarah [Part U«i. ') 2] 



■^•jli^ in this world good 
£*-*^fUJ and in the hereafter good 
bij and save us 1 from 
Ijyj jUM j. th e punishment of the fire," 

^^j? 202. Such ones will have 

■ " ■ V 1 a dividend 2 

(jr-ftL' for what they earned; 1 

iafj and Allah is 

3y^^- quick 4 in taking account. 

3fljJ£»i £•$ 203. And remember Allah 

c-'ijj*- jl.ij during days numbered;' 

l«**o— » but whoever hurries* 1 off 

i£*-* 4 in two days 

^-^Pl" 5 *-* will have no sin on him; 

j^ifj and whoever lingers on,' 

*&^v% no sin will be on him, 

iJ&$ for such as fear* Allah. 

ffl$L% And beware' of Allah 

^i=u1ipUtj and know 10 that you shall 

ij^lk^ to Him be all mustered up. 1 ' 



I Qi + »& - save us, protect us, <v, \i. m. 

imperative from wtit/H [wa^yAmii'iyuli}. to save, to 

protect) 

2. i.e., men is and happiness in this world and in 

the hereafter. Na?tb (pi numb /awsiba ' /aruibah) 

- share. sh«e of profits, dividend. 

1. K<aab6 = ihey earned, acquired, gained (V lit 
m. pi. past from taTnAcf \tmh\. to gain, to cam. 
Sec knsublum a! 2: 134. p, 63, n,8), 

4 Sdrf' = Quick, fail, twin, prompt, e*pcdinoLu, 

r.i|ii;l 

5. MadOdat (sing nvx'duduk] = numbered, 
countable, a few, some. See at 2:184. p 87, ft. I). 
The tiyah speaks aboul the Slay at Mini after [he 
tenth day of Dhu ai-ftijjah {Yawm ut-IVuhr). This 
stay, as mentioned later on in the dyuh, may be 
for two or three days {Ayyim at-Ttuhriij) During 
this period one should, besides performing Ihe nle 
of throwing stones ai the appointed spots, 
remember Allah and pray as much as possible for 
His forgiveness and mercy, 

6. Taajjala = he honied, hastened, rushed, 
speeded (v. iii. m, s. past in form V of njilu [ 

ajal/ajaluli], to hurry, lo hasten). 

"?. i.e., lingers on till the third day. Ta'akhkhara 
= he delayed, lagged behind, lamed, lingered (v. 
iii. m, s. past in form V from the rool akhr). 

6. i.e., these roles are for ihose who tear Allah and 
perform hajj in all sincerity and sumbission to 
Him, InaqS - he wo* on his guard, protected 
himself, feared Allah (v, iii m. s. past in form 
VIP of Waifii [wiiqy/wiifiiyah\, to guard, lo 
protect. See St 2; 1 89. p, 91 „ n. 6), 

9 Iftuqu m you (ail) beware, be on your guard, 
fear, be afraid of (v. n m, pi. imperative front 
tftagA form VIM of waifii ( wiiay/wiqAytifi). to 
guard, safeguard. See al 2:24. p. 1 2, n 1 2). 

10 ftamu = you (all) know, fee aware of (v, ii m. 
pi, imperative from ttlima fitm\, to know. See 
fa iamunti at 2: 1 3, p. 8 n, 6), 

J I , i.e., on the Day of Resurrection . Tuhsheruna 
■ you (all) are mustered, gathered, assembled, 
brought together, rallied (v. ii. m, pi. impfct 
passive from hushum [fouAr). to gather). 



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SifUt 2 -Al-Biujitrult | Part (Jut") 2] 
I 



99 



j^Uj! £.-*j 204. And of men is such one 
&^djL*Z as impresses' you his talk 
C Ji t^JS^ about the worldly life 

'^iU+lsj and he calls to witness 2 Allah 
-*^j jUj^ about what is in his heart, 

^j*j but he is the fiercest 1 
Jf^ ^U«ji in disputing. 4 

d5 l *!i 205. And as he turns away 

u£VT<£ j^- he hastens"* through the land 

14j -LJi to c reate m i sch ie f* the re i n 

O^U-^U+jj and to destroy 7 the crops 8 

j^fj and cattle. 9 

tJii Sij And Allah does not like 

I mischief-making.' 



li^iib 206. And if it is said to him: 

*M^ "Fear" Allah", 
■JJi^j arrogance 13 makes him stick 

JH'\ to sinning." 
. i* '11 So enough for him 14 will be 



^ J r*r 



«1 Hell; and evil indeed is 



0iliJi that resting place 



in 



Ku^tAu a he impresses, amazes, pkases, 
dchghls {v. iii. m. s. impfct from 'ajaba, forni IV 
of ujifKi t 'ajab\. w wonder, to marvel). This and 
the following Iwo Hyah.1 Speak aboul some of the 
characteristics of ihe hypocrites [mimfifit/Sn). One 
such nmm'ifiq was Al-'Akhnas tbn Shanq at 
Madina whose conduct was exactly as il is 
described in this and Ihe following dwjtj. He used 
10 show himself up as a Muslim and was 
impressive in his talk, but secretly he carried on 
hostilities against the Muslims and destroyed their 
crops and cattle. 

2. Yush-hida - he calls as witness, cites as 
witness, fy. iii. m. s, impfct,- from 'aihhada, form 
IV of shiihida [ sfmhSd), to witness. 

3, 'Aiadit [pi Sudd) = most quarrelsome, fiercest, 
most stubborn, most obstinate. 

4 Khisam = eonUovefsy, dispute, feud, quarrel. 
altercation. 

5, Sa'4 = he ran. hurried, speeded, moved quickly 
(v. iii, nr s. past from jo'y, to run. to move 
quickly). 

6. Yufsuta\v\ - he creates mischief, spoils, 
destroys, undermines, ruins, corrupts (v. iii. in s. 
impfct, (com 'afsadu, form IV of famdn Ifasad], 
to be bad. spoil) 

7 Yahlitalu] = he destroys, he ruins [v. iii in. s 

unpfct. from oAloht. form IV of hataka 

[hailt/hu\k/iahiulmh\, to destroy). See taMukab at 

2:195, p 93,n. 14. 

K. Harlh = tilling, tilth, cultivation, plantation. 

arable land, crops 

9 Nasi- offspring, progeny, descendants, 

10. Fasad = mischief-making, decay, corruption. 

depravity. 

1 I . tftaqi ■ fear, be afraid or, beware, be on your 
guard (v. it. in. s. imperative from itlttqe), form 
V]|| of Mima [waqy / wiq&yah\, lo guard, 10 
protect). See trw^u at 2:24, p. 12. n. I 2. 

12. *lsak = power, strength, honour, fame, 
renown, pride, arrogance, self-respect 

13. 'Ithm (pi, 'dthAm) a crime, offence, wrong. 
sin, sinning. See at 2:85. p, 40. ft, 2- 

14. Haib = reckoning, sufficiency, enough. 

15 Bi's = evil, wretched 

16 Mihdd = bed. resting place. 



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too 



SHina 2 : Al-BaitamH [Pan the ) 2| 



j*<j^' Z-s?j 207. And of men there is 
-.ijjj such one as sells 1 himself 



i ""^; seeking 1 

Jtf^Li^ the pleasure 1 ' of Allah. 

jj*j "iLfj And Allah is Most Gracious 4 

i) ji^jt to the servants. 



^L/J^^M 208, O you who 
IJL& believe, 
i-JU f 



-J'^ ljUit 



enter 3 into Islam* 



Ijl^ intoto;' 



'j*;*-i^j and do not follow 8 
' -^T. the footsteps 9 of satan. 






Verily he is for you 
a patent 10 foe," 



jd3 



>Cip 209, But if you slide off 
S^o* even after that 
*iil»- there have come to you 
■^J' the clear proofs, l3 

then know that Allah is 



ink; 



^■^4s* All-Mighty, All- Wise. 



^$£&$k 210. Do they wait 14 but for 
^'rWtt ji that Allah comes to them 



I Yashrt = he sells, buys, purchases, barters lv. 
iii. m. s. impfct. from shard [ thirun I jWraj. lo 
sell, vend, buy) Sec shuruK at 2:102. p 49. n 1 
The 'dyafe has reference id such persons as 
sacrifice id) iheir earthly possessions and interest 
far the sake of Allah. I*ke Sub.iyb ibrs Sirtan who 
was barred by ihe unbelieving Qurayash leaders 
from migrating to Minima unless rw surrendered 
lo them all his earnings and savings made at 
MjUu and he ctiil so for making Ihem let him 
migrate lo Madina. See At-TafsJr uiKabir V 
222. 

2 Ibtigha' ■ to seek, desire, long for, hanker 
after, aspire afte*. strive for. {verbal noun in form 
V]|| of bttghu [bu/;ha\. to Seek See lAiopM al 
2:187, pS9.n. II) 

1 Murddt (stng nuirdah) = pleasures, means of 
affording satisfaction. 

4, fta'uf = ijwsi gracious, benevolent, 
compassionate, kind, merciful (active participle in 
the scale of fail, signifying intensity of ihe 
altnbute from tn'ufa/ra'itfa Ira'fah/ra'dfah], to 
show mercy See at 2; 143, p. 69, n. 6, 

5. Vdkhulu ~ you (all) enter, go in. join (v n m 
pi imperative from dakhutu [dukfiul]. to enter. 
See at 2:S8. p. 27, n. I) 

6 Silm = Islam. 

7, i.e., abide by and practise all ihe injunctions 
and prohibitions of Islam. KSffah = in two, 
entirely, in entirely, all without exception, one and 
all The word is derived from iaffu \kuff}, to 
desist, lo refrain: nod rfic meaning is lhat it is tuch 
OS does not admit or division Or partition 
8 £4 + totlabi'6 ■ you (all) do not follow (v n 
m. pi. imperative (prohibition} from uinbaa. 
form VIII of labia iiaba'Aubd'uhl Co follow 
See at 2 168. p. 79, n. 8) 
9 Khutuwit (sirtg, khatwah} = rooisteps. steps 
See al 2:168, p, 7°, „ .ay 

10. MubSn ■ patent, manifest, obvious, evident, 
clear. See at 2: 168. p. 79, ft, 10. 

1 1 . 'Aduww (p|. u'dd") ■ enemy, foe, adversary 
See at 2:°7. p. 46. n. 4. 

12. ZalaUum = you (all) slipped. Stumbled, slid 
off, made a mistake (v. ii. m. pi past from calla 
[oilf], to slip. See awlla at 2:36. p. 19. n. 6). 

13. i.e., the Quran, funnah and Islam Bayyin&l 
(sing bayymah) a clear proofs, indisputable 
evidences. See at 2:87, jj. 41. n. 6. 

14. Yanturisna = (yunfajirimer) m they (all) wail, 
await, look on expectantly (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. 
from nazaru [nuKir/manarr]. to see). 



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Sural 2 : Al-Biuiurak |Part Om') 2] 



101 



^)Cjif5sJJ*4 in ihe shades' of the clouds' 
■^=^l1J'j and ihe angels [too], 
r J*i\j?i and the matter was settled?' 
-liUjj And to Allah 

i^ shall be referred back 4 
$ Jj&l all the affairs.' 

Section (flwfcu ■} 26 
ji- 211. Ask 
if£-3& the Children of Isra'il 
Jf^'S how many We gave* them 
SsfeteGfi? of a clear 7 sign;* 
jpji; and whoever changes' 
$ 'Ci Allah's grace 
'JfCijJ^ after that it had come to him, 
iiOji then Allah indeed is 
^wUiijLjwi severe 10 in punishing." 

'$ 212. Embellished 11 
\jj& ti$L for those who disbeleive" 
Qj]fi_£ji is this worldly life, 

5jtj«Zjj and they deride 14 
i^l^jji^i at those who believe; 



I fatal (sing, futlah) = shades, canopies, lenls. 

2. fVftmndm {pi. ghama'im) - clouds See al 2:57. 

p. 26. n. 10 

J, Qmfiya = it is .willed. adjudicated, decreed Iv. 

iii in. s. pail passive from tjuda \ifiiijii'\, to settle, 

to decide See acidic « 2:117. p 55. n 9) The 

reference heic is lo (he Pay of Judgement Sec 

.19 75 (I** 1 "<'yu!' of sural tdZumar,. 

4. Turja'u = she or it is relumed, sent back. 

referred back (v iii. f s impfct, passive from 

raja 'a [ruju'\ . V> «mm) Sec yarji 'ana at 2: 1 *. p. 

tO. n. 4. 

$. X'miir (sing. urnA = affairs, mallere. issues, 

concerns. 

6 'Alayna+hum = we gMt + them («. i. p] pasi 
from &1&, fomi IV of 'aid \itydn/aty/ma'luh], 10 
come. 10 bring V 

7 Huwinah I pi. bayvinali = clear, clear proof, 
obvious, manifest, Set bayyiniit al 2:209, p. 100. 
n.13. 

8 'iyah (pi 'dyi/r) b sign, evidence, proof, 
revelation, unit of liic Qur'anie ie*l, See at 2: 106. 
p. 50, n. d The dear signs mentioned here mean 
the miracles thai Allah caused lo happen al the 
hands of their Pronhets as well as the revelations 
contained in Ihe T'>mh and the tn/il. 

9. Itailtlala - he changed , altered, substituted, 
exchanged [v. iii. m. s. past in farm II of hadula. 
Id Change, to replace). See al 2: 181. p. 85. n. 12 
Allah's "grace" means here Islam and changing il 
means to be ungrateful and mm unbeliever (sec 
14:28,). II. also means tampering with Allah's 
revelations, particularly those contained in the 
Timih and ihe fnjtl about the coming of the last 
Prophel and the covenant to follow him. iSee 
AITabari. Tafssr. II. 331-333. At Bohr at-Muhh. 
II. 350-351) 

[0 Shadid (pi iixhitidii'lshidi~id)= severe, hard, 
siem, rigorous, strong, forceful, intense See al 
2 I96,p.!)5, n 5. 

1 1 'Itjdh e punishment, retribution, infliction of 
punishment. See at 196, 95. n. 6. 

12 Zuyyina = he or it is embellished, decorated. 
decked, adorned, beautified, ornamented (v. iii. 
m. s. past passive from tayyaiui, form II of zBna 
\iu\n\, lo decorate, adorn) 

13 Kafaru m they disbelieved, denied, became 
ungrateful (v, iii. m pi- past from kafaru \kufr). to 
cover, to hide See at 2: 6, p. 6, n, I ) 

14 Yaskharuna - they deride, ridicule, laugh al. 
mock, scoff at. jeer (v. iii m, pi impfct. from 
mkkira [sukhrfmuskhttr]. to ridicule, dende 






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102 



SBrut 2 : AlBtiifaruii [Pan iJu? ') 2\ 



\y3 Zrz*A \j but tJi ose who f e a r ' A I iah 

J^iy shall be above 2 them 

iliiftf £ on the Day of Resurrection; 

&U.**s an< i Allah bestows^ 

'SXiJ* on whomsoever He will 



yl— J-_nju 



Stf*" 



<JrJJL*i 

' "ffei 



. " > ^ *" » * ^p , 






.1 



:Dl 






>3 # ,^ 



without calculation. 4 

213. Mankind was 

a single community,' 5 

then Allah sent" the Prophets 

as deliverers of glad tidings 7 

and as war iters;" 

and He sent down with them 

the Book with the truth 

that He (or it) might judge" 

between the people 

about what ihey differed 1 " in. 

And there did not differ in it 

save those who were given it, 

after there had come to them 

the clear signs," 

being hostile, 13 one to another: 

but Allah guided 



I ittaqaw ■ [hey were on their guard. Ihcy 
protected themselves, feared Allah (v. iii. m. pi 
post from ittaifii. form V[[| of u-u^i 
\waify/wiijil)ttAh\, to guard, lo proles! See at 
2:103. p 49, n .5. 

1. i.e., the godfearing and righteous people will 
be above ihe unbelievers in position and rewards 
on the Day of Resurrection even though [he latter 
ridicule them and look down on them in ihis 
woridiy life. Pawq m above, over, on lop. 
3: Yarzuqa m he provides, provides with the 
means of subsistence, bestow* (v, iii m. s. impfci. 
from ntiatfn See ruruifnti at 2:3. p, 5, n. A. 
4 tyuSb = calculation, accounting, appraisal, 
reckoning 

3 Ummah (pi 'wmiun) = community, people, 
nation, generation, species. cla«, category, one in 
whom all the good qualities are combined This 
lerrn has been used in the Qtir'an in at leail ten 
shades of meaning (see At-rnrfirJbJdi, Biud'ir 
tic .11, 79-80). Mankind was a single community 
of faith. La, in Islam and tiw$d Subsequently 
they deviated from the true path and differed in 
their faiths and beliefs So A I [ah sent Prophets 
and Messenger to guide [hem io the true din 
o Ba'atha - he sent, dispatched, raised, raised up 
[v. iii. rn. s, past from bti'th, 10 send, to raise. Sec 
ba'iithrtA al 2:56, p 26, n. 6). 
7. i c. Ihe good tidings of salvation and of Ihe life 
of eternal Miss in paradise for the believer and the 
righteous. MubashsHlrfn (plural, accusative 
/genitive of mtiliiihuhirun, sing. mtihafhsHir) = 
bearer of deliverer of good ndings (active 
parliciplc tfom baahthura^ to announce or 
propagate glad tidings. Sec bwihir at 2:1 19, p. J6, 
n. 9andt«£rrirto(-at2;ISS, p. 7H. n |J) 
fi it. against Ihe consequences of sin and the 
punishment awaiting Ihe sinner in the hereafter. 
Miiiuthtrin (accusative/genitive or muurfkirtin, 
sing irittntlhit) - warncrs, (active participle from 
tuidhtim. io warn, form IV of ntuitrum. 
[ihnlhr/nudfrur). lo dedicate, to make a vqw See 
tiudMrs.1 2:1 19. p, 5b, n 10). 

9, tkhlalefu = ihey disagreed, differed (v. iii. m 
pi pasi from ikhmlafu. form VII I of khtilufti 
{kfralfl, to follow, to succeed. See mkhlalifStut at 
2:l76.p 8.1, n h 

10. Uayyindt ■ clear signs, indisputable 
evidences, see ut 2:209, p. 100. n I J, 

12. Baghy = envy, hostility, transgression, 
outrage 



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S&ftit 2 : AI-Bat/awb (Part (J«? > 2] 



103 



ij-iil^JH those who believed, 
*J££XQ about what they differed in, 
/*jiL^i^ to the truth by His leave; 
J^.^iij and Allah guides 
ZCtjte whomsoever He will 
&")& d! to a straight 1 path. 



■•< j* -» i 



j3 214. Or do you think 2 
iiJiLjbJ that you will enter paradise 
l*|j and there has not yet 
joli come upon you 
k$& the like of those who 
£±X^\'£. passed away 3 before you? 
t^li There had afflicted" them 
iHiJljitpf dire poverty 5 and distress 6 
UJjj and they were convulsed 7 
jjij^ so much so that there said 
lfiX> jji-5' ^ e Messenger and those who 
42ii£££ believed with him: 
'$£$ "When is the help of Allah?" 
jt££$$\. Ah! Verily the help of Allah 
i£j is close by. 



1. Uuuaqim - straight, upright, erect, correct, 
right, sound, proper. (Active participle from 
istaq&ma, form X of qamu). The "straight path" 
means the way specified by the Our' in and the 
Prophet It is the way of mvdyd (monotheism) and 
of [slam. See at I 6. p. 2. n. i. See also at 2: 142 

2. ilmihtum = you (ill) calculated, feekoncd. 
took into account, considered, [ho Light, deemed 
(v. ii. m. pi past ftom tfiatibu[hiab/kisab). to 
MUM. 10 calculate) 

3. Khalav - they retired into privacy, secluded 
themselves, were alone, became vacant (v, iii, in 
pi. past from klmlA [khuta'fkhtM\. to be empty, 
vacant, alone; figuratively. 10 go out of sight 
hence to pass. away, Seen 2:14. p. B, n. 8). 

4 Atonal- she or ii touched, afflicted, affecled (v. 
iii. f. s, post from nurj.ru (mouAiwti). to feel. 10 
touch. See tcfrwsu ai 2:80, p, 37, n. 8>. 

5. fio \i' = adversity, distress, difficulty, poverty. 
See at 2:177. p. 84, n 2. 

6. BwrrVJ" ■ affliction, suffering, illness, distress. 
See al 2:177. p. 84. n. J, 

7. Zufeiin ■ they were convulsed, shaken, 
trembled, rocked (v. iii. m. pi, past passive from 
itrfaila [atlailtthflil&lt\y The 'Hyah is a reminder 
to the Muslims that the way of the faith and the 
truth is not always easy and smooth and thai al all 
lime* the followers of Ihe truth have been faced 
wiih trials and iribulUions It also highlighls the 
fact that the attainment of the highest bliss of 
paradise requires supreme perseverance and 
struggles. 



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104 



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Sural 1 1 Al-Baqarah IPuMAiz'.) 1\ 



to 



215. They ask 1 you about 
what they should spend. 2 
Say: "Whatever you spend' 
of wealth, 4 

that is to be for parents 
and the near relatives, 5 
the orphans and the indigent, 
and the wayfarer. s 
And whatever you do 
of good, 
Allah indeed is 
All-Aware of it. 

216. Enjoined 7 on you 
is the fighting, 

and it is loathsome* to you. 
And maybe that you detest* 
a thing but it is good for you; 
and maybe that you like 10 
a thing 

but it is bad" for you; 
and Allah knows, 
while you do not know. 11 



I. I'm 'n/iioa = they ask. [hey inquire {v. iii. m pi 
impfcl, Own iti'ala [Fu'al//Kii.s"atuh/ltU'iit]. to 
ask. Seenl 2: 189.' p 91. n I). 

2- i.e.. in charily Yunjiq&na = they spend, 
disburse, expend (v iii. m pi. impfct. from 
'anfiiqa, form IV of nvfaqa \nafau]. Id be spent, 
to be used up. See anfiua al 2: 1 95, p. 91. n J I ) 

3, Anfaqium = you (all) spent, disbursed, bid mil 
(v. ii. m. pi. past rrom tinfaqa, (arm IV of rtqfaqa. 
See the previous note), 

J Khayr = good, good thing, wealth, property, 
benefit, charity See 01 2: 1 SO. p 85, 0. 7. 

5. 'Aqrabina ( eccusalive/geAitivc of 'uqmhun. 
sing 'uqrah) e near ones, relatives, relations. Sec 
al2'.l80, p .85, n 9). 

6, tbn iil-tabU - wayfarer, traveller See at 2:177. 
p 86, n. 9. 

7 Kulitia - it is written, prescribed, ordained, 
made obligatory, imposed (v. iii in. s. past 
passive from kulaim \iuitbAifHhuh], (p write See 
yuilubHnu at 2:79. p. 17, n. 3). The fighting 
enjoined is that which is for the sake Of Allah and 
His din 

6. Kurh = loathsome, loathing, disgust, aversion, 
detestation, hatred, abhorrence, repugnance 

9, TakrahS [nu] = you (all) detest, dislike, loathe, 
abhor, hate (v ii m. pi. impfcl from kanha 
\kurhAarithah/karahiyuh\. to detest The terminal 
'iiiip is dropped on account of the particle 'an 
coming before the verb) 

10. TuhibbS[ntt\ - yew (ail) like, love (v. ii. m . pi 
impfcl from hniiba [ fytbb\, to love, to like. The 
terminal n tin is dropped on account of the panicle 
'tm coming before the verb, See yahibb&na tX 
2:165, p. 77, n. 12). 

II, Shear (pi. OfBnV) = bad. evil, wicked, 
mischievous. Asrlalive il means worse, worst 

1 2, TaiamUna = you (all) know, are aware of (v. 
ii. m. pi. impfcl. from 'alimti I'tlm], to know, Set 
at 2: 1 84. p. 87. n. II) 



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Surat I : Al-Buuarah [Putt (Jul) 2] 



105 



is- 



a, . .., 













•^HiO^ 



Section (AhAm') 22 
217. They ask you 

about the sacred' month - 

fighting therein. 

Say : "Fighting therein 

is a grave thing; 2 

but preventing- 1 

from Allah's way 

and disbelief* in Him, 

and from the Holy Mosque, 

and expulsion* of its people 

from it 

are graver* in Allah's sight. 

And persecution 7 

is graver than killing. 

And they shall not cease* 

fighting 9 you 

till they bring you back 10 

from your religion, 

if they were able to;" 

but whoever falls back 12 

of you 

from his religion 



1 Haram (pi. )jtirum\ = sacred, sacrosanct. 
inviolable, inviolate, interdicted, forbidden, 
prohibited, unlawful. See at 2 J 94, p, 9J. n. 4. The 
sacred months are Rajab. Dhfl al-Qa'd&h, Dhii 
.il-Hi |i,ili and Muhamnn. Fighting was prohibited 
during these months. The ayah has reference to a 
reconnoitnng expedition sent by the Prophet 10 
Nakhlah. near Tii'if. in the cause of which the 
Muslim parly attacked and killed a person of a 
Makkan caravan on the first day of Rajab. 
mistaking it to be the last day of Jnmadl II. The 
incident gave rise to some misgivings which are 
allayed in this 'ayah. 

2. Kttttr = big, great, enormous, grave thing. 
J; Sadd - preventing, stopping, hindering, 
debarring, repulsing, obstruction, resistance. 

4. Kafr = disbelief, unbelief, ungratefulness, 
infidelity Sec kajari at 2: 212. p. 101, n II 

5. Ithraj - expulsion, ousting, ouster, driving out, 
bringing out (form IV of kharaju [ktutruj], 10 go 
out, to come out. See at 2:85. p, 40. n. 7) 

6. Alitor = bigger, greater, graver, more serious. 
Also, the greatest, sublime. 

7. Fitnah (pl./ilnnj = tnaJ, temptation, subjecting 
to temptation or trial, persecution, especially to 
compel one to rerwunce one's faith, discord, 
dissension, (Sec at 2:191, p 92, n, 3). The acts 
mentioned here are a!l graver and more serious 
than violation of a sacred month ; and all these 
were done by the unbelieving Quraysh of Makka 
to the Muslims 

St. U yaialuita = they do not cease, abandon, 
leave, terminate (v iii, m. pi. impfct. from juki 
[zttwat), to go away, disappear;. This verb pertains 
to an act or situation already in operation: and as 
the text Sere pertains to the Nakhlah expedition 
which look place before the battle of Badr, the 
■Jyoft shows that the Makksns had already 
declared war and commenced fighting the 
Muslims, which they would not cease unless they 
attained their objective. 

9. Yuq£tUSna = they fight, wage war. batde (v, iii. 
m. pt. impfct, from aiitata, form HI of i/alula 
[quit], to kill. See at 2: 191, p, 26. n. 5 ). 
10 Yaruddutta = they send or bring back (v. iii. 
m. pi, impfct. from rudda [radd], to put back), 
II. Isla(a'u = they were able to, were capable of 
(v, iii. m, pi, past from isiatfi'a, form X of [O'tt 
[jaw ■']. to obey, See Us\tiwwu'a at 2:184.p,87.n,!)- 
12 Yarladid[u] ■ he rakes himself back, 
withdraws, falli back, reverts to, retrogresses, 
gives up (his belief), apostatises (v iii. m, s. 
impfct. from irtadda, form V 11 1 of radda [radd], 
to send or bring back). 









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106 



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Sirui 2 : Al-Bituarttlf [Part (M "i 3] 



and dies 






j\£=s>jAj while he is an unbeliever - 
tiLdjii then such people, 

their deeds shall fall through 
Cp^ in this world 
"j^ % an d the he re after; 
ii^jjtj and such people shall be 
B 1 the inmates 2 of the fire; 
they in there 
£3 <+jj%±±- will remain for ever. 1 



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218. Verily those who 
believe 

u£U S^J^j an< i tr) ose who migrate" 1 
and fight 5 

in the way of Allah - 
such people have hope 6 for 
Allah's mercy. 
And Allah is 
Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 



&$£$ 219. They ask you 




I. i.e.. their good deeds shall carry no mem for 
them and shall be of no avail to them in the 
hereafter Habitat = die or n m< losi, went 
wrong, was of no avail, fell ih rough, was funic (v 
iii. f*. S. past from hitbalu [hubutj. lo tome lo 
nothing) 

1. As/tab [sing sahib) ■ companions, comrades. 

associates, holders, possessors, addicted or given 

to. Figuratively inmates, dwellers. See at 2:8], p. 

38. n. 5 

1, Khatidun (sing. khtUiiff = living or remaining 

forever, everlasting, eternal, perpetual (active 

participle from khatada [kliu!ud\. lo live or 

remain for ever. See at 2:8 1 . p. 38, n. 6. 

4. H&jaru = ihey migrated, emigrated (v. tii m 

pi pasi from hdftira. form ttl of frttjirru 

\hijr/hijriii;], to emigrate). 

3 Jahadu = they fought, struggled hard. 

endeav oured, si rove (v tit, m. pi. past from 

jiifunhi. form III of jahwfa [/dArfJ, to endeavour, lo 

strive). 

6. YarjSaa = they hope, expect, have hope for, 

look forward to i.v lit. m. pi. impfct. from ruji 

[wfti'\, lo hope) 

Ayahs 217 and 2 IS. though general and 
universal in ihetr implications, have a special 
relevance to ihc situation immediately preceding 
the battle of fladr which took place in 
mid-Ramadan. 1 H The Nakhlah incident had 
taken place shortly before it. in Jamadi I [/Rajah of 
ihc same year 'Ayuh 217 justifies the action of 
the Muslims at Nakhlah in view of ihe hostile and 
wrung fill acts of the unbelieving Quraysh and 
points out that they would noi cease their fighting 
ilmmi-I the Muslims unless they achieved their 
object of forcing the falter to abandon Islam Then 
in 'avail 21 8 a reassurance is given of the mercy 
of Allah lo those who believe, migrate and fight in 
the way of Allah, Belief {itndn) j$ (he foundation 
of alt good deeds: and migration and righting in 
the way of Allah are the two most meritorious 
deeds. Migration ihijmh) in its irae sense means 
iiiiiT.ih.ii in A.I ifi and His Prophet, From sins and 
evil ways to belief, righteousness and adherence to 
the (Jur'an and xuimtih, and lighting in the way of 
Allah means not simply fighting in the battlefield, 
but also peacefully struggling and striving for 
vindicating the truth and justice. As the English 
word "fighting" is applicable to both armed and 
peaceful struggles and endeavours, so Ihe term 
jiluiii in Islamic parlance applies to both type* of 
struggles and strivings in the way of Allah. 



- 



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SHrtil 2 : Al-8iujtimh (Part Oui) J] 



107 



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about wine' and gambling. 1 

Say: "There is in the two 

a grave' sin,* 

and uses 5 for men; 

but their sin is graver 

than their usefulness. 6 

And they ask you 

what they should spend.' 

Say: "The surplus". 6 

Thus does Allah elucidate'' 

for you (he reveJations 10 
so that you 

may reflect" - 









220. About this life 
and the hereafter. 
And i hey ask you 
about the orphans. 12 
'S^i^lji Say:" Improving for them 1 " 1 
is the best thing; 
and if you merge* 4 them, 
they are your brethren; 
and Allah knows the spoiler 1 5 
from the promoter."' 



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1 Khamr \p\ tihumur] = wine, intoxicating liqw, 

alcoholic beverages. 

I. Maytir = gambling, game Of chance. 

.1 Kabir - big, great, enormous, grave thing See 

at 2:217. (i IOS.n.2 

4 Itkm (pi 'iiilu'im) = crime, offeree, wrong. sin. 

miiiiiiij: Seem J 206 p 99, h 13 

5. Mandfi' [sing, nvm/a'cr/i) = uses, benefits 

6. /Va/" = Use. usefulness, bene Til, profit. This pari 
of [he (ivu/i should be understood along with 
■I'll and 5:90 which together constitute a tolal 
prohibitum of wine and All types of gambling. 

7 i.e.. in charily, YunfiqSna = they spend, 

disburse, expend (v. lii m. pi. impfct from 

"uttfaqa, form IV of nafuifti \rMJatf\, to be spent. 

to be used up.See at 2:215. p. 104, n, 2). 

B. i.e.. out or the surplus of the needs of one's own 

and family 'Afw - surplus, pardon, cffaccmenl. 

boon, favour. Sec 'tifa at 2:187. p. 89, n. 9. 

9 Yubayyina = he makes clear, elucidates , 

explains, expounds (v. iii m. s. impfct front 

hayyunn, forni II of iiiirtu \lmytin}. to be plain, 

clear), Sec at 2:187. p. 90. n. 5). 

to. 'Aydi (sing, "dynh ) = proofs, evidences. 

signs, revelations, marks, tokens, miracles, See ai 

2:1 5 1, p. 72, n. 4; and 2:99. p. 47. n, 2) 

It TetafakkarHna = you (all) reflect, ponder. 

meditate, think over, contemplate, consider (v. ii, 

m, pi. impfct from uifakkum. form V of ftikaru 

[uikr\, to reflect, to think!, 

12 Yalama (sing, yiitim) a orphans, Sec al 2:220. 

p. 107. n, J2 

13. Ixlah - to put in order, to set right, to 
improve, to reform, to promote (verbal noun in 
form IV oijultihu \tultili /.vu/ii/i], to be goodJThe 
"dju/r is a guidance to those who are in charge of 
orphans It enjoins I hem to look after and promote 
the interest of the orphans by suitably managing 
and investing their assets. 

14. i e . in joint living and joint management of 
property Takhdlilayna) - you associate, mix. 
blend, merge [v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from kltdlula, 
form III of kiitifaM |JtW(], lo tiitx: the terminal 
nun is dropped on account of the panicle 'in 
coming before ihe wrb). 

1 5. Mafiid (pi. muffidun) - spoiler, trouble-maker 
(active participle from W.irxdri, form IV affiiftidii 
[fafdii/Jusiid]. to be bod. See mufiitltin at 2:12, p. 
S. n. I ). 

16 Muilih [pi. nmsiihun) = one who improves 
/promotes, reformer, mender (active participle 
from astahti, form IV of \aiai;a (uiloh/saluh], to 
be good, right. See muslitjun at 2:1 1, p. 7, n. io. 



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10S 



SUmi 2 : AlBtutuf uh (Part (Jnz) 2] 






And if Allah were to will 
•$Z£iH He could have worried 1 you. 
ifcwit\ Verily Allah is All-Mighty, 

All-Wise. 






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22 1 . Do not marry 

polytheist women 1 

till they believe; 4 

surely a believing slave maid 

is better than an idolatress 

even if she impresses 5 you; 

nor give in marriage 6 to 

the poiyiheists 7 

till they believe. 1 * 

Surely a believing male slave 

is better than a polytheist 

even if he impresses" you. 

Such ones invite 10 

to the fire 

and Allah invites" 

to the paradise 

and forgiveness, 

by His grace; 12 






I. its +> 'A'naia (+kum)= he put to hardship, 
distressed, harassed, worried i v hi m s past in 
form IV n( 'anilu fundi]. Id be in distress or 
hardship). 

1. IA TantiMu = (you all) do not marry (v ii m. 

pi imperative [prohibition] fnim nakuha \mktih], 
io many), 

3 Mushrikdt ( Tern., sing, mashrikah) = polytheist 
women, idolatresses (active participle from 
'nihrtiku, to set or make a partner, to associate, to 
give u share. form IV of iharuka 
[siuti/ikirktitt/sttariktiky to shard, to be a partner} 

4. i'u'minna - they (fcm.) believe (v. iii. f. pi. 
linpfcl from 'amana, form IV of 'umana/'unnnu 
lurtiiHuin], to be faithful, io be safe See yu'mMSju 
at 2:3, p, 5, n I. and 2:126, p 64, n. 4)). 

5 'A 'jabat = she impressed, pleased, delighted (v 
iii r. s. put from 'ti'jabtt, form IV of ujibu 
['ajdr], to wonder, Io be amazed Sec Yu'jibu at 
2:204. 99, n. \). 

6 Iii iunkihti a iy m .ill j do not give in iiiumus 
(v. ii m pi imperative | prohibition] trim 
'iinkiilui. form IV of ttiikiihti See n 2 above), 

7 Muihrikln (accusative /genitive of musknkun. 
sing muihnk) - polylheists, those who set 
partners wilh Allah (active participle from 
'iifhruka. See n. 3 above;. 

B Yu'miniUmi) = they believe (v, iii rn pi 
impfel, from 'dmunii See n 4 above. The 

terminal wiit is dropped on account orthe particle 
Ifuttoi coming hefone the verb 

9. "A'jaba - he impressed, pleased, delighted (v 
iii m s. pasl in form IV of "ujihu. See a 5 above) 

1(1 Tad'una = they call, call upon, invite (v. iii. 
m. pi. imp fit. from dn'A \du\Y\. to call, to 
summon. Sec da'a at 2:186, p N'J, n. 1 ;n 

Hie., through the Qur'an and His Prophet 

1 2 'Idha - permission, leave, grace, mil 



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SHrtir 2 At-Baaarah [ParKJw) 2) 



109 



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and He makes clear' 
His revelations 2 for mankind 
in order that they may 
bear in mind. 1 

Section <Ruk&') 28 

222. They ask you 
about menstruation. 4 
Say: "It is a trouble;'' 

so isolate yourselves* from 

women in menstruation 

and do not approach 1 them 

until they become clean. 6 

Then when they attain purity'" 

go to them in such wise as 

Allah has commanded you. 

Verily Allah loves 10 

the repentantly turning ones" 

and He loves 

those who clean themselves.' 2 

223, Your wives are 



'J&±r your cultivating ground." 



I Yubeyyintt = he makes clear, elucidates, 
explains, expounds (v iii. m, 5. unpfct from 
buyyana. forni II of bantt [inuyun], to be plain. 
clear). Steal 2:219. p. 107. n. 9). 

2. 'Ayai (sing, 'ayah) = proofs, evidences, signs, 
revelations, marks, tokens, miracles, Sec at 2:09, 
p. 107, 11. 10). 

I, YatadftakkerOna - they bear in mind, 
remember ( v. iii. m pi impfcl from tuttliakkam, 
foirn V Of dfmkatu [tthikr/mdkktir], [,> remember 
See udtikurii at 2: 198, p. 96, n 10. 

4. Mahtd — menstruation, monthly period. 

5. 'Adhan m ailment, injury, trouble, harm, 
annoyance See at 2: 196. p. 94, n. 9. 

6. ytaztm = you (all) isolate yourselves, seclude 
yourselves, keep away (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
from i'ttizula, form VIII. of 'nzulu [ uzl\. to set 
aside. 10 isolate) The term here ts an indirect 
expression for abstaining from sexual intercourse. 

7. LS laarabu - (you all) do not go near, da not 
approach (v. 11 m pi imperalive | prohibition | 
irnrn qurubti \qtirt> i muqrabah]. ta go near, 
approach See si 2:187, p. 90, n. 4). tt is on 
indirect expression here meaning to refrain from 
sexual intercourse, 

8. Yat-hunta a they become clean, attain 
ceremonial purity (v. iii. f, pi. impfcl. from juhura 
[lulir/tuhtintli]. to be clean, pure Sec hihlttr,) at 
i. 1 25* p S9.li 14). 

9. Taiahhama - they attained cleanliness/purity, 
purified themselves, became ceremonially clean 
(v, iii. f. pi. past Irom tawhhara, form V of 
isihui-ii. See tbc previous noie). 

10 Yuhibbu - he loves, likes (v. Mi: m . *. impfcl 
(rum halihu \ htibb] W love. IBa Sec fuh&bOlW 

II 2: 1 65. p 77, n 12) 

I I Tawvahta (JitcuSatlve/geiHlive Of tawirabii, 

sing, tcimvtih) - those turning from sins, the 
repentant, the penitent (active participle from tUbu 
\iuwh/umbahfmuUib\, to repent, to turn from sins, 
Seelahuat2:IS7.p. 89. n. 8). 

12. Muttttahhirin (acCusalivcfgcnitive of 
muttiitilihiriia. sing. malufaMiir) - those who 
make/keep themselves clean, attain ceremonial 
punty [active participle from lattihham. see n. 9 
above, 

IX iiurth = tilling, tilth, cultivation, plantation, 
amble land, cultivating ground, tillage, crops. See 
at 2:205, p. 99. n. S. 



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HO 



Sural 2 : At-Baqarah |Parl (Art") 2] 














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So go to your cultivating field 

as you wish; 1 

and send on in advance 2 

for yourselves; 1 

and beware" 1 of Allah 

and know" 1 that you are 

going to meet 6 Him. 

And give good tidings 7 

to the believers. 



224. And do not set Allah 

as a shield'' 

for your oaths 10 

against your being dutiful," 

and your acting righteously 11 

and making peace" 

between men. 



'•Ollj 



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And Allah is All-Hearing, 
All-Knowing. 
SfjSfe^ 225.Allah will not blame 1 'you 
for loose utterance 15 
in your oaths; 
but He will take you to task 



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I This permission is conditioned by the directive 
in Ihc previous 'ayah; "go lo them in such wise as 
Allah has column nded you". Hence copulation in 
the anus is forbidden 

2. Qeddimu = (you all) send on in advance, send 

forward, SCI :ilit;nl. priv.uk" [V ii. 111 pi 

imperative from ifudtiumu, fonrri 11 of 
qiidUnUitqudlmtf \qiidm /tfuiiiim\, lo precede, lo 
arrive) 

3. i.e., provide for yourselves for ihc life in the 
hereafter by acting according lo Allah's 
injunctions and prohibitions 

4. Htaqu = you (all] beware, be on your guard, 
fear, be afraid of (V, ii . in pi. imperative from 
illaqa, form VIII of wtiqu [ wtiay/wtq&ytik). to 
guard, safeguard Sec at 2:103. p. 98. n 9). 

5. I'lamd = you (all) know, be aware of (v it, m 
pi, imperaiive front 'alima i'llm], to know. See at 
2:20:1. p 58. n. 101 

6. MaiAq&[A\ (pi. of malUqm) - the meeting 
ones, those who are going to meet {active 
participle from Idqti, form III of tcujiyu 
[tiqii'/lucjyun/liiqy/iiitjvtdi/luqijn]. to meet, lo 
encounter. The terminal nun is dropped or 

.j.vuiinl ill Ihu genitive ....ii^iil, I Willi nir) 

7 BushMr - give glad lidmgs. announce good 
news (v. It, m I. imperative from hmtluhurti. form 

II of baxhtiru/btLinira [biihr/bu.ihr\. la rejoice, be 
happy See at 2:135, p 7.1, n. 12). 

K I A laj'alu - (you all) do not set. pui. make, 
appoint (v. ii. m. pi. imperative (prohibition | 
from ja'a hi [/a'lj. to put. to make. See at 2:22. p 
12, n. 3), 

9 'Urfah - target, thai which is exposed to 
something, shield 

10. i.e.. do not make oaths in Ihc name of Allah 
for nol doing a good thing. 'Aymia (sing, yumin) 
- oaths, oaths of allegiance, light hands or sides. 

11. TabarriHjw) = you (all) be dutiful, devoted, 
kind (v. ii. In, pi irnpfct from barra [birr], to be 
dutiful) The terminal nun is dropped on account 
or the panicle an coming before the verb), 

12. Tallnquir.u) = you (all) beware, act 
righteously (v. ii. m. pi. irnpfct. from inaqa. See n 
4 above. The terminal nun is dropped). 

I 3 Tajlifjulnuj = you {alh make peace, settle, put 
ii order [v il in pi irnpfct from 'iisluha. form 
IV of $alahu [Milah/sulu>i/"hiijciktih\, Id be good, 
right. The terminal niin is dropped). 

14 Yu'&khidhu = he blames, censures, lakes to 
task (v. iii in S, iinpfvi from ukbudhu. form III 
of ukhuiiha {'t&hdh], to take, lo get) 

15 iMghw = loose talk, thoughtless utterance. 



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Sunn 2 ; AlBaaarnl, [Pan i/u: ') 2) 



111 






id for what your hearts acquire. 1 
jju.'^i\j Ailah is Most Forgiving, 
0*f~- Most Forbearing. 

i-jS 226. For those who 

jji| swear abstention* 
Hk^kirt from their wives 

Jij ' s a watch- and- wait 1 
^Jil'ijl of four months. 4 
ji»j|» So if they return,' 

"SSI& (hen verily Allah is 

jjii. Most Forgiving, 
0JL4 Most Merciful. 

ir>jij 227. But if they resolve on* 



jiLitaJi divorce, 
then Alls 
All-Knowing. 



jL-iifjii then Allah is All-Hearing, 



L'jijZlij 228, And divorced women 7 

"■V^s^J* shall wait 9 with themselves 

t~jj&£ for three menstrual periods; 9 

yij£i$ and it is not lawful 10 for them 



I, Ktaabat - she or il acquired, earned, gal, 
obtained, gained, attained (v. iii. I. s. pail from 
itiscitm lkusl>\, lo gain. See al 2: 14 1 , p. 66, n 1 1 J 

2 iuluiio = they swear abstention, (technically, 
swearing by one nol lo have sexual relation with 
one's wife], [v, iii, m. pi, implct. from «(«, form 
IV ol alii [alw], nol lo do, neglect to do). 

X Tarohbus = lo waieh and wait, lo Ik in wait, id 
wait foe an opportunity, io lay in ambush, 
probationary term, walch and wail period (vcrh.il 
noun in form V of rabtua [mbi], to wail, to be on 
the lookout! . 

4. Athhvr (sing, shttfiri = months. 

5. i.e., if they give up their oath of abstention and 
resume normal relationship wiih their wives 
Fa'u - they relumed, wen! back (v. iii. m. pi past 
from fa'a \fay'\. to relum). 

6. 'Azamu a they resolved on. determined, made 
up their mind, decided (v. iii. m. pi past fiom 

afiana I 'a;.mf'ailawk\, to resolve, to decide), 

7. Mtilailaqat ( sing, mulatlaqah) a divorced 
women (passive participle from tattaqu. to set 
free, to let loose, to divorce, form II of laiaqa) 

8. i.e.. they shall watt before remarrying 
Yaterahbafna = ihey (fern,) wait, wait nn<J watch, 
lie in wait fv, iii. f. pi impfel, from turubbasu. 
form V of mbasti. See n 3 above). 

u. Qati' (sing, ifar') = periods between 
menstruations or menstruations. Ihe lerm bears 
two nicminev The wailing period prescribed here 
is applicable lo women whose marriage has been 
consummated. Those whose marriage has not 
been consummated before being divorced have no 
waiting period ( see 3.V491 For widowed ladies 
ihe waiting period is four months and len days 
(see 2:234). For ladies having menopause and 
(hose who have not as yet had any menstruation 
Ihe wailing period is three months; and for 
pregnant women Ihe waiting period is until they 
deliver the foetus (sec 65:4) 

10. Yahiltu - he or it is lawful, allowed, permitted 
(v. lit. m. s. un|ifcl from holla \kifl\, to be 
allowed) 



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112 



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SSra! 2 : AlBm/urali (Purl (hw ) 2\ 



I 



JO' 






-!'t 

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■• . - --(V 
■•■•"'I '■* .-.-' 

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T* i : '?: 1 



that they conceal 1 

what Allah has created" 

in their wombs, 1 

if they use to believe 4 

in Allah and the Last Day. 

And their husbands* are 

more entitled 

to take them back 

during that [period], 

if they desire reconciliation. 6 

And they (wives) have rights 

like that over them, 

according to equity; 7 

but men have above them 

a degree 8 [of advantage]. 

And Allah is All-Mighty, 

All-Wise. 

Section {Rylci't') 29 
229. Divorcing is twice; 
then to retain'' with equity 
or to release 10 with goodness." 
And it is not lawful 12 for you 
that you take" out of what 



1 Yaktumna - ihey (fern.) conceal, keep secret, 
secrete, hide. suppress (v II] t p|, rmpfct from 
kalanm H'ti/iB/iri(nii»i|. Id hide. See nikiummtn ai 
2:174. p. St, n 14). 

2 Khalaqa - he created, nude, originated (v lii 
ill. s. past from SJwlif. Iti create.. See it 2 21, p. 
1 1 . ii. 4; and khtili) at 1: 164. p 76. n. 6). 

,V ArMm (Sing ruhint/rihm) » wombs, uterus 

A. Yri'mtnnti = ilir, (fern ) believe (v tii. I pi 
impfct from 'Amana. form IV of 'ttmaitit/'iuainu 
[amtinah]. Id be failhful, to be site, See ai 2:121, 
p. 108. rt- 4). 

5 fiVlWaA (sing. /«r() = husbands. It is id be 
noted l tint while ihe word mu'j means eilher 
husband or wife, hit 'I means sjwetfically husband. 
1.0., the male partner. 

6. Iftah = to pui in order, adjuM, selile, to make 
peace, to bring about agrcemetil, conciliate, 
reconciliaiion I verbal noun in form IV of salaha \ 
.jViJu/j huhih /mtislvljuh], in be good, lo be right 
See «{lul}itM 2:182, p. Sf>. n. 7). 

7. Ma'rHf = known, well-known, generally 
recognized, universally accepted, fairness, equity 
[passive participle from tirofu (■fepVi/Wrr^nj, 
to know, id recognize, See at 1. 1 80, p. 85, n. 1 0), 

rt. liorajah (pi durujiit) = step, Slair. flight of 
steps;, degree, grade, rank, stage. 

9. ImiSk - to retain, to hold, to hold fasl, to 
grasp, lu keep. In detain, lo abstain, to refrain 
Vt-rtiai noun in from IV of manka \mask\, id 
grab, to hold 

10. TaSriH = to release, 10 discharge, to lei go lo 
dismiss, to disband. H send (lo pasture). Verbal 
noun in form It of umihtJfurihn j.tuniAj. to go 
away, lo move freely . 

II. 7 /fesiSii = io ael rightly or nicely, charily, 
generosity, benevolence, friendliness, goodness. 
Verbal noun in form IV of Ijnntia \husn]. to be 
nice, handsome, good. See at 2:83, p 38, n ° 
12 Vahillu s it is lawful, pcnnilted, allowed (v.. 
tii. in s. i in pk l from litilhi [lull], to be allowed 
See at 2:22*, p Ill.n 10) 
1 J, In 'klmitliiii \nu i a you (all) take, receive (v. ii. 
in pi impfct. from ukhiuihit [ 'ukhtih\, to lake 
I be terminal nun is dropped on account of the 
particle tits coming before the verb. 



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Sural 2 - M-Baqarah [Pari (Jiu'} 2] 



m; 



Ul^j^ji 









If J J 1 

aUUjJU- 
= ».- M 






you have given them (wives) 

anything; 

except if the two fear' 

that they cannot observe 2 

the limits set by Allah. 

So if you fear* 

that the two cannot observe 

the limits 4 set by Allah, 

there is no sin s on the two 

in what she redeems herself 6 

with. 

These are 

the limits set by Allah, 

so do not transgress 1 them. 

And whoever transgresses* 

the limits set by Allah, 

such are the ones 

5 



JjjiHkt 1 committing wrong. 



J** 



230. Then if he divorces her 
she will not be lawful'" 
for him thereafter 
unless she marries" 



I Yakhafat.ni} = ihe [wo fear, are afraid of tv. iii. 
m dual, impfci form khdfa \khimf\, to fear. The 
ler mina! stun is dropped on account of the panicle 

all coming before Ihe verb. See kltdfa al 2: 182. p, 
86. n. 4). 

2, Yuqimd[ttn - ihe two observe, perform, make 
righl or correct, straighten, reside (V. iii, m, dual, 
impfci. from 'atfdma, rurm IV of tfamu 
Iqawmah/ifiyam}. to gel up. to Stand. The terminal 
nan is dropped on account of the panicle 'an 
| 'an + Iii j coming before the verb. See 'at/tima at 
2:177. p S\ n. II), 

y Khiflum = you (all) feared, were afraid of {y, n 
m. pi past from khiira See n. I above}. 

4 ^udiid (sing, hadtff = edges, borders, 
boundaries, borderlines, hounds, limits. Allah's 
injunctions, legal punishment. See at 2:187, p. L 'M 
n, 3. 

5 Juaah = sin. foul I, misdemeanour. See al 
2: 198. p 96. n 7- and 2: 1 58. p. 74. n.7. 

li 1/ladal = she ransomed/redeemed hereelf, freed 
herself, sacrificed [v. iii, f. s, past from iftadu. 
form VIII of fadd \fldiin/fidd']. lo redeem. 10 
ransom Sec lufdda al 2:85, p. 40, n. 5: and ji dyuh 
at 2:196. p. 94, n. 10) 

7 IA ia L rad& = you Call) do riot transgress I go 
beyond the limits / cross / overstep / surpass/ act 
outrageously (v ii. m_ pi. imperative (prohibition} 
from i'ladii. form VIM of 'add [ 'adw\, lo speed, 
torace. Secat2:|90. p, 91,n. 13) 

8 Yata "adda = tit transgresses, oversteps, crosses 
the limits, acts outrageously (v. iii. m. s. impfci. 
from la 'addS. form V of 'adS See n, 7 above). 

9. '/.dlimiin (sing, zdlim) =; unnsgressors, 
wrong-doers, unjust (A dive participle from 
lalama \zalm/iulm\ t lo do wrong. See at 2:9|. p, 
44. 0. 4), ' 

10. Takittu - she or it is lawful /allowed (v. iii. 
f. s. tropfet from halia [hill], lo be allowed. See 
2:229, p. 112, n 12). 

11. Tanki$a(u) = she marries (v. iii. f, s, impfci. 
from Ankara \mkiiij | . to marry, to gel married, See 
Id umkihti/iankihu at 2:22 1 , p. 1 08. ns, 2 and 6) 



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114 



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Sural 2 : At Butiurah [Port (/«**) 2] 



I 



■"-\M & 



tlu.-.i 



■■'. IJ *.- 






'- . t-r %J J „, .J 

m 



a husband other than him. 
Then if he 1 divorces her, 
no sin will be in the two 1 
that they revert to each other 1 
if the two think for certain 4 
that they can observe 5 
the limits set by Allah. 
These are Allah's ordinances 6 
that He makes clear 7 
for a people who know. 8 

23 1 . And if you divorce 9 

the wives 

and they mature 10 

their term (of abstinence), 11 

then keep 12 them with equity 

or set them free with equity; 

and do not detain 11 them 

adversely 14 

that you may assail [them]. 15 

And whoever does that 

indeed wrongs himself. 

And do not take up 



I i.e., the husband whom she marries afrer her 
divorce from her, previous husband divorces her 
aflcr due consummation of the marriage 

2. i.e.. the previous husband and the divorced 

woman 

3 Yatar&ja'iini) = they (two) revert to each 

other/ fall kick (v. iii. m. dual, impfci. from 

tang' tt. form VI of rtija'u [fuju"\. to return, to 

Lome back). The terminal nun as dropped on 

account or the particle 'tin entiling before the verb. 

See rajti'Ium at 2: 196. p. 95. n 2). 

4. 7.ann6 - they (two) think/ think for certain 'are 

sure fv iii rn dual, past from yuma \mtm\, id 

think, to believe See yapvmOna at 2:7K.'p. 3T, rt 

I) 

5 YuqimMm) = they (two) observe. See at 2-229, 

p 112, n 2 

«) Iltidud (sing, fynttt) - edged, boundaries. 

limits, Allah's ordinances / injunctions.. See at 

2:229. p. 113, n. 4. 

7 Ytibttyyinti ■ he makes clear, elucidates, 
explains, expounds (v, iii. in, s. impfci from 
bayyana. form II of bami \bayan}, to be plain, 
clear). Sec at 2.221, p, 109, n. U. 

8 Ya'lamuna = they know, arc aware of (v. iii. 
in. pi. impfci, from 'uhma \'ilm\, to know. See at 
2: 144. p. 69. rt. I) 

9 Tallaqlum - you (all) divorced, let loos*, 
released, set free (> n in pi past from hillai/,: 
form II til luluqu [luluij/lulinf], to be free) 

10. Baiaghna a they [fern.) mature, bring to 
completion, attain majortly. come "f age, reach 
(v. iii. f. pi. past from balughu \bulu)>h\, to reach 
Sec >ui>%Ad at 2:196. p 94, n 7). 

I I Ajat - appointed term, appointed lime. Here, 
the period of abstinence prescribed for divorced 
women Sec 2:228. p 1 1 1 . n 9. 

12. 'Amsiku a you (alt) hold, grasp, keep (v. ii. 
m pi. imperative from muraku \mask], to grasp 
See tms&k at 2:229, p 1 12, n 10) 

13. IJ) tumttkG a you (nil) do not detain, retain, 
hold, hold on, withhold <v, ii. in pi imperative 
(prohibition) from 'umsuku, form IV of mtuaku. 
See n 12 above). 

14. IHr&ran = adversely, to disadvantage, 
detrimentally, harmfully 

15. i.e., to make them pay fat their release 
Ta'taduinti) = you (all) assail, assault, commit 
excesses, act outrageously (v ii. m. pi. impfet 
from i'luda. form V|[| of Wu { 'udw\. to speed, to 
race. See la ta'tadu at 2:229. p 1 13. n. 7) 



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Sural 2 Ai-Haqttrah | Part (Jut") 2] 



IIS 









''Jjx^\c3'- Allah's revelations in jest;' 
and remember" 
Allah's grace upon you 
and what He has sent down 1 
upon you of the Book 
and the wisdom 4 



fS^jW" 



4*C5 






4li *— I 



wherewith He 5 exhorts you; 
and beware* of Allah 



.;;:1;.J',; 



IV'i-j^*^ 



and know 6 that Allah is 

of everything All-Knowing. 






■Ha 






3&*g 



Section (Raku') 30 

232. And when you divorce 

the wives 7 

and they mature" their terms, 

do not prevent 9 them from 

marrying 1 " their husbands 

if they agree" between them 

with fairness. 12 

This is whereof is advised 11 

those of you who are 

believing in Allah 

and the Last Day. 






I Ijnziin- - iJi-.lIjih. uutilcmpt, denston, scam, 
jest, mockery. See M 2:67, p. 32, a. 4. 

2, I'dhkiiri = you (all! remember, call to mind, 

i ,e„ make payers and glorify Allah (v ii. m, pi, 

imperative fruni tilmkura \tihikt/ini}hkAr\. to 

remember See at 2 \ 98. p Q 6. 10) 

1 'Attzala - he sent down (v. in, in s, past in for 

[V of tiiiZfiln- See al 2: 170. p. 80, n, .1) 

4 llikmah (pi. hikiim) - wisdom, sagacity Here 

it means the teachings ami instructions of the 

Prophet {nmnah). it,, fKMl-Qur'aJUC wuhy to Jiim, 

apart from the Book - the Qur'an See at 2: 1 29, p. 

6).n.6. 

5. I'ti'izu - he admonishes, warns, exhorts, 
advises (v. iii. m s, trnpfcl, from wa'aza iwa't) = 
to admonish, to preach) 

b Ittaqu = you tall) beware, be Ofl your guard, 
fear, be afraid of (v. ii. m. pi imperative from 

IffrirjrJ. form VIII of H'U^U { tV(KJ>/rt-Uj«™^J. l£> 

guard, safeguard See at 2:221. p. 1 10. n. 4) 
7. rVitd" (Sing, wtm'tlh} ~ women, wives. 

K balaghna = ihcy item > mature, bnng to 
completion, attain majority, come of age, reach 
(v. iii. f pi. past from hataxha [butu/;h], 10 reach. 
Sec at 2:231, p. H4,n. 10) 

9. Li ta'dulu = you (all) do not hinder, prevent, 
(v. ii. m. pi. imperative [prohibition) from 'aJutti 
| WfJ, io pre rent) 

10, Vankihna (hey (fem.) many, get married (v. 
iii. f pi, impfct from nokaha [aikah\, io marry 
Sec mnkihuai 2 230, p J 1.1. n II). 

I I laradav - they agree, arc satisfied., come to 
terms (v. rii. m. pi. past in form V| of ni$<yti 

I riJ.i/i'j id* riji/ci, ttddh j. to agree, to be satis lied], 

II Ma'r&f = known, wetl-fcrwwn. generally 
recognizes! universally accepted, fairness, equity 
(passive participle from 'urafa \ma'rifiit/"trfiin\, 
to know, to recognize Sec at 2:128, p. 46. m 7). 
Bi uhma'rvf = Willi fairness, in the appropriate 
riuiinir 

1.1 Y&'atu = he oi it is advised, counselled, 
jiliiumished, exhorted (v. iii. m. s. impfct passive 
from m'ra [wttyt&ih\. to admonish, to exhort 
Sec n 5 above). 



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116 



Sural 2 . Al-Batfowh [Pan (Ju?) 2\ 



>j;i This is 
^J^l the more befitting 1 for you 
^Wj and the more purifying. 2 
pZ $£j And Allah knows 
jjliV^j while you do not know. 



if"',,. •> 









233. And the mothers* 
shall suckle 4 their children 5 
for two years* in complete, 
for such as intend 7 
to complete 7 the suckling;" 
and on the father' 
shail be their' sustenance 1 ' 
and their clothing 11 
according to equity" - 
no one shail be burdened 14 
except up to one's capacity 15 - 
nor shall a mother be hurt 1 * 
on account of her child, 
nor any father * 
on account of his child; 
and on the successor' 7 
shall be the like of this. 



1 'At3i& - purer, cleaner, more befitting! i 
of mkiy). Sec juffliiii at 2: 1 5 J, p, 72. rt 5. 

2 'Alhar = cleaner, purer, more unblemuh 
(rlative DT.JrUfr), Sec luhhrd at 2 12S. p 59, 
14. 
.1 Waiid6t tsing. vt'ttuhih) = mothers 

4 Yutdi'rw = they (fern ) suckle, give suck (v. 
iii. f.. pi. impfct from rudn'u [rod' fmda'f 
rinlu'uh}, lo suckle, breast- feed) 

5 'AvttAd (sinj> walud) = children, offspring, 
descendants 

6 Hawlayn (accusative /gemliveof hawian, ain/; 
him I. p|, alitnil) = two years ihawl also means 
might power) 

7 'Aratta = he intended, desired, warned, had in 
mind, purposed {v. iii m s past in form |V of 
radti [ r«iW], t" walk about See at 2:26, p 14. n 
5, and: yuridu j[ 2; 185, p. SK. n ,V), 

B Rad&'eh = suckling, breast- feeding. 

9 AI-m&Kl&d fohu = father (» technical term I 

■ 0, t,e . the suckling mothers', 

II Rizq (pi 'ir.ytq) — sustenance, subsistence. 

livelihood, means of livelihood, provision, boon 

Sec razuqiM at 1: ! 72. p. 8) , n 2), 

12. Kiiwak (pi. kman/hsan/kutawm) = clothing, 
cfothes, apparel, take, dress, raiincnl. uniform, 
garment. 

13. Ma'rif - known, well-known, generally 
recognized, universally accepted, fairness, equity 
(pais i re participle from 'arafa \mu m rijtih/\rfan\, 
to know, lo recognize. See at 2:2.12, p, 1 15. n. 12. 
B\ ul-mti'riif - with fairness, in the appropriate 
manner. 

14. Tukatlafu = sh-c <tr M is made to bear, 
burdened,, loaded, charged, put la trouble, 
commissioned, entrusted (v. iii. [ i impfct 
passive, from kaUafa. form IT of kulifit \kaUif]. to 
be fond of, to be keen). 

15. Wtu* = capacity, ability, capability, faculty, 
power Sec win ' at 2: 1 15. p. 55. n. 4) 

In. Tuttarm - she is hurl, prejudiced, harmed, 
damaged, injured (v iii f s impfel passive from 
tfdrrct . form I II of tinrrv tdiiT ], lo harm, to hurt). 
See Ddrrin and yodarm at 2:102. p. 48. ns. II 
and I 1 1 

17 WSrith (pi waruthah) = successor, hen. 
inhenior (active participle from wtirithti |mrru 
Arth/irlHahAviralhiiti/riiticih/iiirt'nh]. lo inherit), 



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SHral 1 : Al-Bm^uriAh (Part (Ac) 2| 



117 



Vl^»i'ilri£ Then if they want 1 weaning : 
by mutual consent' of the two, 






J . '.-if 



and consultation/ 

no sin' will tie on them; 

and if you desire' 1 

to seek foster suckling 7 

for your children, 

there will be no sin on you 

if you pay up B 

what you have given * 

according to equity. 

And beware 10 of Allah 

and know that Allah is 

Alt-Seeing" of what you do. 



4-jJij 234. And those who 

r&^&pi die 12 of you 

£-iy jjj Jjj and I e ave be h i nd ' * wi ves , 

ir^jL they shall wait 14 

j& with themselves 



J *<2*ji for four months and ten days; 
jli'iiia then when they complete 
&+D the i r appo i n te d term 



I 'Ar&da = they (two) desired, wanted, intended 
(v. lii. m. pi. past in form IV of ridli [rawf]. Id 
walk about, to move about. Sec tiradti at 2:231, 
p. 116. n. 7), 

2. Fifdl = weaning, to wean. 

* Taradin = mutual consent (verbal noun in farm 

VI of mdiyii [ndan?ridwimfmardah\, lo be 

satisfied Sec laraduwat 1232, p. 1 15. n II) 

4. i.e., consultation and deliberation on the 

welfare of the child. Tashdtvur = consultation, 

deliberation, to take counsel (verbal noun in form 

VI aishura [jtfuner\, to loot nice), 

J. Junah = = sin. fault. misdetrwanour See ut 

2.-229, p. 113. a. 5; 2:198. p. », it. 7;and2J58, 

p 74. o7, 

h "Aredium = you (oil) desired, wanted, intended 

lv ti in pi. past from 'urfidii. See n I above) 

The address here is to all the parties concerned 

7 TastaTp'Hnu) = you (all) seek fosier suckling 

(v. ii. in. pi. implct, from niarda'u, form X of 

radti'o/radi'a [Fiid'/rudti'/radd'iih]. to suck. The 

terminal nan is dropped on account of the partielc 

tin coining before the verb), 
it. Sallatntum - you (all) handed over, 
surrendered, delivered, submitted, paid tip. (v ii 
m. pt. past from mlliima. form II of xtttimti 
Utiltimak/salam], to be safe, to be faultless See 

atltima at 2:212. p. 53, n. 6). 
9. 'Ataytum = you (alt) gave, offered, granted, 
brought [V. ii. m. pi. past from "ittfi. from IV of 

'ii hi [itytiii/uty/mii'lah], to come, to bring, to give 
or offer. See at 2: 1 1 1 . p 10] , n. 6). 'If you pay up 
what you have given" means "if you pay up the 
mother I'm the pennd she has suckled on the basts 
di v. hiii inn give la the wet tunc actsjfdiiuj to 
equity See lbn Kathir, Tufair. 1.418. 
10 ItlatjU = you (all) beware, be on your guard, 
fear, be afraid of (v. n m pi. imperative from 
tlttiifti. fonn VIU of waijH { uaqyAvitfayah), to 
guard, safeguard. See :it 1 2 3 I , p I I 5, n 6) 

I I fiaiir h All -Seeing, All-Observing. So all our 
intentions, sayings and deeds arc known to Kim. 

12, Yutawaffawaa - they die (v, tti. in. pi- Impfct, 
passive from ruwoffiya, 10 die), 

13, Yadhariina = they leave , leave behind, leave 
alone (v, iii, rn pi, iinpfcl, frurn wadhr. Only the 
imperfect and imperative verbs are formed from 
this root). 

14 Yatarabbasna a they (fern > wail, wart and 
watch, lie in wait (v, iii. f. pi. Impfct. from 
ttiriittlmsH, form V of Hibofo [robj]. to wail, to 
watch See at 2 223, p. 1 1 1 , n, 8>. 



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118 



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Sikwr 2 i A\ Baijurah (Par! Uui) 2\ 



I 






\i^>ji there shall be no sin on you 
Orfc u .< regarding what they do 1 
■Hr*^ about themselves 
o^i^ in the appropriate manner. 1 

&j And Allah is 
ojU-jw All-Aware of what you do. 







i 



«l£*3l?;^ 



\6 



to 



235. Nor shall any sin be 

on you 

in that you give indication' 5 

of courtship* to the women 

or harbour 7 [it] 
within yourselves. 
Allah knows thai you 
shall talk about" them: 

but do not make them swear 5 

in secret 10 

but that you may say 

conventional words; 

nor resolve 11 on 

[he contract i: of marriage 

till the prescript 11 matures 14 

its term. 

And know that Allah 



I Fa'itlna = they (torn.) did, they acted (v in. f. 

pi. past ftotnfa'ala [p'l/fu'l], lo do, foaci). 

2. i . e., if I hey many, tat* other husbands 

3 Ma'r&f = known, well-known, generally 

recognized, universally accepted, conventional, 

appiopnate. fairness, equity (passive participle 

from 'anifa [mu'rifah /'irftin], to know, in 

recognize, See at 2:233. p. 116, n. 13). Bi 

iilnuirif a with fairness, in the appropriate 

manner, 

A. Khabir - All-Awarc, A II -Conversant. 

All-Acquainted Active participle in Ihe scale of 

fa'tl from khabara ( klsubr ftinbftih), to know, lo 

experience, to be acquainted. 

5 'Arratfium - you tall) gave indication, 
intimated, alluded, hinted, exposed (v. H. m, pi, 
pail from 'attain, form II of 'urufa / WraJu 
[ 'and], to be broad, lo be visible, lo appear), 

6 hbilbah - courtship, engagement, betrothal. 

7. Aknantuin = you (ft!) kepi secret, hid, 
concealed, harboured ( v , ii. m. pi. pasl in form IV 
of kuitiiu \knnn Aunua\. to hide. IG contain). 

8. Tadhkuruna = you (ell) mention, talk about, 
remember (v. ii, m. pi. iinpfcl from dtmkurtt 
[dinkr /radhkde), to remember, lo speak). 

9. i.e., do nol say io the woman: "Give your 
pledge or promise me thai you shall not marry 
anyone else exeepl mc" (Inn Kuthir. Ttifsir, I. 32 J) 
IA Tuwa'id& = you (ali) do not make (one) 
promise/swear/ take an oath: do nol arrange/ 
appoint (v ii. m. pi. imperative [prohibition) 
from Hu'utiu. form III of wa'tida ( wa'd], lo 
promise. See w&adnA ai 2:5 1 , p. 24, n 8). 

10. Sirran = in secret. Secretly, surreptitiously 

11. I A ta'zimH - ynu (all) do nol resolve. 
determine, decide, make up your mind [v ii. m. 
pi. imperative {prohibition } from 'azamti [ 'ujm / 
uzmuilil |o resolve, lo decide. See 'oat/Ttfl al 
2:227. p. HI, n. 6). 

12. Htjdab (pi. uqtid) = knot, tic, compact. 
covenant, contract, 

13. i.e., Ihe prescribed! period of waiting See 
2:228 and 2:234 

14. YaMughalu\ = he or it reaches. DMOore*, 
brings to completion, comes of age, attains 
puberty (v iti m. s impfei. From butaghu 
[bttiugh]. to reach The last letter has taken fatljah 
because of the particle htuia corning before ihe 
verb. Sec at 2:196, p. 94. n. 7; and tiaiagHiui al 
2:232. p. 115.0. 8). 



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Surtu 2 : AlBaijarah (foul (Juz ) 2) 



119 






0*J — V 11 * 



^ 



knows 

what is within yourselves. 

So beware 1 of Him; 

and know that Allah is 

Most Forgiving, 

Most Forbearing. 1 

Section (Ruku'} 31 

236. No sin will be on you 
if you divorce the wives 
you have not yet touched 1 
nor have fixed 4 for them 

a due; 5 

bul pay them as gratification- 
on the affluent 7 
according to his means* 
and on the straitened 9 
according to his means — 
a gratification !U in equity, 
as of duty on the righteous." 

237. And if you divorce them 

before 

that you have touched them 



1 . Ihdheri = you (.ill I beware, be on lire alert, be 
cautious (y ii. m. pi. imperative from hotlhiru 
[hidftr/hudhur], id be cauliou* See hadhtir at 
Z19.fi 10. nil). 

2. ftotim = Mosl Forbearing, Mosl Clement, Most 
Indulgent. 

I Tamassuinv) = you (all) touch/feel (v, ii m pi 
impfcl from mama \nui5^'nush\, lo touch. The 
Iciminal "in is dropped on account of (tie particle 
iitm coming before the verb See mttssal at 22 J 4, 
p. 103, n. 4). The term "touching" here is 3 polite 
expression meaning cohabitation. 

4. TajriduLnti) = you (all) impose, make 
incumbent, make obligatory, prescribe, fw, 
enjoin, deoee. ordain (v. ii. m p). impftt. Iroin 
fwtujtt ifarJ], to decree. The terminal nun is 
dropped on account of the panicle tarn coming 
before the previous verb which governs this verb 
loo). See furada at 2: 1 97. p 95. n 8 
5 Faridati (pi fura'id) s something obligatory, 
religious duty: here mohr. dower, bndal money. 

6. Statti'u - you [all) make (some one) enjoy, 
give as compensation/gratification (v. u. m pi. 
imperative from mattti'a. form It of mala' a [mat' 
fmutah], to carry away, lo lake away. Sec 
umiifn'u at 2: 126, p. 60. a. fil. 

1. MSsi' - nth. wealthy, affluent, man of means, 
well-to-do person. Active participle from 'awiti'a 
(lo be rich), form IV of ■niai'aJwaxu'a 
\was& k ahfsu'fi\ lo be wiik- . lo be well-io-do. See 
wim- at 2:233, p. 116. n, 15 

8. Qadar (pi. uadiir) - extent, scope, capacity, 
quantity, grade, divine decree 

9. Muqtir = person or straitened circumstances, 
straitened, poor, impecunious, ill-provided, 
indigent. Active paniciple from 'tnjium. (o live in 
straitened circumstances, In be poor, form IV of 
qulum [ifalr/tjtitur], lo be stingy 

10 Mara' (pi untti'ah) = gratification, object of 
Jtzh^ht. plcasuie, enjoyment, necessities of life. 
See irmisi'u \ii a b above 

I I Muhsinia (accusative /genitive of muhsinun, 
sing mahtmi = those who do right things, 
righteous, beneficent, charitable (active participle 
from 'uhyana, form IV of hasutta [tatiH), to be 
hand-iome, to be good. See at 2:5*. p 27, n I ) ). 



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120 



Siirtil 2 . Al-Buqamh (Pari Uuzi 2\ 



>f "* -i' 



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- »JU;i_>_Ul 



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and you have already fixed 1 

for them a due, 2 

then [pay] a half 3 

of what you have fixed 

except mat they waive [it]' 1 

or there waives 5 lit] 

the one in whose hand is 

the contract 6 of marriage; 

and that you give up is 

nearer to godfearliness; 1 

and do not forget 8 

the kindness'' between you. 

Verily Allah is 

of what you do 

All-Observant, 10 

238, Keep up " 



the prayers, 
jL^itljkSiHj and the middle 12 prayer, 

and stand 11 before Allah 



*jj(j»j»j 



in humility and obedience. u 



^iXj-jii 239. And if you are in fear, 15 
liL0jfvu| then afoot "or mounted;" 
i^JoS^i then when you be .secure 



1 I aradlum = you Tilled, mad? incumbent, made 
obligatory (a. it: in. pi past from larcutu. See 
Irt/rjJu 3 | 1:136, p. 119. n 4 

1,. Faridah (pi. farti'itfi = something obligatory, a 
due. here mtihr. dower, bndal money See 1 I J6, 
p. 1 19, n, 5 
3, JVtjr/(pl nufufi- half middle 

4 Ya'filtia = they (fern.) waive, forgo, excuse, 
exempt, efface. obliterate (v hi I pi impfcl 
from 'ufii [ ii(w/a}u ']'. to be effaced See 'afa at 
2:187. p. 89. n. 9) 

5. fa*fu ■ he waives, hirgocs, excuses, exempts, 
effaces, gives up Iv iii m. i ;mp(c(„ ffom 'u/Yl 
See. i hi- previous nole. 

6. i.e., the husband forgoes his halt mid give* the 
full amount to the divorced wife. "I'qttah (pi 

utjtitft = knot, tie, compact, covenant, contract 
.Sec M2 235. p. UK, ii I J 

7. Tai/wa = godfeiirlintjis. dcvoumeiis piety. See 
HtiUjU al 3:203, p.98, n. 8 

5 U ronton 1 = you (all) do not forget (v n im p! 
impcraiivc (prohibition) from mmja 
[lui.Tv/'nMjJni. m forget) 

9. ftirfi (pi. ttiijutfc grace, favour, refinement, 
kindness. amiability: also surplus, excess Sec at 

2 '», p 41. n, 3. 

10 So nothing remains unknown to Him and you 
ai* accountable lo Mini for everything you do or 
fail to do. 

1 1 Hijvpi - you (all) keep up. maintain, sustain, 
preserve, observe, uphold, he watchful (v u, m 
pi imperative Irani hafizu. to keep up, maintain. 
form III oihefi^u \htfi). iu preserve), 

J 2 n'utta item pi, n-funt: tmt. muity pi mvUfif) 
= middle, central, The "middle*' prayer is 
generally liilcrprclcil as the <i." or Late afternoon 
prayer, which is exactly the middle prayer with 
two prayers both before and alter it in a day This 
is an instance id the mention id sotnelhmj; special 
of a category which is m enti on ed first. i.e.. falat. 
13. Qumu - you (all) .viand, stand up (v. n. m pi 
imperative form tjiirwi [ymvnuih/qiytim\. to Aland 
up. to gel up See aifdmu al 2: 177. p 83. n 1 2) 

14 Qdnilin (accusative/genitive of ifiiiittiiit. sing 
iftinii) - obedient, humble, submissive (active 
participle from uwiuru [tjunut], lo be obedient) 

15 i c, of being attacked by an ejitmy Khi/lam 
you (all) feared, dreaded (v >i ni. pi. past from 
kMfa \khawl /makhufah /khijuhl. lo fear. See al 
2 229, p. 47. n 3) 

1 6 Rijal (sing, "ijili = on fool, walking 

17. KukMa (sing, mkibt ■ mounted, ndmg. 



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Surat 2 : Al-Baaarah [Part iJuz') 2] 



121 



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offer prayers to Allah 
as He has taught 1 you, 
^jXj^JLi' which you had not been 
in the know of. 2 



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jpgii^: 






"jzfafy 



240. And those who 

die' of you 

and leave behind 4 wives 

shall make a will 5 

for their wives 

for maitenance* up to a year 7 

without ouster ;* 

but if they leave [home],' 

no sin shall be on you 

in respect of what they do IB 

about themselves 

of an approved thing." 

And Allah is All-Mighty, 

All-Wise. 

24 1 for the divorced women 
"*Z maintenance shall be given 
oy^JL according to equity, 12 




yjj-" Ji 



jn£*wj 



\» * ■* 



1. i.e. through His Messenger. 'Atlanta = he 
laughi. informed, instructed (v in. m s. pasl. in 
forni II of 'tilima l'ilm\. lo know, See »1 2:31,. p. 
17, n 3). 

2. Ta'iamuna - you (all) know, aic aware of (v 
it. m. pi. impfcl from 'alima I'tlm], lo know Sec 
..I : Jin. p 104, n, 12; and 2: 1 g<t. p. S7. n. 11} 

3. i.e.. who arc approaching death, i'utawa/fawna 

- they die (,v lii m pi. impfcl. passive from 
tuwuffiyti, ic die. See 2:234, p 1 1 7. n. 1 2). 

4 Vmthurunu m Mil)' leave . leave behind, leave 
alone (v. lii. lit pi, tmpfct. from wadhr. Only the 
imperfect and imperative verbs are formed from 
this mot See al 2:234. p. 1 17, n, 13). 

5. Wasiyyah (.pi. viijiirii) - will, bequest, 
testamentary disposition, directive. 

6. Aford' [p|, amliah) - gratification, object of 
delight, pleasure, enjoyment, necessities of life, 
maintenance. See at 2:236. p J 19, n. 10), 

7. Hawl (pi. (((ihijIJ = year, wight, power See 
hawlayn at 2:233, p. 1 16, n, 6. 

8. i.e, maintenance and residence, without 
ousting from the home. "IkhrSj - u expulsion, 
ousting, ouster, driving out. bringing out (form IV 
of khamjti [kJiurij], [o go out, io come out See al 
2:217, p 105. n 5; and 2:85, p. 40, n. 7) The 
directive in tin* t'mih has been superseded by ihc 
rules of succession laid down in 'Ayah 4: 12. 

9. Kharajna = they (fern.) went out. came out, left 
(v in f. pi pasl from khtiraju {kimruj\, to go oul 
See khurajal at 2: 1 49. p. 7 1 , n . 1 ). 

10. i. e., if they many, take other husbands or 
conduct themselves according shartah. Fa'atna 

- they (rem.) did, they acted (v. iii f. pi, past from 
faala [filffa'f], lo do, io net See at 2:234, p 1 IS, 
n I). 

1 1 . Ma'rtif - known, well-known, generally 
recognized, universally accepted, conventional, 
appropriate, fairness, equity, approved by simu'ah 
(passive participle from 'arafa/'arifu (mo 'rtfah / 
'irfan\, to know, to recognize. See at 2:234, p. 
1 18. a 2), 



12. Bi al-ma'ritf = with fairness 
appropriate manner, according to equity. 



in the 



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SSrat 2 : At-8mftirab |Part (Jur 1 ) 2) 



Jvu4_MJ^J 












-■ , ju 



■-r ■*'„-- 




iii. as of a duty 

iljs upon the godfearing. 1 



242- Thus 

Allah makes clear 2 for you 

His revelations^ 

so that you may understand. 4 

Section iRukU')12 
243. Do you not know 5 

of those who set out 6 

from their habitations 7 - 

and they were in thousands - 

for fear 8 of death 

and Allah said to them: 

"You all die",' 

then He gave them life? 10 

Verily Allah is Full of Grace 

to mankind 

but most men 

do not express gratitude. ' ' 



^ij 244. And fight 






K 



trrfi*- 



I Mutiaqtn (accusative /genitive of tmiiltiqun. 
sing, tnutttiifim * those who are on their guard, 
godfearing. Active participle from utoqa. form 
VIII til wtujii [unify I mt/aytihl. |o protect 10 
guard. See at 2: 194, p. 93. n 10). 
2, \uhayyina - he makes clear, elucidates, 
explains, expounds (v til in s, itflpfcl. from 
bayyimu, form II of h&itti \hayHn\, to he plam. 
clear). Sec al 2:250. p. 114. n. 7: arid 2:221. p 
109. n. I). 

.1. 'AySl (sing. 'uyah) = proofs, evidences, signs. 

jr n l.iin.iiv murks, tokens, miracles See al 2 2:1 
p. 109, n 2; and 2:09, p 107, n 10). 

4. Ta'qilunn - you (all) understand, realize, be 
reasonable, comprehend (V ii m pi. impfct. from 
atjiila I 'uqi\, tu be endowed with reason See 

...■ .,■■: .k,-.. .1' 1:170, p. SO. n. 6) 

%. Tara - vuu sec. liKik .it, think of. consider. 
know (v. ii m. 5. inipfel fromwV) \rti'y/m'yah\, 
Id sec. When preceded by the particle lam. the 
imperfect verb gives the sense nf a past tense The 
expression here means: Did you not/ do you not 
know The address is 10 the Muslims through the 
Prophet. The 'ayah calk attention 10 the incident 
of a devastating plague afflicting the Jews of old 
who attempted to flee from the pestilence but were 
caused to die and were subsequently restored 10 
life by Allah in response to the prayer of their 
prophet The allusion to this incident is made for 
encouraging the Muslims id fight in the way of 
Allah ijihady which is mentioned in the following 
'Ayah, and lo always remember that life and death 
is in the Hand of Allah Alone. 
6 Kkaraju = they (all) went out, left, emerged, set 
out (v. iii in pi past from kharaja [kkuruj], to go 
out See khurajna al 2:240, p, 55, It 9). 

I. Diyur (sing, dtir} - houses, homes, habitations. 
lands, legioas. Countries. 

K. Hadhar a caution, wakefulness, fear See at 

2:19, p. 10. n. II. 

« Mur& - you (all) die, be lifeless (v ii m. pi. 

imperative from muni {muivY], to die). 

10 'A(iy# = he gave life, revivified {v. iii. m. s. 

past iri loini IV of Anyiyn [hayuh], to live. See 

yailehft at 2:26, p. 14, u. I ). 

II. i'aihkurvna = they express gratntuoc, give 
thanks (v. iii. m pi tmpfct, from thukura 
\shukr/shukrw\]. lo thank. See nahkurunu at 
2:lS5,p SB.n.8) 



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Sinn 1 : M-Hitijititsh [Pan (7k;') 2\ 



123 



^{j-^ ^ i n the way of Allah 
'ijfflffifti an£ * know 2 that Allah is 
JjL^Lf All-Hearing, M-Knowing/ 



"-■•' 



ji\ 



tfjtS^ 245. Who is it lhat 

£tJ»J4 lends 4 to Allah 

u,Jj a handsome* loan; 

so He redoubles'' it for him 

iuit' many a redoubling. 7 

il i^fj And A 1 lah co n s t rici s s 

j and stretches out;* 

2[j and to Him 

%&£^j you shall all be taken back. 1 

J^Jsp 246. Do you nol know 1 ' 
jj^Sltf&s"^* 1 ' of Sne host 12 of BanQ Isra'tl 
after Musa, 
yVjii when they said 

^J to a Prophet 11 unto them: 
ilLJi^i " Raise up 14 for us a king, 
j^i we shall fight 
^j_«4 in the way of Allah." 
JUj He said: 






! Satfi (pi. sabulfajbiluhi = way. path, road 
means. "In itie way of Allah" means tor the sake 
of His d;n ( Islam) and alt il stands for. 

1, llamu = you (all) know, be aware of (v it. m 
pi. imperative from 'alimd \'i!m\, to know. See at 
2:22?. p 1 10. n. 5; and 2:203. p. 98. n. 10). 
), if., all your sayings and doings, whether open 
or secret, are known to Allah. 

4 Yuqrittu = he lends. loans (v. iii. ro. s. nnpfci 

from uitnitiu. to [end. form IV of ifurudtt \ipinl], 

to cut, io seven. Lending to Allah means to spend 

in "His way", i.e . io promote His ttin. in support 

Of the "lighting in [he way of Allah" and for all 

approved charitable purposes. 

5, Hasan - handsome, good. nice, beautiful. It is 

handsome or good because i! is given out of the 

goodness of heart. Technically tjutd Ittitun means 

a loan given without expecting any worldly 

benefit from il and without stipulating any date of 

repayment 

('. t e .. Allah will redouble it many limes in merits 

and rewards. Yuda'ifu = he doubles, redoubles, 

compounds, nwlttpljcs (v. in m. s, impfel from 

'..'«'.!.'■' form III from fttiufn \ J.i '//(ft '/]. io double, 

redouble! 

7. 'Ad'af (sing, di'f) = double, multiple. 

i. Yaqbida - he holds, seizes, grasps, arrests. 

constricts (v. iii. m. s. impfct from ijubtukt 

\ifabJ\. io seize). 

9. I.e.. Allan gives restricted or unrestricted 
wealth, means oT livelihood and olher graces 10 
whomsoever He Wills. Vabtuttt = he stretches, 
stretches out. unfolds, spreads, spreads Hit, 
extends, expands (v iii, in. s. impfct. from Iwam 
\bntt\. to spread], 

10, i.e.. on ihe Oay or Judgement Turja'&na = 
you tall) are returned, taken back, sent back {v. ft. 
IB pi irflpftl passive from raja' a \'uju'\. I" 
return See tarjti a at 2:210. p. 101. n 4). 

I J See al 2:241. p [ll. n 5 

12. Mala' = crowd, gathering, host, grandees, 
council of elders, 

13. Said to be cither Samuel or YOsha* (Joshua) 
or Sham'un, 

14. Ib'alh = you send, dispatch, raise up, bring on 
(v. ii. in s, imperative, from ba'tiitui [ba'lh], to 
send, 10 revive, resurrect. See at 2:129.. p. 61. n,6; 
also see bu aihad at 2' W. p 26, n, 6). 



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124 



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Sirw 2 ; At-Buifarah (Pan (/ml 2] 



. J 








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"Might it be 1 on your part, 

if decreed* on you is 

the fighting, 

thai you would not fight?"' 

They said: 

"What is the matter with us 

that we shall not fight 4 

in the way of Allah 

while we have been ousted 5 

from our homes" 

and our children?" 

But when decreed 

on them was the fighting 

they turned away 7 

except a few of them. 

And Allah is All-Aware 

of the wrong-doers." 

247. And there said to them 
their Prophet: "Allah 
has indeed sent* for you 
TaMl (Saul) as king." 
They said: 



I 'Asajtum = it might he on your port Cast, 
followed by 'tin .- it might be. n could be thai. 
probably, pcriups). 

2, Kuiiha = ii is written, decreed, enjoined, msde 
incumbent, imposed, ordained, prescribed <v. id, 
m. S, pa*! passive from knialm \kaMndbnh]. to 
wme See al 2:2 Id. p, 3R, n 7). 

i Tuqaiituiiui) = you tall) fight, batlte lv. ii. m. 
pi impFct from tf&tatu. forni III of ifaiaia \qatl\, 
lo kill The terminal nan is dropped on account of 
the particle 'an ( 'un-tlai coming before the verb, 
See yatitifiluna at 2:217. p, 105, n ?). 

4 fifugdtilafu) m we tall) right (v L nt. p(, impfct. 
from offifcfit Sec n. 3 above). 

5 'L'khrijna = we were ousted, driven out. 
expelted. dislodged (v. i. m. pi impfct passive 
from 'tikhruju, from IV of kbaraja Iklturuj], to go 
out See ViWiraj at 2 , 240. p. 1 2 1 . n 8). 

6 Oifdr (sing Air) ■ houses, homes, habitations, 
lands, regions, countries. See at 2:24 J. p, 122. n 

n 

7 TavoBaw = they turned away, desisted, 
refrained from (v in nj. pi, pail from tanulttj. 
form V of iriilmt [waly], io be near, be net! See 
at 2: l r 17, p. 65, n,3; and lawullaylum at 2;B.1. p. 
39, n 5} 

8 i.e., those who disobey Allah's eummamlmeiiK 
and refrain from fighting in His way when ordered 
to do so '/.Stiintn (accusative I genitive of 
zutmiiin, sing zJltiii} = transgressors, wrong- 
doers Active participle or zultuim luttm/iulm], to 
transgress, do wrong See al 2:l°3. p. 93. n. 3. 
and 2:15, p. 19, n 5) 

■J. Ha'arha = he sent, dispatched, raised, delegated 
(v. in, m s. past from ba'ili. to send See al 2:2 13. 
p. 102. n. 6). 



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Sara: 2 : Al-Baiiitralt | Pari (Jic ') 2] 



125 






SJCtJwyl "How could it be for him 
_fU^mif the kingship' over us 

Jy- f '!Aj while we are more entitled 3 
iL. jiii'l lo the kingship than he, 
3JJ>£'* and he has not been given 
~A\*)\*<ji i<£ any amplitude 2 of wealth'.'" 
&L{$* He said: "Verily Allah 
*JLi£ ^:,>^ has chosen^ h im aver you 
£Stj(5 and has increased 4 him 
T/i f. u" in the extent' of knowledge 
^-IjJfj and stature; 6 
,I£=aji j>'iLft and Allah gives the kingship 
ili^_^ to whosover He will. 
&6$& Allah is All-Reaching, 1 
JLiS All-Knowing,* 

'J^'jCs'i 248. And there said to them 
,,_j "_■.*■ their Prophet: 
;*£f*^ i-^'I &J " The sign' of his kingship is 
'f^sCXJ that there shall come to you 

ijitJjf the chest, 10 
t^'-AJt wherein will be tranquillity 11 



'{JirS from your Lord 



1 . i.e., how could he he Icing over us'.' iWiiVt - rule, 
dominion, sovereignly, kingship, royally, see al 
2:107. p, SI. n. I. 

2. They said so because they had among them 
those who were descendants of kings. 

.1. Sa'ak = Widencss, spaciousness, profusion, 
abundance, plenitude, amplitude, affluence 

3. istafa = he chose, selected, picked out, singled 
oui (v iii. m, s, past in form Vtll of m/a 
[jii/TiAif/uM'/jo/u']. lo be clear, See at 2:132. p. 
62, n 9; aaAistiifayna al 2; 1 30, o, 62, n. 4). 

4. 2Ma = he increased, grew, became more, 
augmented, added, enlarged, extended (v. iii. m. s. 
past from zuyd/ziyddah). 

5 llasiah = extent, expanse, breadth, vaslncss, 
abundance, magnitude. See yabtslU al 2:245, p 
I2,1,n,9- 

6. Jism (.pi ujsam) = body, physique, shape, form, 
stature, muss, nutter. 



7, i.e., in mercy and grace. T+'iti' = wide. vast, 
extensive, far-teaching, all-reaching, abounding 
[in mercy, grace, generosity): active participle 
frotn iKai'a/maa'a [«™ru'afr], io be wide See at 
2:115, p, 55. n. 4). 

8, i e., about the needs and welfare of Hi* servants 
and about the propriety of the object of His grace. 

9 'Ayah (pi, dvdi) ■ sign, evidence, mark, proof, 
revelation, unit of the Qur'iinic text, miracle. See 
at2:2ll.p, IOI.n.8) 

10. i.e., the chest in which Musa kept the Tuwriih 
and which was made (o reappear along with other 
iclics as a sign of Allah's having selected Tilut as 
king over the Israelites, T&hut (pi. ttiwubil) = 
chest, box. case, coffin, sarcophagos. 



Jl Sakinah i pi sukii'tti) 
Iranqiiillily. 



peace of mind, 



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126 



Sural 2 ; AlBaatirtlh [Part (/in) 2) 



and the remainder 1 of what 
Sfi there left behind 2 
,. - rv JK the progeny of Musa 
jjj-^* j £j and the progeny of Harim, 
iiLiLLSfiuJ^ there carrying" 1 it the angels. 
_iiJ T j4il Indeed therein is 
,^=LJ ~*^i a sure sign for you, 
„^> > ^jji if you are believers. 
"£» 

Section (Ruku') 33 
i-jSlij^iCii 249.Then when Talut set out 4 

jlf jj^iit w '^ 'he troops' 5 he said: 
&V Sit^l "Verily Allah will test* you 
j^l with a river. 7 
IL^S^uIj So whoever drinks 8 of it 
^y^Ji shall not be of me; 9 
2pJ*j and who does not taste J " it, 
tifl .Ui he shall be of me, 

'^lT V ' savc tne one w ^ scoops' ' 
1,£k& a scoop 12 with his hand." 
ii*!|^ But they drank 11 of it 
■s "i-i'Vl except a few of them. 
rfjjCllS So when he crossed 1 * i( - 



I Haqiyjah (pi, baqdyift a remainder, residue. 
remnant 

2. Tarafa = he lefl, left behind, abandoned, gave 
up. renounced, passed over (v. in m. s. past from 
lark, to leave) 

1 rn^nnVu = she carries, bears, holds (v, iii, f. s. 
inipfci, from hamnla/iyimtla \hum!]_ to cany). 

4. Fainia a he sel out, moved away, started. 
scparnicd, severed (v. lit. m. s, past from /or/, to 
separale). Tilut sel om from Bayi at-Maqdis 

5. Jun&tH$ing, jundt a iroops, soldiers, army, 

6. Mttfrtalia - tester. One who is going lo put to 
lest, going [a try (aclive participle from iblalU, 
farm VIII of bata [balw/b<iiti[, lo test, 10 try) See 
ibtala al 2:124. p. 58. n. 12: end mibtuwanmi at 
2:154. p, 73. n. 6. 

7. A river be Iween Palestine and Jordan. 

8. Shariba = he drank, sipped, drenched (v it], m. 
s, pail from slmrb/nuisbrtib . See 'athribu al 2:9J. 
p. 44, n. 10). 

9. i.e.. o( my followers and adhere Ms 

If! Vat emu = he tastes, cals, relishes (v. iii. m. s. 
impfcl. from htimti \ la'm\. lo I isle). 

1 1 . Ighlarafa - he scoops, ladles, lakes a handful 
(v. iii in. s. past in form VIII ofgharqfa Igltiirf], 
lo scoop, lo spoon, to ladle), 

12 Ghtirfak (pi. yhiraft a handful, the amount 
of wuler scooped with one hand 

13, Skaribu m they drank (v, iii. m. pi. pasi from 
shariba, See n. It above. 

14 Jdwuza - he crossed, walked past, passed 
over, exceeded, surpassed (v, iii, m s past in 
form It I of jditi [iawQt/mttj&zf, io pass, to be 
allowed). 



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Sarin I Ai-Butjarak [Part {.Jul,') 2] 



117 






J™^ 1 "! 



*l]l Jill 










he and those who 

believed' with him - 

they said: 

"No power have we today 

with Goliath and his hosts." 

There said those who 

believed with certitude 1 

that they would meet* Allah: 

"How many a band s 
small in number 
vanquished 6 a numerous host 
by Allah's leave: 

and Allah is with 

the persevering ones," 7 

250. And as they emerged * 
against Goliath and his army 
they said: "Our Lord, 
pour out* on us patience 
and make firm 10 our feet, 
and give us victory" 
over the infidel people." 



I. ic., those who believed and passed ihc test of 
the river. II is said (hat tsf the huge army who had 
originally accompanied I tic king only three 
hundred and some ten id twenty soldier, 1 , passed 
Ihe lest of the river. See Ibn Kaihfr. Tufitir. I. 
446^t47. BukkAri. nos. 1957 - 3959 

3. Tdqak = power, ability, capactly, strength 

.1. i.e. Ihe learned and wise ones of ihein who had 
had nil II inching faith, Yazunnfma - they 
Suppose, conjecture, think; also, they I irmly 
believe, have conviction (v. iii m pi. impfct 
from iiiiffsu [umn\, W finnly believe, lo suppose 
It is one uf rriiny words, in Arabic that bear almost 
opposite senses See at 2:78. p .17, n. I; and 2:46, 
p. 22, n 14) 

4. \tiitiqd\n}, (pi of nwldain) = the meeting 
ones, those who air goinjj to meet (active 
participle from liiqa, form It) of fcftfivu 
[Uqii'f)iiqyi)iiJtutiyAiitiyah/iuqiin\, lo inert, lo 
encounter. The [Ctmimtl nun is dropped on 
account of Ihe genitive construction with 
rabbitdm. See at 2:233, p. i 10, n. 6). 

5. Fi'ah (plrinv) a party, group, band, class. 

a Ghniabal = she triumphed, overpowered, 
overcame, defeated, vanquished, gained victory, 
won (v. iii. f. t, past from ghaliittu | ghulb 
//>liti!iibtiii\, to defeat). 

7. Sahirtn (pi. of stibir in the accusalive/geinlivc) 
■ the paticnl, (be persevering, Ihe steadfast, the 
forbearing. Active participle from $abnra \stibr] 
to be paticnl. See at 2:177, p. 84, n. I: and 2lI51. 
p. 71. n.t). The 'iHtrfi emphasizes the fact that 
victory comes, from Allah and not from the 
hugeness of number The next ayah spells nut the 
three -fold prayer which a believer should make 
when confronting the forces or unbelief and evil; 
eg, prayer to Allah for the bestowal of unlimited 
patience, for making ones stand against the 
enemy firm and unfaltering and for help and 
victory. 

8 Uurdzu = they came out. appeared, came to ihe 
view, emerged (v. iii. m. pi. past from barazst 
[huriz], io tome into view), 
9. 'Afiigti a pour out, empty, unload (v. ii. m s. 
imperative from affagha, form IV of 
famgha/furigha [/fJitfe;*! /furugh]. to be empty). 
ID. Thabbit = (you) make firm, stabilize, 
strengthen <v. ii. m. s. imperative from ihnbimia, 
form II of thitbaia [ liuibai/ihubUt], to stand firm. 
II. Unsur a (.you) give victory, help (v n m. i. 
imperative from MUHTH [iitiir/nusur]. to help, to 
give victory. See yunsariinii at 2. 1 23, p SS, n 1 1 ). 



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12* 



Siirtit 2 : Al-Batfuruli [Pan Uuri 2] 



i jo"; 

- 



251 . So they routed 1 ihcm 
% by Allah's leave; 






i -£>.» jljj and Daud killed J 
^LiC Goliath 

^»j and Allah gave 1, him 
^±X±\ the kingdom 
-^i=s4-ii and the wisdom/ 

^liej and imparted him knowledge 5 
UcSlC of what He willed. 



Hy'i And had there not been 

J-GijjljfiLij Allah's repulsing^the people/ 

,fi^^+^ some by means of the others/ 

oiUll spoiled would have been 9 

i, ^n the earth; 

,-T: but Allah is 
j\ Full of Grace 
^j^'^- upon all (he beings, 
gp 

£$ 252 . These are 
; the revelations'°of Allah 
&tj»j!LH We recite" them unto you 
"*l[f, in truth; 
Jiiij and you indeed arc 
&&j^>j4 one of the Messengers. 13 



■Ull, 



I 1/ar.amu - the muted, put to flight, vanquished, 
defeated (v. in in. pi past Truiii soma Item], 
■0 pui io flight). 

2. Qetata s he (tilled, slew (v iij. m, s past (mm 
jjurt. l« kill Daitd was in the army of Taliil 

1 'Ali = he gave, bestowed, gianicit (v. iii. m. s. 

pas( from (i/u, lenn IV of W<3 [rj>un/^>/mu nJAj. 

lo come See '.j.'wiNirn at 2;253. p ]|7. n. 9) 

Mud was given the kingdom after the death of 

TaluKJSaul) and Samuel. 

4 Hikmuh (pi hikiim) = wisdom, sagacity Here 

il means nubawwah or prophelhood. 

S; 'Aitama = he taught, instructed, imparted 

knowledge (v. iii. m. s. pail in fnmi II of ahmti 

I "i/jh|, to know. See at 2:239. p, 121, ji. [>, 

6, Dap m io push away, driving off. dislodging, 

repelling, wording off. repulsing 

7 i e . the wrong-doing und evil ones, 

B. i.e., the believing and righteous who fight in the 

way of Allah. 

9 Fasadat ~ she became bad/ rotten/ spoiled/ 

coiTupl/unsound/pervened/ viijatcd/dcpraved (v. 

iii f s. past fiom/Kvojfu lfmikt^iuud\. io he bad 

See mufsidn 2 220. p 107, n, 15). 

JO Vi>oV{iing tiyoft) = proofs, evidences, signs. 
' revelations, marks, tokens, miracles. See at 2:242. 
p 122, n. 1:2:221. p, 109. n 2; and 209. p. 107, 
it. 10). 

1 1 - Wailu = wc reeiie, read, lead aloud (v. i. pi 
impfd from lata \fi!u*uh\, to redes. See vallu al 
2:151, p. 72, n. J). 

12 MarsaRn (accusative /genitive of mLr.ittlun, 
sing nurr.nif) - messengers, those sent nut, 
despatched, delegated (passim participle from 
'arsaltt . form (V of rimla [m.tu(|. to be long and 
flowing. In ftirm IV this verb means lo send out, Io 
dispatch). 






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Sural 2 Ai-Bitojaratt (Pari {Jul >3] 



129 



jj/jljii^ 



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, , . t '•' 













Part \juz'] III 
253. These Messengers, 
We have given precedence 1 
to some over the others. 
Among them are those 
whom Allah spoke 2 to; 
and He raised 1 some of them 
in ranks; 4 
and We gave 
'tsa, son of Mary am, 
the clear evidences/ 
and aided* him 
with Ruh Al-Quds [Jibril]. 1 
And were Allah to will, 
there would not have 
fought with one another* 1 
those who came after them, 
after there had come to them 
the clear evidences. 



ijul^-i J^Jj Bui they differed;'' 
so among them were 
those that believed; 
and among them were 



- - 1' - 



7T~.i 



1 . Fatftfalnfi - we gave precedence. preferred (v 
i. pi, past from faddtiia. form II of fadala \fadl 
(M<it\, to excel, surpass, to be in excess. See 
faJdiilia al 2: 122. p. 58, n. 3). 

2. Kaltmna = he spoke, talked, addressed (V. iii 
in I, past in form IL of kahuna [kalm] : to injure, to 
wound. In its form II Ihc verb means to Speak. Sec 
yltkatlimu at 2:118. p, 56, n, I), The reference 
here is to such Prophets as 'Adam, Musa and 
Muhjunmad, peace be on Ibem ( Sec At'Bahr 
ul-Muhfl. II. 600). 

3. Rafa'a c he raised, elevated, lifted, made high 
(v. iii. m. s. past from rttf\ to lift. See rafa'nii HI 
2:93, p. 44. n. 6, and yarfau at 2: J 27, p. 60, a. 9). 

4. Darajal (sing, darajah) = rank, position, 
grades, degrees, stairs, flight of steps. See darujab 
at 2228. p. 112, n .8. The reference is here to 
such Prophets as Idris, Ibrahim and Muhammad, 
peace be on them, particularly the last mentioned, 
whom Allah favoured by sending down to him Ihe 
Quran. Ihc lasting miracle, besides Other 
mimics, and by making him ihc Final Prophet 
and the Leader of all ihc Prophets. 

5. Bayyinai (sing, bayyirtah) = clear signs, 
indisputable evidences see at 2:213. p, 102. n, 
ID. and 2:209. p. 100. n. 13), The reference is to 

llie iiiirailt-s given by Allah I" 'M |*;icl- be OK 

him. as well as to the Book sent down on him 

6. 'AyydditS = we aided, supported, backed, 
confirmed, corroborated (v. i pi. past from 
'ayyada. form II from 'Ma [ayd}. to be strong 
See at 2:87, p 4l,n. ?J. 

7 Kith at'Quds (the spirit of holiness) is a 
special name of the angel Jibril, bearer of Allah's 
wahy lo His Prophets (see 2:97). He is also called 
simply iit-Ruh (the spirit), as in 97:1, and ui-R&h 
td-Amia (the failhful spirit), as in 26:193. The 
meaning of Allah's Hiding "isa with Jibril means 
that he was given wahy and a scripture, besides 
other help a) different Stages of his life: and the 
whole emphasis on him is to denounce the 
conduct of those who deny his Prophcthood (see 
2:87. p 41, ns 7 and 8) 

8, Iqtotala = he fought wilh one another, 
combated each other (v. iii, m. s. post in from VIII 
of tftitatu \yalt]. lo kill. See i/alaia at 2:251. p. 
128, n. 2). 

9. lkhtaiafu - they differed, disagreed, were at 
variance, disputed (v. iii. m. pi. past from 
ikhiatafu, form Vlll of khalafa [khalf], to come 
after See yakhtalifuna al 2: 176, p. 83, n. I ). 



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130 



Sural 2 : Ai-Saqarah (Part {Jia ' J 3] 



X- 


those thai disbelieved. 


-o)< *i~jy.) 


And were Allah to will 


£ 


they would not have 




fought amongst themselves; 1 




but Allah does 


^0-vJ.^ 


what He intends. 2 




Section (RuM') 34 




254, you who believe, 


■ * 1 tA40 


expend* out of what 


J^-JJJ 


We have bestowed 4 on you 




before that there comes 




a day 5 




no trading 6 shall be therein, 




nor any friendship 6 


•J, 


nor any intercession. 7 


ujtjfSOij 


And the unbelievers. 8 




they are the wrong-d 


oers. 




255. Allah,' 




*>£"** 


there is no deity 10 


ji^l 


except He, 


S* 


the Ever-Living, 



1 Iqtatalu = ihey fought amongst themselves (v. 
iii m. pi. past from iijltiiuiu. form VUI of ifiilula 
lijall], lo kill. Sec tylulala al p. 129, n. 8). 

2. Yurtdu = he intends, desires, has in mind (v, 
in m 5 irnpfcl form 'uriidti. for IV ttotll radu 
\mwd\. to walk about. Sec al 2;I85. p. 86. n. J) 

3. Anfiqu = you (alt) expend. Spend, lay out (v, 
it- m. pi, imperative from unftiua . form IV of 
nafatju Intifuq], to be used us, Id be spent See at 
2:195. p. 93, n II), The spending hew iivesms 
spending in the way of Allah and for approved 
charities, particularly the paying of the Obligatory 
wjtrjJi on surplus property. 

4. RazaqttS - we provided with (he means of 
Wb HW Crt Ctt bestowed, gave, endowed, blessed (v. 
I. p| past from ttizsqu \r\zq\, to provide, bestow. 
See at 2; 1 72, p. 81. n.2}, 

5. i.e., the Day of Judgement 

6. Bay' (pi buya/buya'at) - selling or buy me, 
trading. The word bay' is especially appropriate 
here in that none shall be able to get any benefit 
(e.g., forgiveness] on [full day in lieu of all the 
riches or weatlJl be might intend to dispose of 

7. i.e., worldly friendship with any particular 
individual or group of individuals will not be of 
any avail, for no friend will come to the aid of his 
friend on the Day of XudgeiOenl, Khutlah (pi 
kisuktl) - friendship. 

7. i.e.. none will be able to intercede for another 
without Allah's permission. Shafa'ah ■ 
intercession, advocacy, mediation The word is 
derived from ahaf. meaning either part of a pair 
and is so mcani because of the joining of one to 
another to speak on behalf of the latter. See at 
2:123. p. 58. n 10: and 2:48. p. 23. n. 10). 

8. "Unbelievers" here has the special sense of 
those who do not believe in Allah's injunctions in 
lhal (hey do not abide by them, such as not 
paying the obligatory it/kHh. 

9. This 'Jy«A is called 'dyal at-Kuniyy or the 
'ayah or the Chair, It emphasizes monotheism, 
particularly in respect of worshipping {tawhid 
cii- 'uluhivwh) and contains a sublime description 
of Allah. It is the greatest uyuA in the Qur'an (see 
Muslim, no. 810. Musniui. II, 221; V, 58. 141, 
142). As Jbn Kalhir points out, Ihis '&yuh consists 
of ten independent Sentences tlbn Kathir, Tapir, 
i, 4J5-459), each of immense significance. 

10 ilah (pi. dlihah) = deity, one worthy to be. 
worshipped. 



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Sural 1 MBuifotah (Pan {Juz ) 3] 



131 



fjM the Ever-Alert. 
OSZ&i There never grips' Him 
'iL? somnolence,* 
}-'y*ij nor sleep. 

& To Him belongs 
v^llJi "j> whatever is in the heavens 
l£jV^ l*j and whatever is in the earth. 1 
oi»i,>* Who can there be 
= »'1^.^*£* that can intercede 4 with Him 
■?*;iW'. except by His leave? 
pjt He knows 
^tzlS 'JC£ what is in their front 6 
'\^\'j and what is in their rear;' 
■j^UjuVj and they cannot comprehend* 
i^i^. ^j anything of His Knowledge 
iti C.^ except of what He wills. 
*i~-j**j His foot-stoof encloses 10 
J^^o^llli the heavens and the earth; 
*i£?i'} and it fatigues" Him not 
C^i>- the sustaining of the two; 
^p'^j and He is the Exalted, 
f the Sublime. 



t Ta'kkudku = ilw or ii lakes, seizes, grabs, 
lakes hold of, grips {v. iii. f, s. impfci. from 
akhtidha ['akhdh}, to lake, Sec ta'khudhu at 
2:229. p. L 12. n IJJ 

2 '•rnuA = somnolence, slumber, sleepiness, 
sluggishness, drowsiness, lethargy, 
J. The sentence declares Allah's absolute and 
exclusive mastery and dominion over the entire 
universe and all lhat it cofilairvs, animate or 
inanimate. Note ihe phrase "whatever is in the 
earth". It conceives the earth as a container 
Indeed our globe with ils aimoipheni: belt and the 
pniviiLiiLini.il BMt around IS constitute a 
uomainei. II the alniosphcnt belt and the 
gravitational zone are removed, nothing can 
continue to stay on the Surface of the earth or 
under ils surface. The phrase "in the earth" is thus 
very appropriate and significant- II occuts many 
limes in the Qur'an. To translate it as "on ihe 
earth", as some does, is not quite contel 

4 Vashfa'u = be intercedes, advocates, pleads for 
(v. in m s impfci. from ihofu'a \ihaf]. lo 
subjoin, add See thaf&'iih at 2:254, p. 130, n. 7). 

5 Ya'tamu = he knows, is aware of (v iii ot s 
impfci. from 'ulima \"itm], to know. Sec 
ya'ttimunu at 2: 102. p. 49. n. 4}- 

6 Rayna 'aydihim (lit. between their hands] is 
an idiomatic espression meaning "before ot in 
front of them", i.e., what they can see and 
perceive, in their presence, in iheif possession. 

7 Khaif - behind, rear. 'What is in llwir rear" 
means whal is unknown and unseen to Ihem 
This includes their future as well as that which 
they themselves conceal, one from another. See 
khulf at 2:66. p. 31, n. 10. 

X Vuhituna - they comprehend, grasp fully, 
encompass, enclose, encircle {v. iii. m. pi- impfci 
form 'ahSia, farm IV of hata \ku\nt /hiiiih / 
hiyaiahj], to surround, to guard, to watch}. 
f. Kuniyy (pi. karasiy/karSsia'i = foot-stool, 
pedestal, chair, Kursiyy is distinct from ai-'Anh 
mentioned at some 20 places in the Qur'an. See 
for Lnslance 40:7. 40:15. 43:82, 81:20 and 85:15. 
10. Wnsi'a = he or it encloses, encompasses, 
holds,, accommodates, contains, comprises (v. iii. 
m. s. past from wai(i V«( '*], lo be wide), 
1 1 Ya'Gdn = he or ii fatigues, weighs down, tires, 
bends (v, iii. iti, S. impfct from ada [ 'awd ], to 
bend, lo weigh down}. 



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132 



Sural 2 : At-Baqanih [Pari tfui') 3] 



'.$yi 256. No compulsion' is there 
Em$j in the matter of the religion, 2 
1^;^ Distinct has already become i 
Jjf-j. Jjjj\ guidance 4 from error .^ 

So whoever disbelieves^ 
in the false gods 7 
and believes in Allah 



*dt_.. 









* 4 r 

Nil 

is 




i^jSdJi 



does indeed hold fast 
to a grip' most secure, 10 
It shall not crack," 
And Allah is. All-Hearing, 
All -Knowing. 

257. Allah is 

the Guardian-Protector" 

of those who believe. 

He brings them out 11 

from the darkness 14 

to the light.' 5 

But those who disbelieve, 

their patron-friends 

are the false gods. 

They bring them out 



I Ikrah = compulsion, coercion, use of force 
{verbal noun in form IV of kursha \turh fkarh 
fkarahah I karahiyah]. lo detest Sec kurh and 
fakrahu al 2:2 16, p 101. ns 8 and VI 

2. i.e., in iriakmg one embrace the religion. 

3. i e ., Ihe way of life enunciated by the Qur'5n is 
so distinctly ennobling and enligiileriing than the 
life of error and disbelief dial anyone exercising 
good sense will be attracted to the former and 
[here will be no need lo use force 10 make him 
embrace it Tahayyana = he or it became clear 
/open/ evident/ manifest (v iii. m. s. past in form 
V of bUmi [huyn/bayfin], to be clear, evident. See 
ai2J09.p, 52, n .3). 

4 Rushd a right and proper conduct, good sense. 

maturity of the mind, guidance. Sec vtiryhuduim 

at 2: 186, p. 89. n 3. 

5. (ihayy - error, transgression, offence. 

ft Yatfar(a) - he disbelieves, becomes ungrateful 

(V iii. rn. s. mipfcl. from kaftirti \knfr fkufrun / 

kufur], lo disbelieve. See kufnri h 2:212. p 101. 

n II) 

1. Tighut - lalsc gud/gods, Salon lused for both 

singular and plural). 

K. hiamsuka - he took Of urn hold or, held fast, 

caught, grasped, grabbed, clutched, seized, clung 

i'v in in v. pasl in form X of maiakti [mti*k\, m 

grab See amsiku al 2:23}, p { 14. n 12)) 

9. 'Vrwah (pi. 'mm) = grip, hold, handle, tic. 

support, bond. loop. 

1 1 1 WulhfS (fern of uwihai/, cl.uive of mirAfy) = 

more/moil firm, strong, secure 

I I tnfisdm = to have a crack, be cracked/ spin/ 
clefl. (verbal noun in form VII of fasumti ifmmy 
to cause to crack I, 

12. Wuffyy (pi nwliyii > = guardiim-pcolcctor, 
legal guardian, protector, patron, patron-friend, 
sponsor, near relative. See at I 1 20, p. 57, n 6). 
|1 Yukhriju - he lakes or brings out, removes, 
dislodges, ousis, cupels, dispossesses (v. iii. m. s. 
impfel from ukhirvjti. form IV i>f kharaju 
[khura}). to go out See 'ukkrtyl&M 2:246. p. 124. 
n 5) 

14. i. e„ the darkness of unbelief and sins, 
Zulumdi (sing lulmnh) = darkness, gloom. See at 
2:17. p. 9, nil 

15. i.e . the light or faub and of Islam, of nght 
conduct and right guidance, 



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SSrat 2 : At-Saifaruli IPfltt {Jut') 3| 



133 



jjp OS 



> /•■ .J 






&JB 



iil^ 



k Oft 



from the light 

to the darkness. 

Such ones are 

the inmates 1 of the fire. 

They in there 

will remain forever/ 

Section iRitkH') 35 
258. Have you not thought 
of the one who controverted' 
Ibrahim about his Lord 
in that Allah had given him 
the kingdom? 
When Ibrahim said: 
"My Lord is the One Who 
gives life* and causes death" 5 
he said: 

"I give life 6 and cause death. 7 
Ibrahim said: 
"But verily Allah 
brings* the sun 
from the east. 
Bring it then 



I I 'AshSb (sing, sahib) - mmalcs, dwellers, 
companions, associates, comrades, Followers, 
owners, possessors , See <ti 2:217, p. 106. n. 2), 

2. KhaUdin (sing khalid) = living or remaining 
forever, everlasting (active participle from 
khuiada [khulud\, to live or remain for ever. See 
at 2 SI, p. 38.il 6. and 225. p 13. n Id) 



3. HAjja - he controverted, debated, disputed, 
argued (v. iii. m. s. past in farm III of hujja, to 
overcome, to convince, to perform the kajj. See 
luljUijunn at 2: 1 39, p, 65, it. 91. The reference here 
is la N.imrudh. irte despotic king of ancient Iraq 
(Babylon) who was puffed up with the power and 
kingdom given lo him by Allah and disputed with 
and tortured Ibrahim on account of his 
propagation of monotheism and the worship of 
Allah Alone. 



4. Ytthyi - he gives life, brings to lire, animates, 
reanimates, revivifies (v, iii,, m, s impfvi. hum 
't'iiyi'i, form IV of hayiya [hay&it}, lo live. See 
ojjiu at 2:243. p 122, n 10),' 

5. Yumitu - he causes death, puts lo death (v. iii. 
m. s. impfci. from 'amain, form IV of mOta 

[muwl], Iodic. 

6. V^i - t give life, bring to life (v. i. s, impfci. 
from 'uhya. form IV of hayiya. See n. 4 above). 

7. 'L'mttu = I cause death, put to death (v. i. i. 
imp ft i (com 'sotSfis, form IV of mom. See n. 5 
above), 

B. Yu'ii - he comes, arrives (v iii. m. s. impfci. 
from 'tu& [iry&n/'tity/mu'tiih]. to come, This verb, 
fallowed by the particle hi means: to bring, come 
up with, produce, bring forward, accomplish). 
Here it means Allah causes the sun to rise from 
the cost. 






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111 



A'druf 2 : Al-0<ii(titoh [Part {Jui'i 3] 






y^^J^cri from (he west. 

Hence dumb-founded was 
the one who disbelieved. 
And Allah does not guide 3 
the transgressing people, 1 



259. Or like the one who 

passed 4 by a town, 5 

and it was fallen 6 

on its roofs. 7 

He said: "How and when can 

Allah give it life" 

after its death?" 

So Allah made him die 

a hundred years, 

then He raised 9 him up. 

He [Allah] said: 

"How Jong did you stay?" 10 

He said: "I stayed 1 ' a day 

or pan of a day," 

He said: "Nay, you remained 

a hundred years. 



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I Bukita - he wai dumb-founded, astonished, 
bewildered. perplexed, startled, rendered 
speechless (v ■■■. m. %. pas! passive from bahuia \ 
bahi\ io be astonished). 

2. Yaltdi - he guides, shows ihc way (v in. m s 
impfci from haM Ihtidy/hudtin/hidayah]. lo 
guide, to lead. See al 2: 142, p. 67, n 5>. 

3. %dlimtn (aceusalivc /genitive of tillimii'i. sing. 
;dhm\ - transgressors, wrongdoers Active 
participle of intuma [zutm\. to transgress, do 
wrong. See at 2:246. p. 1 14. a. B), 

4 Marra =; he parsed by, walked past, elapsed, 
ran out (v. in. m. s. pasl [marr/marur/mamiirr\Y 
The incident related Hew refers to the cily of Bayl 
al-Maqdl$ a Her us destruction by Bukhmasr 
(Nebuchadnezzar). The person alluded 10 has been 
variously identified by the commentatora: bin n is 
mil the indenltty of ihc individual but the lesson 
imparled by ihc iiytih which is important 

5, If. It.iyl alMaqdii 

6, Kh&wiyah (mas. kMwin active participle from 
khawa \khiiwu/k)itMtm}) ^ fallen, empty, vacant, 

desolate. 

7, 'VrUsk (sing, 'ursk/'arish) = roofs. As an 
idiomatic expression kh&win 'M KriMhi means 
completely devastated 

S. Yuhyi ~ he gives life, brings to life, animates, 
team mates, revivifies (v. iii. m. i. impfci from 
trifiyd, form IV of hayiya [haydh], to live. Sec 
2:257, p. 1 .13. n. 4; and 2:141. p 1 22, n 10) 

9. Ba'atha = he sent, dispatched, raised, raised up 
{v. iii. m. s. past from far (A, to send, to raise, See 
at 2:213. p. 102, n 6) 

10. ijibithta a you stayed, remained, lingered, 
persisted (v. li. m. s. past from lubitha [labth. 
lubtfi/tubtith], to remain) 

11. labiihiu a I stayed, remained, lingered, 
persisted (v. i. m. s. past from labiilw. Sec note 
10 above). 



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iiirnr 2 ; AlUantirah (Port yfuz) 3| 

I. Ta'&m [pi. tu'irwih'b = footl, diet, nieal. 



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So look at 

your food 1 and your drink/ 
they have not changed; -1 
and look at your donkey - 
and thai We may set you* 
as a sign for mankind - 
and look ai the bones/ 
how We reanimate 6 them 
and clothe 7 them with flesh." 
So when it was clear* to him 
he said: " I [now] know* 
that Allah is over everything 
AIl-PowerfuL" 

260. And when Ibrahim said; 
"My Lord, show me how 
you give life 10 to the dead.' 1 
He said: 

"Do you not then believe?" 
He said: "O yes; but that 
assured may be my heart."" 
He [Allah] said: "So take 12 
four of the birds," 



2 Sharab (pi. ashnbuh) = drink, beverage Scc 
shuribu at 2:249. p 1 26, n. 13 

I i'aiafantish - he of it changes, stales, 
becomes impaired by (he lapse of lime (v. iii m 
s. impfci. in form V from sopoAf. Preceded by the 
panicle kirn, an imperfea verb gives (he sense of 
a pas! tense 

4 ,\'aj'alaiu} - we make. set. put. place, bring 
about (v i. pi. impfci, (romja'tila [/«'/]. 10 make 
Sec ja 'a I'm ai 2: 1 25. p, 59, n . 6 ), 

5. '/iont (sing, 'am) ■ bones. 

6. Nunshitu = We reanimate, revive, restore to 
life (v. i. pi. impfci. from 'unshaza. form IV of 
nashaja \nashr], to rise, be elevated) 

7 fiaksu b we clothe, dress, garb, drape (v. i pi. 
impfci from Jhasd \,tasw\, io clothe. Sec kiswvh al 
2:233. p. 116. n. 12) 

K Tabayyana a he or it became clear /open/ 
evident/ manifest (v iii. m. s. pail in Farm V of 
bona Ibayn/btiydn], |q be elear, evident See at 

2:256. p. 132.(1. 3>. 

9. 'A'lftmU = I know, aim aware (v i. s. impfci. 
fcum 'alimn ['ilia], lo know. See ya'famu at 
2:255, p. 131, n.S). 

It). I'uljyi a you give life, bring to life, revivify 
(v. ll m. s. impfci . from nhya, form [V at hayiya 
[hiivHlil lo live. Sec yuhyi at 2259. p. 134, it. 3) 

I I talma 'inne = he or il is assured, gels rest is 
ai ease, is composed, is tranquil, iv iii. m t. 
impfct i r ■ ■ i - ■ .':«•<. ,i'..'!ii! 

12. Khudh a (you) lake, get (v, ii. in s, 
imperative from 'ukhiuttta l'akhdfi\, 10 take. See 
khiuihu al 2:63. p. 30. n. 7). 

13, Tayr (pi. luyit) = bint, birds l also omen, 
augury. 



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Sural 2 : At-Baifarah (Fori (Atz'> 3 J 



then make them inclined 1 
to you; then place - ' 
on every hill 
a portion' 1 of them; 
and then give them a call, 4 
ihey will come to you 
in all haste/ 
i&CPf&j And know that Allah is 
■&■ All-Mighty, All-Wise. 



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Section (Ruku') 36 

261 . The likeness of those 

who expend 6 their wealth 7 

in the way of Allah 8 

is as the likeness of a grain 9 

that sprouts 10 seven ears," 

in each ear are 

hundred grains. 

And Allah multiplies 12 

for whomsoever He wills. 

Allah is All-Reaching, 15 

All-Knowing.' 4 



1 , Sur - (you) make incline or cause to incline (v 
ii, in s, imperative from sunt [iuwr\. Its cause ID 
incline), It also means lo cul lo pieces 

2. i.e.. aficr tuning ihcm (0 pieces. which 
meaning is either contained in the previous 
imperative of to he implied Ij'nl = (you) place, 
put (v it m s, imperative from ju'ala \jiil]. to 
make, pm. plate. Sec at 2:126. p. 60. n I). 

S. J»z' (pi ajm'l = portion, part, piece, seeliflo, 
division 

4. Ud'u = (yon) call, give a call. ■, murium, invite 
(v. ti. m s. imperative from th'd [du'd], to call. 
See yad'irm a( 2:221. p. IOS. n 10: and du'a at 
1: 186. p. 89. n 1 1 

5. Sa'y = (d move speedily, ta run, to proceed 
hurriedly, to stnve/endeavciur/iittempl Sec sa'&at 
2:205. p 99, n. 5). 

6. rurtftqiinii = (hey spend, disburse, espensi. lay 
out (v. in. hi pi. impfct. from 'tmliuin. form IV of 
ittijtiifti \i\ojcuj), to be jpent, to be used up See at 
2:219. p. 107. n. 7; and 221 5, p. 104. n. 2), 

7 AmvM (sing ntiSi) - wealth, properties, 
possessions, assets, funds, chattels, goods, 
fortune, money, 

S. i.c, in compliance with His directives in 
respect of charity, in the payment of wkah and in 
support of the fighting for the din, 

9 Habfrah (pi. hubub) - grain, seed, com, kernel, 
cereal, pill. 

10. Anbatat = she or it sprouted, grew, 
germinated, produced (v. lii. f. s. past from 
anl'titti. form IV ol niihulti [nabi] r to grow, to 
sprout See tunbuu at 2:6), p. 28. n, 14}. 

I I Snmihit H.linp mr.httlah) = spikes, ears (of 

grain). 

12, i.e., as many time* as He wilts. YudA'lftt = he 
doubles, redoubles, compounds, multiplies [v. ui. 
m s. impfct, from Jii'ufci, form III from du'afa 
Idii'J 7 di'f). to double, redouble. Sec at 2:245. p 
lij.n. 6). 

I J. i.e.. in His grace and mercy. 

14. i.e.. All-knowing about the deeds and 
thoughts of His creatures, open or secret, and 
about Whp deserves His special grace. 



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S&rttt 2 : Ai-Banarah [Pari Um ) 3) 



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262. Those who expend 1 
their wealth 

in the way of Allah, 

then do not follow up 2 

what they have spent' 

w ith a flaunt of favour* 

or with insult, 5 

they shall have their reward 5 

with their Lord; 

and no fear 7 will be on Ihem 

nor will they grieve. 6 

263. Words of kindness* 
and excusing 10 are better 11 
than benefaction' 3 
followed 1 "' by insult. 

And Allah is All-Sufficient, 
Most Forbearing. 

264. O you who believe, 

do not nullify 14 your charities 
by a flaunt of favour 
and by offending. 



1. YunfitjUna - they spend, disburse, expend, lay 
nut U in m. pi miplci from iwfaqa, form IV of 
nafaqa [nafaq], to be spent, lo he used up. See at 
2:61, p 136. n. 6; and 2:219. p 107, a, 7) In this 
and the following "draft the rules of conduct in 
making charitable gifts ore laid down- 
1 YwM'&na m they cause to follow/succeed, send 
in [he wake of (v, iii, m. pi. impfcl from aiba'a. 
form IV of labi'aftitba'a \taha'/labd'uh\, lo 
fallow, to succeed. 

i.'AafiufH = they spent, disbursed, expended (v. 
iii. in. pi. past from "tinfaqu. fono IV of nufuc/u 
See Ti I above), 

4. Mann - favour, benefaction, gracious bestowal 

5. 'Adftan - insult, offeree, harm, injury, hurl, 
See at 2:196. p 94. n 9 

6. 'Ajr (pi, 'ujSr) = reward, recompense, 
remuncraliun, emolument, fee. See at 2:1 13. p. 53. 
n.9, 

7 Khawf = rear, dread See at 2:38. p 20. n. 3; 
2:112 . p. 53. n 10 and 2:155. p. 73. n. 7), 

X t'ahianuna - they gneve, become sad (v. iii. 

m pi impfrt, from haztnu [huznJtitivin . to grieve. 
be sad. See at 2:113, p 53, ti. II), 

^Ma'T&f = known, well-known, generally 
recognized, universally accepted, conventional, 
appropriate, fairness, equity, good, kindness, 
beneficence, approved by shari'ah (passive 
participle Trom 'antfu/'urifit [ma'rifah t irfdn\, 
lo know, to recognize. Sec at 2:263, P 121. n. 
S2), 

10. \fag/\flrah = pardon, forgiveness, excusing, 
remission 

1 1. Khayr - good, belter, best. This word remains 
the same in its usual as well as elalivc forms 

12. Sadaqah (pi. sadaqal) = charitable gifl, 
charity, alms, freewill offering, benefaction Sec at 
2:1%. p .94. n. II. 

13 Vaiha'ti = he or il follows, comes after, 
succeeds., trails, [racks, pursues, goes in the Wake 
of, See Uiabi'S at 2: 170. p. 80. n. 4), 

14. Im lubtilii = you (all) do not nullify, render 
void, set aside, invalidate, frustrate, cancel, annul, 
make ineffective (v. n m. pi imperative from 

ittyula, form IV of batata lbutt/batjin\. [o be 
null. void, invalid). 



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Stow 2 : Al-Baqarah [Part iJu:) 1] 



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like the one who 
spends 1 his money 
for showing off ; lo men 
and does not believe in Allah 
V^j3ij and the Last Day. 
So his instance is 
like the instance of a rock 1 
on which is soil, 
then there hits 5 it 
a heavy rain* 

and leaves 7 it a rigid surface. 8 
They cannot do"' anything 
with what they have earned. 10 
And Allah does not guide 
the infidel people. 

265. And the likeness of 

those who spend 

their wealth 

seeking" Allah's pleasure 1 ' 

and in confirmation'" 1 

on behalf of themselves 

is like a garden 



1^4, =* 



] Yunfitfa - he spends expends, disburses, lays 
out (v. lii. m. I. impfel from 'tinfinfti. form IV of 
niifiHja Inufaif], lo be used up. See Vuntiqunu al 

2:262, p. 137,1, I). 

2. Ri'6' = i ho wing off, parading. eyeScrvicc. 

3. Safw&n = stone, slopes, rock, rocks. 

4. Turab (pi iitrtbuh/tirbiin) = soil. dust. dm. 
earth. 

J, 'As&ba = he or ii hit. reached, affected, befell, 
afllitledfv.iii. m s, past in form tV of fdbu [snnb 
/sayb&tkth]. lo hil, 10 he right. See asabiil at 
2: 1 56, p. 73, n, 13 1 

6. W&bil* heavy rain, heavy downpour. 

7. Taraka - he or il left, abandoned, relinquished, 
gave up (v, in, m s. past from wk. ro leave, Sec 
al 2:24S, p. 126. n. 2)>. 

H. ,Wd (pi vsUld) = rigid, arid, barren, dry. solid, 
lifeless, inert 



i hey cannot gel any benefit or mem out of 
cy have performed. i'agdir'una = ihcy one 



M i e 

what Ihcy have performed Yaqdir'una = Ihcy 
able lo do, are capable of doing, have power lo do. 
in a position to do (v in in. pi imptel from 
tfadora [ijadntli/madurali/qadar), to have power 
to do). 

II). kiLtubu - ihey earned, acquired, gamed, 
gathered (v. iii. m. pi pas! from ktisuba \kusb], lo 
gain. Sec al 2:202, p. 98, n J). This Syah 
emphasizes I hat those who give in chanty to show 
off do not really believe in Allah and the Last Day, 
and ihcy will not get any merit out of what they do 
in chanty Showing off or miking a parade of 
generosity, flaunting of favour or patronizing and 
hurting l he recipient of benefaction ate ihree 
hallmarks of unbelief. 

11 IbUghd' = in seek, desire, long for, hanker 
lifter, aspire after, strive for. (verbal noun in form 
VIII of btijiliti [buj;lsa b l lo seek. See al 2:207, p. 
100. n 2) 

12 Mardfil - pleasure, satisfaction, gratification. 
See at 2:207. p. I00,n. .1. 

1.1. i.e., in confirmation of their finn faith in Allah 
and of their certitude in meeting Him on the Day 
or Judgement. TathbU - confirmation, fastening, 
conrohoralion. consolidation. stabilization, 
strengthening Verbal noun form II of thabala 
[ibabdl / ihubul], to stand firm, be fixed Sec 
lluibbil at 2:250. p. 1 27. n 10. 



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Sural 2 : Al-Baqurah [Part (Vuz"> J] 



1.19 



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on a high ground, 1 




befalling 1 it a heavy rain, 


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so it yields its fruits 1 


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twite the double; 4 


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but if there does not reach 5 it 


Jth 


a heavy rain. 




then a drizzle 6 " [suffices]. 




And Allah is of what you do 




All-Seeing. 7 




266. Does any of you wish* 


fJ o^oi 


thai there is for him 


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a garden of palms'' 




and vines, 10 flowing" 




below it the rivers, 




he having therein 


o^i^fes^ f every kind of fruits, 12 




and old age "reaches him 




while he has children' 4 




all weaklings," 


"i^il^^ii 


then there hits it a tornedo 1 * 


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wherein is fire 


M 
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and it is burnt up? 17 



I Rabwah = high ground, elevated land. 

1 Vtjaio = he 01 (t hit, reached, offered, befell. 

jfflicled(v in in s pas) in form IV of saba Isatrb 

jittybskbuh ], io hit, lo be right. Soc at 2:264. p. 

IJ8.11.9). 

t 'Vkui - fruit, food 

4. Qi'fayn (dual of tii'f, double \di'fijn{ in the 
accusative/genitive) = twice the double, i.e., many 
limes os much, See Vttf 'd/ai 2:245. p. 123, n. 7). 

5. Yusitnm - He or it hits, reaches, afflict!, be fill Is 
(v. iii. m. s. impfel from 'uxiilht Sec n, 2 above. 
The terminal letter is made vowel less on account 
of the coming of llsr: panicle lam before the. verb, 
and for the same reasan the imperfect verb bears 
ihe sense of the past lense) 

6. Tall {(A. nidi) = drizzle, fine rain, dew. 

7 Rusir = Ail-Seeing. All-Observing. Here this 
fact is emphasized lo serve as a warning against 
ihe sin of showing off in ihe matter of making 
than table gifts, and of pareBruwng and hurling Ihe 
recipient of the gift. 

8. Yawaddu - he loves, likes, wishes {v. iii. m. s, 
impfcl. from wud&i \v.iulti/wuddfaidd\, to love, 
(alike. See at 2: 1 05, p. 50, n I). 

9. Nakhil = pjlm, dale palm. 

10. 'A'tt&b (sing in«M = grapes, vines. 

I \ TajrS a she or it flows, runs, blows, streams f>, 
tit. f, s. iiripfct. hum jury \jary], lo flow. 

12 Jhamaral (sing. Ihmtttirnh) = fnlils, yields, 
results. benefits. See al 2: 155, p, 7\ n. 1 1 ). 

1 3 Kibar = old age. greatness, eminence, bigness, 
grandeur, magnitude 

14. Dhurrifyah (pi. JhurHriy) - children, 
ulfspnng. progeny, descendants. See at 2:128, p 
61. n 2). 

15. Da'afd' (sing, du'ifi ■ weaklings, weak, 
feeble, frail, delicate 

16. 'I'x&r (p. 'a'dttr) e lomado. whidwmd. 
cyclone, hurricane. 

17 Ihfaraagt = she or it got burned, was burnt up, 
caught fire, was consumed by Tire (v, iii f, s. past 
from thiuraqu. farm VIU of liunufu [htirij]. to 
barn). Here Ihe helplessness of n on old man with 
dependent minor children who finds his goad and 
productive garden which Is his sole means af 
livelihood and which is suddenly destroyed and 
burnt up by a tornado is compared with (he 
position and helplessness of a person on (lie day 
Judgement when he will see ail his apparent 
charitable deeds of no avail because they have 
been destroyed and consumed hy the fire of Ihe 
sin of showing off and the tornado of palronmng 
and hurting (he recipients of benefactions 



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140 



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Sunn 2 : At-Batfurah [Part <,Ju:') 3] 



Thus 
'J=d 5»t£g* A"^ makes clear 1 for you 

■oJil' the revelations 2 
^Cj^jSj'^II^ so [hat you may reflect/ 



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Section (Ruksi'l 37 
rjiifi ^JiiQ'e 267, O you who believe, 

I^i'i expend 1 of the good things^ 
f^v — *--S-»jl of what you earn*and of what 
j33 £^>l We produce 7 for you 
t£&$tifi from the earth. 
ijUlWj And do not aim at s 
X^.c-JJi' the bad kind'' of it 
iSj-;" that you spend" 1 
*4i.£, ,' Vij while you would not take 1 ' it 
^jiJt-jCjl"^! except overlook ing' : it. 
Sipt£ie.Tj And know that Allah is 

5j* Above Want, 
t|fj i-i All-Pariseworthy. 

^Tl-'itiii 268. Satan frightens'* you 

JiHl of poverty 

p.~=»^ljj and bids 14 you 

"sL^LUJC to vile acts; ,s 



1 Yubayyinu = he makes lIcu, elucidates, 
explains, expounds (v Hi- m. s- tropfet Trom 
bayyaiut, form It of M«d [fctrydt], to be plain, 
clear). See a! 2:242, p. 1 22. n, 2. 

2 'Aytt (sing, iiyah) = proofs, evidences, signs, 
revelations, marks, tokens, miracles See at 2:252, 
p I28.n 10: 2:242. p. 122, n 3). 

1 I'atufaklmriina - you (all) reflect, contemplate, 
think over, consider, meditale (v, ii m pi. impfcL 
from infakkarn . form V or fakara [fair], to 
reflet I J. 

4 'Anfiqu = you (all) spend, expend, disburse, lay 
out [v ii m pi imperii i vc from imfuqii. form IV 
of nafutiuSnafiqa \miftuf]. to be used up, be spent 
See al2:l«S.p. 93.(1. II). 
St TayyiMu (ting {ayytAaA) ■ good things, nice 
things, agreeable things, pleasant things 
d Katobtum m you (oil) earned, acquired, gained, 
obtained [v. ii. in, pi. pait from kaiaba [Juab], !o 

r'.jin See ,il J : ' ), p. d i. IV Kl 
1 'AihrtijnS = we produced, broughl out (v. i pi. 
past from "afMfitju. form IV of kiuiritju \kkwi% 
to go out. See yakhruju al 2 2?6. p. 1 32, n. 1 3), 
& ta favontmamij (onginaily ttttuyommami'i) = 
you (till) do nol aim a!, intend, set your mind on 
(v. ii. m. pi. imperative in form V of tuyamma/mi 
[iiiyanmium |. to intend, to aim at). 

9 Khahilh (pi. klwhnlh) - bad. evil, vicious, 
noxious, malignant 

10 Tunftquaa - you (alii Spend, expend. 
ilishurse. lay nut (v. n m pi. implct- front 

unfiiifti, form IV of rutfiiOiX/nufltju. fnu/uqj. m be 
used up See 'tutfiaii al n 4 above). 
I! ViWrMJrfW) . pi. of 'Okhujh itikhidhuni in 
the genitive, the terminal r.un being omitted on 
account of Ihe genitive construction = recipients, 
ihose who take, takers. Active participle fiom 
tiihculha | ukhtili]. to take. 
12 TughmiiliHittt) = you (all) overtook, shut 
(year) eyes lo, pretend not to sec, connive al (v. ii. 
rn, pi iiiipfel from 'ugluntuja, form IV of 
xhwnu4Ji' iichumtiiDt lo be hidden, lo be obscure) 
The terminal nun is omitted on account of the 
coming of the particle '« before I he verb. 
I I I'lt'iito - he promises, assures, threatens, 
frightens, (v Mi m, s. impfct rrom Wtuta |n«'d], 
to inake a promise) 

14. i.e.. eniiees/ajiures/deceives you into the fear 
of poverty on account of giving in charily. 
15 Fahxha' - vile deeds, an, atrocious crimes, 
adultery, fornication (see »t 2:169. p. 79. n 14), 

lien: ii especially means pruhihiliiij: or refraining 

front the paymeni of tadtmuh and wtiih 



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SSrul 2 : Al-8u»p»nd, [Part Uu. r'l J] 



141 



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but Allah assures you of 
forgiveness 1 from Hi in 
and grace; 2 

and Allah is All-Reaching, 1 
All -Knowing.' 1 

269. He gives wisdom 5 
to whomsoever He wills; 
and any to whom is given 
wisdom 

has indeed been given 
goodness* 1 in abundance; 7 
bui none bears in mind* 
save ihe men of perception.' 




liiiLj 



270. Whatever you disburse 10 
of an expenditure' ' 
or whatever vow you make 1 " 
of a prayerful offering, ,3 
Allah indeed 
knows 14 it. 
> r ^3#j££4 l £j And the unjust 1 * will not gel 
: any helper. 1 * 



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I Maghfirah = paidon, forgiveness, excusing. 

re mission Sec at 2:263, p. 71, n. 10. 

2. i.e., an me reuse of His grace in this world and 

in the hereafter. 

J i.e., in His grace and bounly. 

4. i.e., All-Knowing of the acts and intentions of 
His creatures, open or secret. 

5. Hikmeh I pi ifiktim} ■ wisdom. Sagacity . Here 
it means the understanding of the yur'.in and the 
intelligence of acting according tu its injunctions 
and prohibitions, See at 2:251, p, !2S. n. 4. 

6 i.c , goodness in this world and in the hereafter, 

Khayr (pi. khiy&r/ukhyiir) = good, goodness, 

blessing, wealth, benefit. See at 2:261. p. 137. ji. 

II 

7. Kalhlr (pi, kithtin - many, much, plentiful, 

abundant in abundance 

B Yadhdhakkaru tori finally ytiiadliukkuru) n he 

bears in mind, remembers, receives admonition (v. 

iii. m. s. tmpfct. in funn V of dhtikurei [dtiikr 

/ludhkuT\. to remember, to mention See 

ytitoiiliuiktinimi at 2:221. p. 10). n 3). 

4 Albiib (sing /hWii ■ sense, reason, intellect, 

intelligence, understanding, perception, heart, 

core, gist, essence See at 2: 197, p, 96. n. 6. 

10. ' \nfaqlvm = you (all J spent. expended, laid 

out. disbursed [v. ii. m. pi. past from anfaija, 

form IV of najutfii [imfnq], to be spent, be used 

up See at 2:215. p. 104, n. 3} 

I I Nafaqoit ipl nufuijiil/mfiiq) = expense, 

expend Hurt, disbursement outlay Here if means 

fmSaifiit Ichaniablc gilts) and zak&ti. 

12 Nadhartum - you (all) made a vow. pledged, 

swore (v. ii m pi. past from nudlmra [nadlir 

Mmflmr\. to mate a vow. vow, dedicate]. 

I J. Nadhr {p. nudhar) - solemn pledge, prayerful 

offering: i.e.. charitable gifts for Allah's pleasure. 

14 Ya'iamn = he knows, is aware of, is cognizant 
of (v iii. m. s implct, from ulima \'itm], to 
know. Sec at 2:255, p. 1 3 1 , n, S. 

15 /.alimin (pi of jalMi (bViman) in Ihe 
accusative / genitive) ■ unjust, transgressors, 
wrong-doers. Active participle of uiltimti \:uiti:\. 
to transgress, do wrong Sec at 2:253. p. 1 .14. n. 
3) In view of the contest, the unjust Uuhmua) 
here includes those who do charitable deeds Tor 
showing off, or flaunt their favour, or insult and 
hurt the beneficiaries, or those who do not fulfil 
their solemn vows ir.urilu'iri or spend their wealth 
m sinful ways 

16 Ans&r (sing, n/ijir. active participle from 
nuxara \nii,%r/nus&r\, to help) = helpers; i.e„ 
helpers against Allah's judgement and retribution 



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142 



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SQrut 2 : Al -BtH/aruh [Part Uuz ') 3] 



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27 1 . If you make known ' 
the charitable gifts, 
well and good they are; 
but if you keep ihem secret 2 
and bestow them on the poor, 
that will he the better for you; 1 
and He will forgive 4 you 
some of your sins. 
And Allah is 
of what you do All- A ware. 



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272. Not upon you 
is their guidance; 

, jx^'if JQJJ but Allah guides 5 

whomsoever He wills. 

And whatever you spend 7 

of wealth* 

that is for yourselves -' 

and you do not spend 

except in desire of 15 

Allah's Countenance-" 

and whatever you spend 

of wealth 

shall be fully repaid 12 to you 



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1 Tubdu{nii\ - you (nil) mate known, disclose, 
reveal, express. String, to light (¥. J m pi. intpfcl 
from barfu (.fWifw'} . lo appear, lo become clear 
Sec a! 2:13, p. IB. n. I The terminal niin is 
dropped here on account of the coming of the 
particle 'in before the verb), 

2 TukhfJUntt) = vliu (all) keep unknown, secrele, 
hide, Conceal, disguise (v. n m. pi. itnpfct. from 
kkttfiya [khafy], (o he hidden The terminal ti6n is 
dropped because of I he coming of the particle 'in 
before the first verb which governs this verb also. 

3. Thai is because it avoids Ihe possibility of 
showing off and is more conducive lo sincerity 
I itAiuf ) 

4 Yiikaffira = he forgives, he pardons, grants 
remission, covers, hides (f ni in. s irnpfct, fmm 
knlli'i'ii. form II of hifara [kufr\. Lo cover, to hide 
See tuff al 2:217, p 105, n 4: ami yukfaru al 
2:256. p, 1 32. n. f> 

5 i.e.. your duly is only lo preach and tiring them 
[he message. 

fi YahdS = he guides, shows Ihe way (v, iii. m. s. 
impfcl, froni htiftil [hady/hudait/kidayah]. lo 
guide, to lead. See at 2:258. p I J*, n 2). 

7. Tunfiqulriui - yon (all) Spend, expend, 
disburse, lay out (v. ii. in. pi. impfcl. from 
'unfaqa. form IV of /itlfaqa/nafiqa. \iHifiui\.la be 
used up. See ai 2; 267, p. 140, o. lt))Tbe terminal 
rriin is dropped here on account of the conditional 
panicle t»S coming before the verb. 

8. Khayr (pi khiyur/akhyar) » good, good thing, 
property, wealth, See ai 2:269, p. 141. n fi). 

9. i.c ., the merits thereof will be credited lo their 
account and Ihey will be amply rewarded by 
Allah. 

10 lbtigkS' = lo seek, desire, long for. hanker 
aflcr. aspire after, strive for. (verbal noun in form 
VIII of bttghti lr>HtfmJ|, to seek. See at 2:265, p. 
IIS, n II and 2 207. p 100. n 2) 

1 1, jje., for Allah's pleasure and mercy 

12 i.e.. in merits and rewards on the Day of 
Judgement Yuwaffa n he or il is given in full, 
repaid fully (v, iii m. $ impfcl passive form 
*■<#!. form II of mi/a |wu/a| to redeem, fulfil, 
live up lo). 



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.•iurat 2 : AtBaqarab [Part t/uz) 3] 



143 






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and you 

shall not be wronged. 1 

273.[Charity is] For the poor 

who are detained' 

in the way of Allah, 

being unable to 1 

go about 4 in the land. 

The ignorant reckons* them 

as rich men 

due to [their] shyness; 6 

you know them 7 

by their mien; 8 

they do not beg of men 

importunately.* 

And whatever you spend 

of wealth, 

certainly Allah is about it 

All -Aware. 

Section {Ku*u*, 38 
274. Those who spend 10 
their riches" 
by night and day, 

secretly 12 and openly," 
they will have their rewards 



I Tupaotiiui = you (all) arc wronged, done 
injustice (v. ii, ni pi. impfet. passive from uifama 
[zulrn], to do wrong- S« mlntmam at 2:55, p. 25. 
a. A). 

2. 'Vfisiru = they were detained, besieged, 
restrained. retained, encircled, blockaded, 
beleaguered, (v. iii m. pi. past passive from 
absam, form IV of haiWii (Artist, t° surround, 
to besiege See itfcirtum at 2:196, p. 94. n. 3). 
The reference is to such poor persons who engage 
themselves tally in jihail and such other work in 
the way of Allah and cannot work for earning their 
livelihood. 

j, Yasrati'una - they arc able to. arc capable of, 
are in a position to do (v. iii. m pi. impfa from 
isitiid'a, form X of {a a |mh']. to obey, See 
iStiitfi'Q at 2:217. p 105. a II). 
4 Darb = to strike, to htl. purb fi al-aed a an 
idiunuuic expression meaning to travel, to go 
about in the land, especially for Trade or in search 
of livelihood. 

5. Yahsabu = he reckons, counts, calculates, 
assumes, supposes, considers, regards (v. iii. m. s. 
impfel from ha.iuha fliti.ibJiiisAb/fyLsban/fcutbdrrl 
to reckon, to count. See hwibtum at 2: 214. p. 
1 0\ n. 2), 

6. rifufftif - shyness, modesty, restraint, 
continence, chastity Vcibal noun in form V of 
'uffa [ 'iffah/'ufBf], to refrain, to abstain, 

7. Ts'rifii = you know, recognize (v. ii. m, s. 
irilpfci from 'art fa [mti'rifah/'irfiin\. to know 
See 'ara/a at 2:89. p. 42. n. 5). 

8. Sims (pi. siywn) - mien, expression, mark, 
sign 

9. 'llhaf- importunity, insistence (of a petitioner, 
beggar) Verbal noun in form IV of lahafti [lahf], 
to wrap, to cover. Hence WJiu/ti means to request 
or demand urgently, importunately or insistently 

10. iunfiquna - they spend, expend, disburse, lay 
oat (v. iii. m. pi impfet from tmjuqu. form IV of 
nafaqa [nafaq], to be used up. See at 2:262, p. 
137. n. I). 

1 1. Amwil (sing, mal) - ridies. wealth, property, 
possessions, goods, money, funds, assets, 
resources. See at 2:261 . p 1 36, n. ? 

12. Sirran = secretly, privately. Confidentially, 
hiddenly See at 2 235, p 1 1 8. n," 10 



13. 'AlAaiyoan 
patently 



openly, overtly, publicly, 



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Sura) 1 : Al-Baaarah [Part (Jul') 3] 



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275. Those who consume' 

usury 

shall not stand up 4 

save as stands the one whom 

Satan has driven to frenzy'' 

by the touch. 6 

That is so because they say: 

"Trading 7 is bul 

like usury"; 

but Allah permits 8 trading 

and prohibits* usury. 

So he to whom has come 

exhortation 10 from his Lord 

and hence gives [it] up," 

he shall have what is past 12 

and his case will go to Allah; 

but those that revert 1 1 [to it], 

such ones will be 

the companions of the fire; 



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1 Khawf^ feat, dread Sec al 2:262. p. H7. n. 7). 
1 Yahztmuna = they grieve, heewne sad (v. iii. 
m. pi impfcl. from huzinu [huzn/hozait\. to 
grieve, be sod. Sec M 3:52, p I .17, n it 

3 i'a'hitSna = they eat. consume, devout {v. in 
rii pi impfct from 'ftkatti | irtUuu'W], to eat 
Sec U 2:174. p. 82, n 3). Consuming or earing 
here means taking, using and dealing with While 
the previous few 'avufvt describe the merits and 
rules of conduct concerning charitable gifts, 
mentioning in particular that these should be paid 
out of the good things of what is earned 
^ayyibUl). the present and the succeeding 'ayah! 
up to 'ayah 280 describe the worst type of 
earning, namely rihii or interest on money or 
goods lent, make it unlawful and declare it K Ibe 
mosl detestable thing in the sight ill Allah so 
much so thai one who indulges in rl is considered 
to he at war with Allah .mil Hi* Messenger [sec 
'i/ydi 279 below). 

4 i e . they shall noi suvnd up on The Day of 
Judgement Yayumiina - ihey stand up, get Up, 
stand creel, rise (v iii. m. pi impfct from iftimu 
\utiwmnh/ttiy<}m\, to stand up). 

& Yatakhabteiu = he drives to frenzy, makes 
insane, makes wild, deranges the mind, makes one 
lost (v. iii m. s impfct from lakhnlihuia, form 
V of khabla [khahj\. to strike) 

6. Mais - touching, bodily contact, attacking. 
possession, insanity, madness, hysteria, epileptic 
Tit. Sec maasal at 2:214, p. 103. n. 4). 

7. Bay" (pt, buyu'Jhuya'ui') - selling or buying, 
trading, See at 2:254, p ] JO. n, 6. 

H 'Alalia = he pcrmined. made lawful, all owed, 
released, discharged, took or occupied Ihe place 
(v. iii. m. 4 in form IV of holla {ht'ff|, to Unbind, 
unfasten. See uhilla at 2 I S7, p, S9, n. 5). 

9 Rarrama = he prohibited, made unlawful, 
interdicted, proscribed, made inviolate, declared 
sacred (v. iii. m. S past in form II of 
hnmmii/luinmn , to be prohibited. See al 2:1 7.1. p 
31, n. 5; and hurumzu 2:217, p. 105. n I) 

10 i.e., [his prohibition. Maw'izah (pi. tmiwdir.) 
= eshonalion, counsel See al 2:66, p. J I, ft II, 

1 1 . IniatiA a he gave up, renounced, desisted, 
refrained, came lo an end, finished (v. iii. lit s. 
past in form VIII of nu/rd \nahw/nahy\. lo forbid) 
See inteku at 2:193. p 9\ 0, I 

12. i.e., it shall not be taken back from ham. 
Satttfa m he or it was over, past, bygone (v. iii. m. 
s. post Tram wfn/, to be over). 

13. "Ada = he reverted, returned, relapsed (v. in 
m. s, past from uwd/'iiudtih, to return) 



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Sumt I AtBoqorah (Pan (Jar) 3] 



145 



'Q>j£> they in l he re 

3 -~>s'jti^- wiil remain for ever. 1 

■iy f J ^ >UJ 276. Al lah effaces 3 usury 

cjijjf j^j and augments l charities; 

i£*u^'«if; and Allah does not like 

ju&J?' any arch-unbeliever,' 1 

■fiii ^f engrossed in sin. 1 

^il^^i^i 277. Those who believe 

ji^jtijL^ and do the good deeds, 6 

Yj&ftJ.^ and duly perform the prayers 

ijiaapjjiijfcj and pay the zakSh, 

fiiJ->*Ll+i they shall have their rewards' 

r^jjJL; with their Lord; 

i+^o^j and no fear* will he on them 

'^(J.Vj nor will they grieved 



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itjJJ.C,;! 278. O you who believe, 

SiijiJi beware 1 of Allah 

bjjj and give up" 

^'o^.^l- what is in arrears 12 of usury 

lo[ if you are believers. 

8 



I Kh&lidftn (Sing, thtHid) - living or rcmaimnf 
Tar ever, everlasting, denial [active participle 
from khataiitt [khuiudl, to live or remain for ever. 
Sec al 1257. p 133. n. 2. 2 SI. p. 38. n 6: and 
2:25, p 13, n. 14}. 

2. i.e., Allah effaces the goodness and blessings of 
[Iil- apparent increase of wealtK matte through 
usury Vtimliauu = lie efbtc-s. crJies, eradicate, 
eliminates (v iii. m i, impfd. from mahaqa [ 
ttwhi{\ in efface V 

.1. i.e., Allah develops and prospers Ihe wealth on 
which lukats and other Charitable gifts arc made. 
Yurhi = he augments, develops, increases, gives 
more (v. iii. m s. impfcl. form 'tirhii. form IV of 
mha \riiba'/ruhS'\. to increase, [o grow). 
■1 KaffSr = arch- unbeliever, extremely ungrateful 
Active participle in Ihe intensive torn of fii"ut 
horn ktijiirii \kvfr\, to disbelieve. io be ungrateful 
5, 'Athint (pi. 'uiluwiii')- sinful, engrossed in sin 
Active participle in Ihe intensive from of full 
from 'athima \'iiltnt/'ttthattt/ma' thorn], lo sin The 
lasi clause of the 'ayah emphasizes that the 
dealing with riba (interest) is characteristic only 
of an arch-unbeliever and sinful person. 

6 Salikat (sing mlihtih) = good deeds/things, 
sound and proper deeds (deeds approved by the 
Quran and the sunnah). 

7 'Ajr (pi. ajar) = reward, recompense, 
remuneration, emolument, fee. Sec at 2:262. p 
137, n.oand2:il3, p. S3, n. 9 

8. Khuwj- fear, dread. See at 2:274. p, 144, n. I; 
2:262. p 137. n 1; 2155. p. 73. It, 7; 2:1 13, p, 
53. n. It)) 

o YahiaitGnu = ibey grieve, become sad iv. iii 
m. pi. impfcl. torn fjaiina [hutn/houm]. to 
grieve, be sad See al 2:274. p. 144. n, 2: 2:262. p. 

1 37, n. 8). 

It.) Ittaqii = you (all) beware, be on your guard, 
fear, be afraid of iv ii, m pi imperative from 
rJfttyu, form VIII of Htujd ( ■wttay/^tqAyah), to 
guard, safeguard. See at 2:231. p. IIS, n. 6; 
2:223. p. 110, n. 4). 

1 1 Dharu a yuu (all) give up, abandon, 
renounce, forsake, leave alone, let alone, cease tv. 
ii. m. pi. imperative from yvdhura \-nailhr]. See 
\itSmriina al 2:240, p, 121. n. 4 and 2:234. p 
117, n. 13). 

1 2 tiaqiya - he or it remained, was left over, fell 

m ,iiM.-;ii> i>, s put torn )>.itj'< . to, remain 

losiay). 



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Sural 2 : Al-Baqurah [Pact U»l ') - 1 ] 



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Joi 279. If you do not do [that], 
b»i» then take notice 
*"' erf vj^ of a war from Allah 
'.'Jj"*-'-' an d His Messenger; 
.*— ^ ij[j but if you repent," 
^=ui you will get 
l==aj>l J- s *j your capital sums, 4 

j^iiisv an d you will not wrong' 
■_jj*U»i"sIj nor be wronged. 

-^u^ 280. And if he is 7 

}£*■/* a person in difficulty* 

*jlg^* then give respite 9 

}j~^d\, 'ill a time of ease; 10 

ij' ii dpu'j and that you make a gift" 

'-»£$£■ is the better 12 for you 

'i^ji if you are aware of. n 



li^ijiiij 28 L And beware 14 of a day 15 
*^j-rj y° u sna i' ^ returned 1 * on it 

$ jl to Allah, 
oJ^P then fully paid will be 
^Js every individual 



I, •fdhmO = lake notice of. be opposed of . be 
informed of (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from udhtnu 
i'idtm]. id allow, to learn See 'idhn al 2:221, p. 
108, n, 11). 
2 Halt (pi hunib) - war. fight, battle. COmbal 

5. Tubtum = you (all) repented, became penitent 
(v. ij. m. pi past from liMw \lii*.b/la*rba)i/maliib\. 
to repent). 

4. Ru'At 'amw&i (sing, ra's mal\ = capital sunn, 

capitals 

5 Tazlimiina s you (all) do wrong, commit 
injustice, ill-lrcat, oppress, outrage (v. n iti pi 
irnpfcl, from rulumti [iuim\, to wrong See Ihe 
nest nole). 

6. TuzJamuiia = you (all ate wronged, ill- treated, 
oppressed, outraged (v. ii, m. pi. impfci. passive 
r r. 1 1 El :il,im,i \-ulm/;ulm\. <;' [Id wmmi See .11 
2;272.'p. 143. n! I) " 

7. i.e., it the debtor is. 

5. 'Vitah = difficulty, hardship, distress., 
straitened circumstances, poverty. See 'IUW al 
2:185. p. 88, n .5. 

9 Naprah = postponement, deferment, delay, 

respite. 

If) Mayiarah - ease, comfort, affluence, 

prosperity 

1 1 Tasaddaa&[nu\ = you (all) donated, gave 
charitably, made a gift, (v ii m pi pasl from 
liisudiiiKfti , form V of itiduqti [mtiq/.uiit/], \o 
speak the Inilh. to be true. The terminal ni!n ii 
dropped because ol Ihe particle 'an coining before 
It). 

12 Khayr - good, be tier, best (also wealth, 
property) Tbis word remains the same in lis usual 
as well as dative forms See al 2 263. p. 137, it. 
1 1 and 2:272, p. 142, n. 8}. 

13 Ta'lamuna a you (all) know, arc aware ol u 

■ i in pi impret from alums | iim]. io know See 
al 2:239, p. 12.1, n. 2) 

14 ftlafti = beware, be on your guard, feaf, be 
afraid of. protect yourselves. Sec al 2:276, p 145, 
n II 

15 The day here means the Day of Judgement as 
well as the day one dies. See Al-Ttifrtr al-Ktibir, 
pt VII, p 1 14. 

16 Turja'una - you (all) are returned, taken 
kick, sent back (v. ii m pi. impfci passive from 
raja'u Irvju'l to return See al 2:245, p. 123, n 
10) 

17 Tttwffd = she or" 1 1 is given in full. (v. iii. f. s. 
impfci passive form wa)fa : form 11 or hu/d 
|w«/<i']. to fulfil. W redeem, to live up to. See 
yimatfa ai 2:272, p. 142, ji. 12), 



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Sural 2 ; At~Baqurak [Part (/«') 3] 



(47 



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what it earned; 1 

and they 

will not be wronged. 2 

Section I Ruku') 39 

282. O you who believe, 

when you mutually contract' 

a loan 

till a time 4 specified,' 

put it in writing;* 

and let there write 

between you a writer 

with impartiality: 7 

and no writer shall decline* 

to write 

as Allah has taught him*; 

so he shall write; 

and there shall dictate 10 

the one on whom is 

the liability" 

and he shall fear Allah, 

His Lord, 

and shall not diminish 12 

from it anything. 



1. Kaso&ot = slie or il acquired, corned, got. 
obtained, gained, attained (v iii. F. s. post from 
kusoba [hub], to gain. Sec at 2:225, p. 1 1 1 . n. I i 

2. Yuilamutta - they air wronged, done injustice, 
oppressed, outraged (v. ni m pt impfcl passive 
from -tiiaimt liMlm/zfitat], to do wrong. See 
tupantuiui at 2:279, p. 146, n. 6}, This 'ayah was 
the taH to be revealed to the Prophet shortly 
before his death. 

I. Tadiyanlum m you (all) mutually borrow, 
central for a loan (v. ii, m. pi. impfcl from 
tadHyana, form VI of dthut ufri\ni to borrow, in 
take a loan). This 'ayah lays down Che rules of 
giving and taking loans. Il is the longest ayah of 
the Qur'an. 

4. 'Ajel (pi, 'd/dfl ■ appointed lime, dale, 
deadline 

5. Maiamman (pi. musammayaij- specified, 
stipulated, named, designated. defined Passive 
pan n' i pic |m s. ) from stiinmti (to name), form II 
of soma [sumiiwtv/itonii'}, to be high). 

6 I'ktuhu = you (all) write down, put 10 writing 
(v. ii, m pi, imperative from kaioba [kaib 
Aiiabah Aiiabak], lo write. See hiiabai at 2:79, 
p. JT. n, 6). 

7 'Adt a impartiality, equity, justice, fairness, 
uprightness, equivalence, Sec at 2:123, p. SB. n 
8) 

S. Ya 'ba (originally ya 'ba. the terminal tetter is 
rendered vowel leu arid hence dropped on account 
of the prohibitory panicle la coming before the 
verb)) = he declines, refuses, rejects (v. iii. m. s. 
impfcl. from aba {'iba'/'\ba'ah\, lo refuse). 

9. -A llama = he [aught, gave knowledge, 
instructed, informed (v. iii. m, s, past in form 11 of 
"dims I ilm], to know. See at 2:23 1 . p. 1 28. n. 5}. 

10. Yumlil (originally yumtllu). the terminal Idler 
is rendered vowellesi on account of the imperative 
lam th) coming before the verb) - he dictates, 
formulates, composes, verbalizes (v iii m. s 
impfcl. from amalla. form IV ofmatla ). 

1 1 Haqa - eight, truib. duty, liability, legal claim. 
12. i.e., he shall not omit to mention anything of 
his liability, neither in respect Of lime and manner 
of repayment nor in respect of the amount or 
goods borrowed. i'abkhaHu)- he diminishes, 
reduces, makes less, decreases, lessens (v. iii. m 
s. impfct. from bekkasa [bakhs], to decrease). The 
last letter of the verb is vowel less on account of 
the prohibitory particle ii coming before it 



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148 



Suras 2 : Al-Baqamh (Pari {Jut') 31 



jjjljbuli If the one 

upon whom lies the liability 

is incompetent' or weak, 1 

or is not able 1 

to dictate he himseif, 

then there shall dictate 

his legal guardian 4 

with impartiality; 

and you shall call to a ties 1/ 

two witnesses 

from your menfolk; 

but if there be not 

two men, 

then a man and two women 

of whom you approve 6 

as witnesses, 

so that if one of the two errs 7 







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there may remind* 
one of them the other; 
and there shall not refuse 
the witnesses (to attend], 
as and when summoned;* 
and you shall not loathe 10 



I Safth (pi safaM) - inn wipe tern foolish, 
stupid, silly, insnlcni Sec suptha' al 2:242. p. 67. 
n. I). 

2. Da'if (pi du'afa/di'iif/du'fiilii = weak, frail, 
feeble, decilllated. deficient {passive participle in 
form JlTM of daufa [duf/Ja'f]. lo be weak. See 
cru'^u- at 2:266, p l», a 15 

3. 14 jMUHrf'W = he is not able Id. it nol capable 
of. is not in a position lo, has nol ihe capacity lo 
(V. iii. m, S, impfel from isltiltj'u. form X of td'u 
[i m uw'\, to be obedient. Sec mmti'&iut al 2:273, p 
143, n 3). 

4 Waliyj (pi [mriwj') ■ legal guardian, patron 
fnend. sponsor, pmtettor. relative. See at 2;2S6, p 
132, n. 12 The duly lo dictate, i.e.. to formulaic 
tile deed or agreement is laid on the deblor of hii 
legal guardian because in Ihal case he will be fully 
conversant with ihe nature of obli^aiton on him m 
respect of ihe amDunl. Ihe period, ihe inode n[ 
repayment and such other things connected with 
the loan. And Tor Ihal reason he is asked lo be 
strictly fair and imparl ial and nol in diminish in 
any form the nature and extent of his liability, Sec 
Al-Tefs'tr at-Kabir. pt VII, p. 122. 



5. Iilmk*kid& - you (all) call lo witness, to 
Icslify. to attest (v ii. m pi. imperative from 

istuslthudii. In nn X of nhahidu \xhuhud\. to 
witness See thuhida at 2:185. p. SS. a. I). 

(> lardavna - you (all) like, are pleased wiih, are 
sail&ficd. agree, approve (v n m. p|. impfel from 
radiya \ndan/rid>ran/mardSh], lo be satisfied), 

7 Taditla (u) - she errs, goes wrong (v m f % 
impfel. from dulla [datdi/daiatuh\, loerr), 

g TudkaHirv («J= she reminds, calls atlcndon to 
<v, iii I s. imnfci from dhakkura. form II of 
dhakurti {dhikrfledhkar}, to- remember. See 
yadhdhaiinru al 2 269, p 14 1 . a. g) 

9. Du'S a ihcy were summoned, called on, 
invited (v. iii. m. pi past passive form da' a 

[du'a\. to call. See rfu'u'al 2:171. p 8(1, n 111. 

10. U tas'amu - you (all) do not delesl, loathe, 
dislike, be weary of. be fed up. he bated (v. ii. m 

pi imperative (prohibition) form tu'unu [sum 
/sa'amah], to be weary, to dislike). 



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Sumi 1 : Al-Buijvmh (Part (Am') 3! 



149 



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lo write it down, 

be it small or big, 

to its specified period. 

This is the more equitable ' 

in the sight of Allah 

and the more sound 2 

as testimony, 

and the more appropriate^ 

that you be not in doubts; 4 

except that it is 

a trading on the spot* 

you conduct 6 amongst you; 

so there will not be on you 

any impropriety 7 

that you do not write it. 

And obtain witnesses" 

when you agree on a sale.* 

And no harm shall be done 10 

to a writer nor to a witness. 

If you do [so] 

that will surely be 

an outrage" on your pan. 

And be afraid 12 of Allah - 



1 Aqml - mure iuM. fairer, more coned, more 
equitable. Elariveofiyj.fr 

2 'AqWm = more sound., lllnlc authenlii;. more 

proper more upright Elative form of ijcwim 

3i 'Adna = mow appropriate, belter suited, nearer, 

closer, lower Elattve lorn of damn. 

4 Tart&buyntrt - you (all) are in doubt, suspeel, 
doubt, question, have misgivings [v ii m. pi. 
impfd from irtatm iirtiyiib), form IV of rabti 
{rttyb}, lo doubl, to suspcci). The terminal nun is 
dropped mi account of ihe coming of ihc particle 
'an before the verb). 

5 ft&ditah (in Jriidir) ■ on ihe spot, instant, 
present Active participle front Imdsiru {htidir], lo 
be present. See ha^um at 2: 1 8(l', p" 85, n! 6 j, 

6 iadiruna = you (all) direct, conducl. manage, 
operate. transact (v ii. m pi impfcl. from adara. 
form IV of tlHru \dawr/duwrfin\. lo lurn, to 
rotate) 

7 Jutiih - sin, misdemeanour, impropriety, See 
al 2:233," p. Il7.n. 5. 

8 Asb-hidu = you (all) obtain witness, call 
someone as a witness (v. it m pi. imperative 
from 'ash-hada ( 'ishhad). form IV of simhida 
[ahuhud]. 10 witness. See iftush-hidl'i above at n. 
5. p. 148) 

9 Tah&ya'tum - you (all) mutually agree on a 
sale, conclude a bargain, contract a deal (v. ii m. 
pi past from lulmya'a, form VI of bd'a \buy'\, to 
sell. See bay' at 2:275, p. 144, n. 7). 

K). Andorra = he is harmed, injured, damaged, 
coerced, prejudiced (v ii! m. s. imprct passive 
from darra. form 111 of darrti [darr], to harm, (o 
prejudice, See Kfflrru at 2:233. p, 1 16. n.16), 

I I. Fuiaq = outrage, iniquity, foulplay. See al 
2:l97,p .95, n 10 

12. laoqH = yt>u {all} beware, be on your guard, 
fear, be afraid of (v, ii. m pi imperative from 
iflaau, form Vlll of waqii ( wwjyfwiaitytth), 10 
guard, safeguard, Sec at 2:280, p. 146, n 14 and 
2:276, p 145. n II). 






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I 



150 



Sural 2 : Al-Buqarah [Pan <Jhz') 3] 



-i^ei and Allah is instructing 'you- 
s^ij^=ijiliij and Allah is of everything 
^i_4* All-Knowing, 













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ill 






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283. And if you are 

on a (rave! 

and do not get 2 a writer, 

then there be pledges" 

given possession o(," 

And if there trusts 5 

one of you the other, 

then there shall discharge* 

the one trusted 7 

his trust; 8 

and he shall fear Allah. 

his Lord. 

And do not conceal'' 

the evidence; 

for whoever conceals it, 

sinful 10 indeed is his heart. 

And Allah is of what you do 

All-Knowing," 



!. Yu'afflma - he instructs, teaches, imparls 
knowledge (v. iiL in. s. iinpfcl from 'ullama, 
form II of 'uttmit \'iim\, lo know See 2:151, p 72. 
a. 6). The implication is that Allah is giving ihc 

mslriiLlitin ■-.■ lli.il il mil .1 mil lr tpoljtcd ,1 that 

its violation will be inientional and vuiih 
knowledge, hence inexcusable and deserving of 
proper punishment An additional warning is 
contained in [he last clause which emphasizes lhat 
Allah is All-Knowing of everything, including 
whether an witness or a writer is coerced or 
prejudiced in any way. 

2 Tajid&Uiu) - you tall) gel, find, obtain, Cotne 
across, meet with (v. ii. m. pi. irnpfct from 
wajada \n>uju,f\, to fitKl. The terminal: trim is 
dropped on account of ihe particle lam coming 
before [he verb. See yttjid at 2: 1 96. p 95. a. I ). 
I Rihan ( s i nj: rtihni - pledges, securities, pawns 
mart gages. 

i MaqbGdah (m. matjd&d) = grasped, seized, 
grabbed, taken or given possession of Passive 
participle from qabadu {aiibd), lo seize, to grab), 
See yaqbigu at 2:245, p. 123, n 8 

5. i.e.. it ihe creditor trusts the debtor and fives 
him trie loan without taking any security 'Amino 
- he (rusted, became safe (v iii m s past from 
'amn/'aman/'umunah). See 'amintum at 2' 196, p. 
94. n. 13 

6. Yu'addi c he discharges, carries out, fulfils, 
delivers, performs, executes (v iii m. s impfct 
from 'uddd \lu'/liyu)i]. fortn II from 'ada 
| tiduww/'udy\. to go, to proceed) 

7 I "tumuiti - he is given trust, entrusted with, 

trusted (v. iii. m. s. impfct passive from i 'mmana, 

form VIII of amina. See n 5 above). 

H 'Amdoah = trust, trustworthiness, reliability, 

confidence, faithfulness, integrity. 

9 I A utktumu - you (all) do not conceal, bide, 

secrete, suppress, withhold (y, ii. m. pi. imperative 

{prohibition | from kaltima \kui"i/Li:mnm\ (n hide 

See at 2:42, p. 21, n 9; and ttiktttmutui at 2:33. p, 

iE.n, 2). 

10. 'Alhtm (pi. "aihatiui") = sinful, sinner. 
criminal, wicked, evil. Active participle rrorn 
'athima | 'itla»/mti't)tiim\. to sin. See 'i\hm at 
2:2 19. p. IDT.n. 4). 

11. While the meaning of A II -Knowing' is general 
and applies to all situations, here it contains a 
warning that Allah knows whether one discharges 
One's trust or not and whether one conceals an 
evidence or not. 



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Sara! 2 : Al-Baijarah [Purl {Jia'i 3 J 



151 



Section {Ruku')4Q 

A 284. To Allah belongs 
o££!ri,jU whatever is in the heavens 

lej s l ] 4^j and whatever is in the earth. ' 

f ■**■* * t 

'J^uj_« And whether you disclose" 

-^=*r J,,l U^ what is within yourselves 

'•j^^y or keep it concealed.' 1 

! >J—,'<^ Allah will cail you 

'*»U to account 4 for it. 

jam Then He may forgive* 

vUj^ whomsoever He pleases 

4*jl*j and may punish 6 

iUSo* whomsoever He wills. 

«^J^.^iiiij And Allah is over everything 

0J>aj All-PowerfuL 

Jji'jjf^ii 285. The Messenger believes 

Jj^tL in what has been sent down 

■ L ^j<jt f-*l to him from his Lord, 

o^-pvj and so do the believers, 

i>»'*Js Everyone believes 

*^fkJjii^ in Allah and His angeis, 8 

-Jr& and His Books 9 



I See 2:255. p. 131. l>. J, 



LTubdHna) = you (ill) make known, disclose. 
reveal, express, bring lo light (v. ii. m pi. impfe! 
r Mm i Inula thuilun.-H/hut!ii') , to appear, to become 
dear, The terminal nan is dropped on account of 
the coming of ihe particle 'in before the verb. See 
at 2:27 1, p. 142, nl) 

i. Tukhfu(rtti) - you (ftll) keep unknown, iecrete. 
hide, conceal, disguise (v. ti tii, pi, impfn from 
Uuipyn \khofy], to be hidden The terminal nun is 
dropped because of the coming of the particle in 
before the first verb which governs ibis verb also. 
See lubdiwi at 2:27 1 , p. 142, n. 2). 

4 Ynhdiibu - he calls to jLcount. holds 
responsible, mokes answerable (v, hi, m, *. tmpfct 
from haiabti, form til of htuahu \htubf 
hutibfhLsbQn/huib&n], lo count, to calculate See 
yaktahu at 2:273. p, 143, n, 5). 

5 Yaghfim - he forgives, pardons, remits (v. iii 
m. s. impfcl from ghaftitti If hafr / Mughftrah / 
gaufran], lo forgive. See maghfirah al 2:26$, 
p. 141. n I: and iimghfru at 2:] 5fl, p, 97, n, 2), 

6. Yu'adhdhibu - he punishes, penalizes, 
chastises, torments (v, iii, m. s. impfct. lr..in 
'ndhdhaba, fonn 11 [tu'dhlb] of tidhubu \ adhb], 
lo impede, lo obstruct) 



7 'Vniiia = he or it was sent Sown, descended, 
brought down (v. iii. in. s. past passive from 
'Wliifa. form JV \ m mtffl\ of mizala \iuzul\, to 
comedown, get down. See at 2; 185, p, R7_ n. 12). 

8 MeM'iknh (sing, mtiiak) - angels. 

9. i.e.. the Books sent down to the previous 
Prophets. The 'Ayah emphasises the fact that 
Allah has sent down the same message and 
religion lo mankind through all the previous 
Prophets and thai the Qur'in, is the culmination 
and final izalion of that message. The belief in the 
previous Books indicated here means the belief in 
the fact of their having been sent down by Allah, 
not as they exist in their present forms, for these 
have been tampered with and corrupted, as the 
Qur'in mentions elsewhere, and hence have been 
superseded by the Our'an 



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152 



Sural 1 Ai-Bauarah (Part Uta'i i) 



^*^j'i and His Messengers 

[saying]: 
uyft "We do not differentiate' 
4w 4S?v between any 
'^ j « of His Me ssengers . " 
'^^jj And they say; 
L-Uj &^ "We listen 2 and we obey; 1 
-H r i>* [we ask] Your forgiveness,*' 

■^J our Lord, 
^Btj and to You 
i|s) -A—^f is the destination."' 



51 jiEtf 



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286. Allah does not burden 6 

any individual 

except to its capacity.' 

He shall have 

what he earns f 

and on him shall lie 

what he takes on himself." 

"Our Lord, 

take us not to task' 

if we forget 10 

or make a mistake. 11 



1, i.e.. we believe that all of ihcni were 
commissioned by Allah as I'mphcls and 
Messengers and do not believe in some and 
disbelieve, in the others Otherwise I hey 
themselves had ditiertnt ranks and positions as is 
slated in 2; 25 J NufaniqH = we differentiate, 
mate distinction, divide, separate (v. i. pi imp;, I 
from farriuja, form II |'<J/rfy] nf furm/u 
\ftirq/}urqiii\\, ui separate, See vufarrioSna at 
£J02„p.4£.n.9V 

2, Snwi'flJ " we listened, heard, paid attention (v. 
i p! past from jrami'u |jum' /rama' /jama 'ah 
/mtama ']. to hear Sec al 2.93, p. 44, n. g). 

I, 'Ata'ni - we obeyed, followed, submitted, 
yielded, complied with, acceded to (v i p|. p;i<i in 
fonn IV o( tii'ii \ljaw'] to obey. See iiyasiuli'u a! 
2:282, p 1 48. n. 3). This pan of the 'Ayah implies 
that faith {'irtuin} must be accompanied by deeds, 
i.e., compliance with the requisites of the faiEh 
4. (ihufron - forgiveness, pardon, remission. Sec 
yoghftru at 2:284. p 151. n. I) 

5 Mastr (pi. murtiyir) ■ destination, place al 
which one arrives, destiny, outcome, end See at 
2: 1 26, p. 60, n S) Here is also an emphasis that 
all of us shall have go return to Allah and to none 
or nowhere else. 

6 i'ukollifu - he burdens, charges, entrusts, 
commissions, assigns, bothers, imposes (v. lit. m 
s. impfct. from ktiliafti, form II (rmr/17) of kvlifci 
[kattifl. to be fond of. to be hem . be freckled See 
tukiitlnfu at 2:231. p. 1 16, n 14), 

7. Win' = capacity, ability, capability, power See 
at 2:233. p Il6,n IS, 

8. Kasobot - she or it earned, acquired, gained, 
obtained (v. lit, f, l. past from htiahtt \kiah\. to 
gain. Sec at 22B1. p. 147. n. If. 

9. LA m 'Akhidh = you do not coke to task, punish, 
censure, blame iv. it, in s, imperative (negative) 
from ukhattha. form til of 'iMo&a [ 'akhdh). to 
rake Sec yu'dkhidhu al 2:225, p. 1 10, n. 14) 

HI Nasind - we forgot (v, 1, pi past from 
ntui\ii[miivM!svan\, to forget, See !u lu/uaw at 
2:237. p. 12u.n.8». 

1 1 'Akhla'nA = we were mistaken, made an error, 
were at fault (», i, pi, past from 'nkhiu'a. form IV 
of ihait'a [Wiirtii'j, to be mistaken). 



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Sunu 2 Al-btittamti [Pan {Jai ') i\ 



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Our Lord, 

and do not load 1 on us 

a burden,' 

as You loaded* it 

on those 

before us. 

Our Lord, 

and do not impose on 4 us 

what we have no power 5 for. 

And efface* from us, 

and forgive 7 us, 

and have mercy on 8 us; 

You are our Lord-Protector;"' 

So give us help 10 

against 

the infidel people." 






I hi lakmit - sou do not load, bring to bear on. 
nuke carry [y li. m. s. imperative (negative} from 
lutmnln [linml], lo carry. See tohnulu at 2:244, p. 
126. o. 1. When followed by the particle alii the 
verb |ives a causative sense of making someone 
Carry, Id bring 10 bear). 

2. 'l/r (pi. 'u,«r)= burden, lead, encumbrance, 
burdensome covenant. 

3. liamalia {'aid) = you loaded, brought lo bear 
on (v. ii- m, s. pose from Htimala, See itihmiiu at 
2:248, p. 12*. n 3). 



4. IM mhammil = you do noi toad, place a 
burden, make carry, impose (v. ii m. s. imperative 

(negative) from hummulu, form II of luinttrfa. Set 
n. I above), 

5. Tctqah (pi w^wr) = power, ability, capability, 
capacity, strength. See at 2:249. p. 127, n. 2. 

6 Vfu= you efface, forgive, excuse, condone (v 
ii. m. pi. imperative from 'itfS ['afw/'tifH']. lo 
efface, to exCBMs lo forgive See i "fQ at 2:109, p 
52. n. 5;andyai/2al2:27l.p. 142, n. 41, 

7, Ighfir = you forgive, pardon (v. ii. rn. s. 

imperative from giuifeiru \ghafr /ghufran / 

maghfirahl. lo forgive. Sec ghufriin si 2:285, p. 
1 52. n. 4: and yaghfiru at 2:284. p. 15 1 , a. 5). 

SI, Irharn - you have mercy, bestow mercy, have 
compassion (v. ii. rn l, imperative from rahima 
\whmahfmarhamah\, to have mercy 

9. fttwia - Lard ■Protector, Sovereign. 

I!) Vniur - (.you I give victory, help {v. ii. m. J. 
imperative from nasura (nasr/numr\. to help, lo 
give victory. See at 2:250, p. 127, n. II: and 
yunsarmtt at 2:1 23, p. 8B, n, 1 1 ). 



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3: SOrat 'Al 'ImrAn (The Family of 'Imran) 

[Madman, 200 'ayaks] 
This surah is a follow-on to the previous sural ai-Baqarah and deals with (a) Ihe articles of faith, 
namely, the evidences and arguments regarding monotheism {tawhtd). the propheihood of Muhammad 
(peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and [he truth of the Qur'an; (b) the assumptions of [he People 
of the Book, especially of the Christians, regarding 1sa (p.b.h) which occupies almost a half of the 
surah*, and as such it is named 'Al 'Imran or The Family Df 'Irraan; (cj the battles of Badr and 'Uhud and 
the lessons learnt from them, particularly from the latter and (d) the insi ructions and rules regarding 
jihad (fighting in the way of Allah), hajj, sakak and the illegality of riba (taking of interest). The 
concluding 'ayahs of the surah call for reflection in the creation of the heavens and the earth and 
contain, like the end of surat al-Baqamh. a very appropriate prayer to be made by mam to Allah. The 
very last ayah mentions the requisites of success in the struggle for the truth, particularly the need for 
patience and perseverance. 

7SH9IP 1 .1 TTT -1 ^B*IL J !LR* II 

1 . These fciteis arc mysterious and iheir meaning 

is known only to Allah. 

2. Ji 'Mh (pi. 'alihah) m deity, god, panfctilaiiy 
one deserving q£ worship (see at 2:255. p, 1 30. n. 
10). This Ayah and mast of what follows nil 
'ayah 84 of the surah were revealed in the conic xt 
of a deputation of some sixty Christians of Najran 
who were joined by Ore leaders of the Madman 
Jews, The '&yah is In reply to the Christians' 
deificalion of Jesus (peace be on him), who was 
no more than a Prophet 

3. fjfiJi al-Qayyum = the Evei-AJert. Ihe One 

ever taking out of and sustaining His creation 
See at 2:255. p. 131. 

4. Jj; nauala ~ he sent dewn (V. iii. m. s, post 

in forni I J of ritxmki inmui). to come down, to 
descend . See at 2:176, p, 82, n. 8) This and the 
following 'iiyuh stress two things: (a) II is Allah 
Who sent down the Qur'an just as He had seat 
down Ihe Tnrah and Ihe litjtl on ihe previous 
Prophets (B) Allah has given the same message 
and guidance lo mankind [hrough all ihe 
Prophets; and Ihe Qur'Jin is ihe final and complete 
fomi of that guidance and message. 

5 Ji— musaddiq = thai which confirms, 

verifies, attests (active participle from laddaqa. 
form II oXsadaqa [sadq/sidq]. to speak the truth 
See at 2:97. p, 46, n, 7). 

6. Jj?' anzala - he sent down (v. iii. m. t, past 
in form IV of nazaia. See n. 4 above) 



J iii \.Alif-Lam-Mim: 

Si 2, Allah, 

jiVi«dp7 there is no deity 2 except He, 

^jT the Ever-Living, 

$0 the Ever-Alert/ 

_££.£■ 3. He has sent down* lo you 

&&\ '&£% the Book in truth, 

Ui-il confirming 5 

£Z£,Q what is before it; 

•i^j and He had sent down 6 

J^VG^i the Torah and the InjU 

A 
■ r 



Ji iri 4. Before, 
^uijii as guidance for mankind. 



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SQrah J: 'At 'imrdn [Pan (Jul) 3 | 



155 



Jfc 



#b And He sent down 
5li>M iheFurqan. 1 
\x^i/^\ Verily those who disbelieve 2 
^ii^ii in the revelations' of Allah, 
^ they shall have 
Sj-i^iU a punishment very severe 1 ; 
^ij and Allah is 
jsge All-Mighty, 
>Ui;tji Master of Retribution. 5 

3fa\ 5. Verily Allah, 
jOc^Ik^ there cannot hide'' from Him 
iSjVitjtfji anything in the earth, 
tli^Ji^Vj nor in the heavens, 

jjjijl 6. He it is Who 
,^£=jjhju gives you shape 
^•ylfl j in the wombs 
•Lt*<Jt5 as He wills. 
'j*ri\^i There is no deity Except He, 9 
-e^ 1 the All-Mighty, 



3 JL^iUhe All-Wise. 



1 , j'jj* furqin m the distinguish men), thai which 

distinguishes between the nght and ihe wrong It 
u, another name for the Qur'in, nrui the repetition 
is intended Tor trnph.ni/inji [hat it was sen' down 
by Allah for making clear, among other things, the 
faults in ihc claims made by the Christians in 
lespeel of Jesus (peace be on him). See Al-Taban. 
Tu/sir, pi III ,p 167 

2. ij/^ - kafarS = Ihey disbelieved, became 
ungrateful, turned infidel (v Hi m pi past from 
kafiim |jt«fr], not to believe. See at 2:212, p. 101, 
n II), 

.V oy, '&yM (sing. *(<■ 'Ayah) = signs, miracles, 
re vein liun&. evidences. See al 2:266. p. 140. n. 2}. 

4. J«ii ihadid (pi tU* 1 'tuhiddH"{s+L shidatf) - 
severe, stem, rigorous, hard, harsh, strong. Sec al 
2:21 1, p. 101. n 10). 

5. fU^ ouifain a revenge, retribution, 

vengeance Verbal noun in farm VIM of 
ntiifamti/naiftmu {wqm/ttntfam\, lo take revenge 

6. i.e., nothing remains unknown to Allah of ihe 
deeds, movements and designs of His creation, 
open or siierc! Openness and secrecy ore relevant 
only to ihc created beings, not m Allah, .^v 

yaklifa = he or ii hides, remains unseen or 
concealed (v, iii. m. s impfcl. from khtifiyu 
\klmfa' ffliifyak /ihufyuh], lo be hidden See 
lukhfu al 2:284. p. 151. n. i). 

7. jj+t yusatrwiru a he gives shape, he 

formulates, fashions, creates (v. iii. m, s impfel, 
from fawwam, form 11 from the tool surah, 
shape). 

8. ,!^-ji arham (sing. *- } rtihim/rihm) — womb. 

uterus The ayah refers lo the instrumental iiy as 
well as the physical features of the erealion in ihe 
womb. Thus, (a) Allah has the power to create a 
being in the mother's womb without the 
instrumentality of a falher. as was done in the case 
of Isa (p.b.h,). This is a reply lo ihose who cue 
his miraculous hirth as an argument for his 
supposed divinity. Similarly, (b) Allah determines 
the physical featucrs or Ihe foetus, including tls 
sm. colour, shape, its being bom in singles or in 
multiples, making Iwo bodies with one head or 
two heads with one body and such other 
peculiarities, of which instance* are nol rare. 

9. This is a further emphasis on the fact that 'Isa 
(p.p.h ) or any oilier being, however mysterious or 

miraculous his birth might be, is not god. 



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156 



Surah 3: M Imras [Part ,J:,/i I j 






H 

■: 4 ,.'.V> - 

&> 



iU 

*'■ ffitULl 

in! VI 

s 






7. He it is Who 

sent down 1 on you 

the Book, 

Therein are revelations 2 

clear and Firm;' 

they are 

the basis* of the Book; 

and the others, 

difficult to comprehend. 5 

But as to those 

in whose hearts 

there is deviation 6 

they follow 

what seems ambiguous 7 of it, 

seek i n g a d i sse n sion* 

and aiming at 

its interpretation; 

but none knows 

its real sense 

except Allah. 

And those deep-rooted" 

in knowledge 

say: "We believe in it; 



.10 



1. J>! 'amota m he sent dawn (v. iii. m. s. past 

in iiu m (V of wtzala [nnjjifj, id Come down. See 
at 3:3, p. J54.il 6). 

2. d4* 'ajtit, sec 3:4. p. ISS, n. 3. 

J. oL£iw muhkamdl I fern, pi., sing. ■-:>.-.■ 
mnhkumah. mas nmhkam) = clear, exact, precise, 
rirm. made perfect (passive participle from 
"ahkamti (lo make firm, to do properly}, form IV 
of hakanui [hukm], to pass judgement 

4. fl 'umm {pi. ^j+J 'timnmlu'n) = inolher. 
source, basis, essence. 

5. ol+U^> mutashdbihat (fem p)., sing, 

muutahiifnhtih; mas mmaihabih) = similar Id one 
another, equal lo one another, identical, of various 
meanings, obscure, not clearly intelligible, 
difficult (a comprehend. Active participle from 
mshtlbtiha ( lo resemble one another), form V] 
from \htlth, resemblance. See tmnashabih ai 2:25, 
p. 13, n. 1 1 See also n 7 below). 

b. (*i &tsf> = deviation, deflection, swerving. 

lummy aside. 

7- «^S» ia\h4fntfia = he or H became similar to 

another, appears ambiguous, equivocal, obscure 
(v. iii- m s. past in form VI from the root ihibh). 

8. »UM ibtighi' m to seek, wish, desire, for the 

purpose of, with a view to, aiming at I verbal noun 
in form VII J of btighu \hiightY], to seek, desire. 
Sec at 2:272, p. 142. n. 10), 

9, izijifnah [pt. jifitaa) m dissension, discord, 
trial, temptation. See at 2:217, p 105. n.7). 

10 Jjjb to'wtt (pi. ^%jt tawilai) = 

interpretation, explanation [verba] noun in form II 
of 'tola ['uwt/ma'iii], lo return, to tevecl). The 
allusion is In those who seek to give a twist lo 
difficult passages and expressions in the Qui 'Sri to 
support then particular views , such as the 
Christian apologists' twisting the expressions "a 
word from AltlUt" dnd "a spirit fioni Him" for 
attributing divinity to Tsa (pbh). The right 
course always is lo understand a difficult passage 
in the light of the clear and specific statements, 
such 9S "There is no God except Allah" and that 
"He creates in any way He wills). 

J I. dj*~tj r&siihun (sing. ~ij rdjuUt) = 

deep-rooted, firmly fixed, grounded, thoroughly 
versed (active participle from msaklia [rufWi], to 
be deeply roc-ted). 



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Surah 3: 'At ImrOn [Part (Jui) 3 ) 



IS7 



l£>jtf<S*> all is from our Lord;" 
*&£> and none bears in mind 1 
yO ^/! yji V i save the men of perception. 



gj 8. "Our Lord,' 
W^* f^ do not let our hearts deviate 4 
iy-ui^ a f ter vou h ave guided us; 

Id Zlj and grant us 1 

l^S-i^LT- mercv oul °f Your Grace. 

iijlii Verily You are 
v&jS f the Very Generous Giver."* 

^ufLZj 9. "Our Lord, verily You 
ur^ll C? 1 -^" W 'H muster 7 mankind 
/jJ for a day* 
LilT^V there is no doubt in it. 
l i5^$^i^J Verily Allah does not break* 
^Ji\ the promise." 10 

Section (Kufctf') 2 

t%\i\ 10. Verily those who 
^iyS disbelieve; 
'jjt j the re s ha! 1 never av ail t0 them 



1. jfi yadhihakkaru <ori£inal1y/-bi 

yarutfJuitttjriO - he hears ' n mind, learns a Icssun 
(v. iii. m, s, iropfa. from ludhukkaru, form V of 
dhaiara [dAikr/tadhkarj, lo remember. See at 
2:269. p. 141, n. 8). 

2. vV/ 'aiMfi (sing. J tutfb) - heart, mind, 
acumen, understanding, perception, See at 2:269. 
p, J4],n.9). 

3. i.e., such men always pray to their Lord 
saying: "Our Lord, etc." 

4. £3 "i /d loziffc «= you do not lei deviate, iruike 
go astray (v. ii. m. s. imperative [prohibition] from 
'ti&igha, form IV of zAgha lipygh}. to deviate, to 
deflect, lo rum away . See zaygh at 3:7, p. 156, n 
6). 

5. lJ Aaft d you bestow, give, grant (v. ii m. s 

imperative from h'yAahu [vraftfcl, to give, to 
donale), 

6. ^jLhj wahhSb = Very Generous Giver, he who 

gives profusely (active participle in ihe intensive 
form of fa ' 'di from wahuim. See note 5 above). 

7. £-W j&mi' (pi. c*>j- jawUmi") = one who 
gathers, collects, musters, herds together. 

8. i.e., the Day of Resurrection and Judgement. 

9. wiU< H Idyukhiifu a he dues not break, fail to 

keep, go back on (v. iii. m. s, impfct. from 
'ukhlvfa, form IV of khalafa [khatf] lo tome after, 
to lag behind. See yuttilifu at 2:80. p, 37, tt. II). 

9. Ay 1 mt'dd (pi Vy nuwd'fo*) ■ promise, 
appointment, time agreed on, date). ThedyoA is a 
reminder that all will be resurrected and mustered 
before Allah for judgement on their performances 
in ihis life 

1.0. tfM tughnlya (originally tughni) = she or it 
suffices, males free from want, makes rich, avails, 
helps (v. tu, f- s, impfct, from 'agkiUi, form IV of 
ghaniya [gtenaafgharm'], to be free from want, to 
be rich, The last letter iak.es/aihtth because of the 
particle inn coming before [he verb,), 



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158 



Sirah 3: 'At -tmr&i [Part (to') 3 ] 



***** 






41! 















2^h 



their wealth 

nor their children 

as against Allah whatsoever; 

and such ones, 

they will be fuel 1 of the fire, 

1 1 . As was the wont 2 of 
the people of the Pharaoh 
and those before them. 
They disbelieved' 

in Our revelations. 

So Allah got hold of them 4 

on account of their sins; 

and Allah is 

severe in punishing.' 

12. Say to those who 
disbelieve: 

"You will be defeated 6 

and herded 7 

to hell; 

and bad is the place of rest'? 



33 5li=Jli 13. "You* have already had 



1 . jjij wat/iid - Tucl. See nUmauda at 2: IT, p. 9, 
n. 9. 

2. <-jt) da'b - habit, wont, persistence. eagerness. 

3. IjrJT ksdhdhebU = they called lies, thought 
untrue, disbelieved (v. iii. in pi. past from 
kadhdhabii, form II of kadltulm \kidhh /kmthib 
fktidhbah / kidttbah}. to lie. See ai 2:39. p, 20, n. 
5). 

4. JUt 'akkaiita = he took, caught, got hold of. 

seized (v iii. m. s. past from 'ukhdh. See 
'iMuuihnu at 2:63. p. 30, n. ?}, 

5. yUi V^ifilr s infliction of punishment, penalty 
See 8t£2l I. p. 101, a, II. 

6 i>>U) tughlabdna = yotl (all) are defeated, 

overcome, overpowered, subdued conquered, 
vanquished (v. it. m, pi, impfci. passive from 
ghalabii Ighalb/ghutbah]. to conquer, to defeat. 
See nhnlabtil at 2:249. p. 127, n, 6), The "dyah is 
primarily addressed to the unbelievers of Makka 
and Madina, including ttte Jews of the latter place, 
and contains a remarkable prophecy uboul their 
ultimate defeat and discomfiture. The message 
and meaning arc. however, universal 

7, - -r 1 -*^ luhsharOna = you are gathered, 

collected, assembled, mustered, herded (v. ii. m 
pi itnpfct. passive from hasharu [hiahr], to 
gather. See at 2:203, p 98, n II). 

8, Jt+- mihSd - bed, place of rest, fold that 
holds something. See at 2:206. p 99. n 16. 

9 The address to the unbelievers arid the Jews 
contained in ihe previous ayah is continued in 
the present 'Hyah. It refers specifically to the battle 
of Bndr which took place in mid-Ramadan, 2 H 
in which a small hand of some three hundred 
iii -equipped Muslims routed ihe far superior 
Quraysh army of more ihan a thousand, well 
equipped with arms, camels and horses. 



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5ur<tk 3: A! Intrdn [Part Uuz'}} | 



159 



*J* a sign 

uiil^i»4 in the two hands 2 that met' - 

j^iLj one band fighting 4 

ffl ^ J^, ♦ in the way of Allah 

i^^^^JJlj and the other unbelt vers; 

r+y&i they seeing 5 them 

^j'jL".! twice their like 

^ryjl<^1j in ocular sight. 

yjU*j0 iifj But Allah aids 6 with His help 

i 

*X%,& whom He wills. 
&f>^L>\ Verily therein is 

•/L.J a sure lesson 7 
_^VI £jb: for the owners of visions. 8 



t^L^HJ-'j 14. Embellished* for man 
<^>j+h\zi. js the love of passions, 10 
!JwJlj jUJf j. of women an d offspring, 11 
■ j 'J.-.Ya \ jX.'-'^ and accumulated riches' 1 
id*4h~-* j!\S« °f gold 13 and silver, 1 " 
I ' ^pUf^Jij and horses" of good brand, 14 
\>j^\jj±M\'i and cattle and tillage.' 7 

Iy^^Ufi That is the enjoyment 18 of 
C$fi_£ijf the worldly life; 



1. ^t> 'Ayah (pi. ^t 'dyfir) ■ sign, revelation, 
evidence, miracle See 2:247. p. 125. n. 9. 

2. ^jjUfi'ntayn (dual offi'ak in ihc act. /gen., pi 
fi'at}- two bands, hosts, panics. 

3. ^kM itmqata - they 1 [wot met, confronted each 

other (v. iii f. dual past inmi tltaqfi. Farm Vlll of 
tuqiya [hqu fiuqyais Auqy /luqyah /luqan], to 
meet See mutoi/u at 2.24V, p. 127, n. 4) 

4. jail tttaatilti a she or it fights, combats (v. 

iii. f. s. lmpfcl from qaialu, form 111 ol qutaiu 
[qtitl], id kill. See yuqatiluna at 2:217, p. 105, il 

5. i.e., the Muslims seeing the unbelievers. 

6 a<> yu'ayyidit = he aids, supports, backs (v, 

iii, m s. iiiipftt from iiyyuda, form [9 of 'adit 
\"ayd\. to he strung See ayyadnd at 2:253. p. 
12°. n- 6} 

7. ij* 'ift^aA (pi. na Viw/J = lesson, example, 
warning, advice, rule, admonition, 

t. jL^t 'abs&t (sing ^ basaf'i = visions, sights, 
eyes, insight, discernment, perception. See al 2:7. 
p. 6. n. 7} 

9. ,>j zuyyina = he or it is embellished. 

beautified, ornamented, adorned, decorated (V, till, 
m. 5 past passive From wyyaita, form 11 of iann 
liayftl to adorn. See at 2:212, p. 101 . n. 12), 

10. i-<||1 ihahavat (sing ij+* shulm-uli) = 
passions, desires, cravings, greed. 

11, ,.-.- hnnin (Kcusalivc/gemlivc ui Ixnmn, pi. 
of jbn) = sons, descendants, offspring 

12, ijkiJi j-ULill el-ganS/fr ot-muqanutttxh = 

accumulated riches, hoarded wealth \qanath, 
sing, flmJdr = :i varying weight of measure; 
muquniar, passive participle from t/antara, to 
accumulate wealth), 13.^-" dhahsb = gold. 

14, i-^iftiMnh = Silver. I5.Jj= Ahoy/ - the horse. 

16, i<j_> miijaKK'omoi'i = beautiful, marked Tor 

goodness (passive participle from sawwama, form 
It of sama \iawm]. to mark, to brand). 

17. <&ij~ harsh - tillage, cultivation, tilth. See at 
2:222. p. 109, n. II. 

IS. >u» matS' (pi. iwJ 'amri a/i)= enjoyment, 
delight, object of delight, see at 2:240.p, 121, n. 6. 



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160 



S&rah 3; Al Imran [Part (./«■) 3 1 



V«jj|J but Allah has with Him 
- the best of returns. ' 



^Jv-liJI, 



jC&jS jj 15. Say: "Shall I inform 2 you 

jS« of something better 1 

^Wicrf than all that? 

%^jJJ Those w ho fear* shall have 

*, -.r>^j-j^: with their Lord gardens 

L+^o* J^ flowing 5 below thern 

_/+"Vt the rivers- 



t+j,^i£ abiding for ever' therein. - 
•~fg$j and spouses rendered pure, 



— '^J- 5 and pleasures 8 
%}4A of Allah. 
'^Jl'Z,\j And Allah is All-Seeing 
3 <£ J(, of the servants. 



SpjSj^gjji 1 6- Those who say: "Our 
i^iiiL^tjJj Lord, we surely believe; 
l^_*iL4j_iiu so forgive us our sins 
£jj and save 9 us from 
|y ^tSuSij* the punishment of the fire" - 

4*£ilf 17, [Who are] patient, 10 



I. wti. ma'ab = place of return, return, 
recompense. 

l.i^l'aaahbi'u - I inform, notify, advise, tell 

(v. i. s. impfct. from nabba'a, form It of ntiim'a 
\nufi'/nuhi '), to he high, prominent). 

3. j> JUutyr = good, belter, best. This word 

retains. Ihe sane form in oil degrees of 
comparison See ai 2:280, p 146, n. S. 

4. ij*i iltaqaw ■ ihey feared, were on iheir guard 
(v. iii. rh, pi. pail from r/fuyii, focm VIII of wtufa 
\waqyfw\qafah\, lo guard, lo preserve Sec at 
2:212. p, !Q2,j., I). 

5. ifymi tajri = she or it runs, flows, streams (v 

iii, f, s, impfci. from ford \jary\. tu flow. See at 
2:265. p. 139, n 11). 

6. [^jfc* kbSiitfot (aecusaiivc/geniiivc of 

WnJtin. pi of khMid) = living for evet, 
everlasting, etemii] (active participle from 
Uutlatla [khatud]. lo live for ever. Sec al 2; I b] , p 
76.n.l) 

7. 'stlo mufahharah l I . mas. _+m- tnulahhur) = 

rendered pure, pure, immaculate, unblemished 
(passive participle from lahlww. form II of 
Sahara Aahura \mhrAtthi\rah], to be pure, clean. 
See at 2:25, p. 13. n. 13). 

8. Jj-rj ridwda - pleasure, good will, favour. 

approval 



B.J fi - (you) save, protect, guard (v, ii, m. s. 

imperative form vvaqil [waqy/wiqUyak], lo 
protect. See at 2:101. p 97. n. 1). 



10- jr> L * s&birin (accusative/genitive, of 

t/ibsriin. p(, of fAbit} = the pattern, persevering, 
steadfast (active participle from sabtira [sabr]. 
patience, forbearance. See at 2:249. p, 127. n. 7). 



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Surah 3; Ai Imriin [Pari iJuz > 3 ) 



161 



^S^ljij and truthful, 1 

■£a:..'*i?j and devoutly dutiful, 2 
s^iL^jfJ and expenders/ 
^■-' '^j and seekers of forgiveness 4 
i^VC at pre-dawn hours of night. 5 



•oil ■*— j— 



IS. Allah bears witness 6 
that there is no deity 
except He; 

- and (so do) the angels 
and the men of learning - 
upholding justice. 7 
There is no deity 
Except He,* the All-Mighty, 
the All-Wise. 



<ZUJtii>[ 19. Verily the religion 

«S>f .L_£ in the sight of Allah 

JiWi is Islam; 51 

J£!i-f£j and there did not differ 10 

<<^if those who 

■C-^njij! were given the Book 

- t * 

VCC jji «>? ^ except after there had come 




1 . jJjU, s&dttjtn (atcusaiive/gemlive of sculiifiin, 

pi. of ivjjjr/i = truthful (active participle limn 
xutluqu [sadif/sidtf], to speak the truth. Sec at 
2: Ml. p ».n."4) 

2. j^iB qanittn (accusative/genitive gf ^iburun, 

pi. or fdnrr) = devoutly dutiful, obedient, 
submissive (active participle from qanala {tjunut], 
to be obedient, la be devout). Sec at 2:238. p. 120. 
n 14) 

3. i. e., in the way of Allah. gwU*' amitflqin 

(accusal! ve/geniltve of miunfiq&n. pi. of munfttj) 
- ejtprniiers. spenders (active participle from 
'anfatjo. farm IV of nafciija/niifiqa [taifaq], to be 
spent, used up. Sec vunfittSna at 2:273. p. 143. n. 
10). 
4 ,jtjim' • mustaglifirin (accusative/genitive of 

musiaghfirua. pi. of tnaslaghfir) = seekers of 
forgiveness (active participle from isiaghfaru. 
form X of gtmfara [ghafrfmaghfirah/ghufrdn]. to 
forgive. See ittughfirh at 2: 199. p. 97. n. 2). 

5. /— I •ui-Mi' (stug.jf— lajrar) = time before 
daybreak, prc-dawn hours. 

6. -4-^ ihahida - he bore witness, testified, 

witnessed (v. iii. m. s past from shwhud, to 
witness. Sec at 2: 185, p. 38. n I). The bearing or 
witness by Allah means He emphatically informs 
and noli Ties that there is none worthy la be 
regarded as god arid worshipped as such except 
He, And the angels and the men of learning, i.e.. 
those who arc deep-rooted in knowledge, bear 

witness to this fad. 

7. Im-jqiif = justice, equity, fairness. See aqiiitu 

at 2:282. p. 149, n, 1). 

8. This repetition that "there is no deity escept 
He" is for emphasis and constitutes a further 
repudiation or the concept of "Isa (p.b.h.) Of any- 
one else being an incarnation or god. 

9. i.e., the only religion acceptable to Allah Is 
Islam, for it is the completion and finalizarion ol 
the messages communicated through the previous 
Prophets and the Qur'an replaces and supersedes 
the previously revealed scriptures. 

10. i.e., Ihey differed about the Proophelhood of 
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on 
him. and the truth of the Qur'an. JU*M ikhlalafa 

m he differed, disagreed, disputed, quarrelled (V. 
iii. m s- past in form VIII of khatafa [khalf\, to 
follow, io come after. See ikhmtti/6 at 2:253, p 
129, n. 9). 



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162 



S&rtih 3; At 7mrdn fPart Uuz ) 3 ] 



^LJii> to them the knowledge, 1 

""."$* *r r -, 

■ *4«Ul i D g ^ out of envy* among them. 

J^iO*j And whoever disbelieves 

«if ^-^il in the revelations' of Allah* 

^i^_;£ then Allah is 

$ "^'"r Prompt 4 in taking account. 

■Mfffcoti 20. So if they controvert you 
Ji then say: 
**iC**rJ oZLi "I submit* myself 7 to Allah, 
,>j and (so do) those who 
^i follow me"; s 
S.JJJ jij and say to those 
C^JfiJjl who were given the Book 
LUgM*) and the unscriptured folk: 
£iOu. " Do you s ubmi t ? " 
W— Juji So if they submit, 
■'M-iiijOi they indeed get guidance; 10 
W^-ii but if they turn away, 11 
.ji£ £jp then it is but upon you 
j£j; the communication, 12 
%-^'^j And Allah is All-Seeing 
SJ^CjL of the servants. 



I. The Jews and <hc Christians disagreed and 
refused w accept Ihe Prophethood of Muhammad 
(peace and blessings of Allah be on him) after 
ihcy had known about his coming, (a) through [he 
prophecies about htm in ihcir scnpiures; (b) after 
the Prophet had aciually appeared to [hem and (c) 
after some Of ihcir teamed men had believed and 
embraced [slam Hence their disbelief was with 
knowledge and intent and out of envy as 
mentioned in the 'ayah 

1- ift bagky = envy, hostility, transgression, 
outrage. See at 2:213. p. 102, rt, 12. 

3. dljt 'Ayal (sing.Ni, 'HyaJi) = signs, miracles, 
revelations, evidences. See at 3:4, p. 155, n, 3}. 

4- £V sat? = prompt, expeditious, quick, 
speedy, rapid, swift. See at 2:202, p. <JS, n.4. 

5. tjsU- ttOj/S - they controverted:, debated, 
argued, (v. m. m. pi. past from kajja, fonn III of 
hajja, to defeat with argument, to convince, to 
perform pilgrimage, See ftdjja at 2:257, p. 133, n, 
3). 

6. c— 1-1 'aslamtu = I submitted, surrendered, 
delivered up [v. i. s. past from 'atiunm. form IV of 
stttima [sutdmtth/faltim}. to be safe See 'aslitma 
at 2:112, p. 53, n. 6). ls|3m means to surrender 
completely to Allah. 

7. g*»j wqj'hifa = my face, my countenance. It 
is a figurative expression to mean ones self See 
irtyA at 2:215, p, 55, n. 3). 

B. jJl itiaha'a (+ni; originally nf) ~ he fallowed, 
obeyed, pursued, succeeded (v iii. m, s past in 
form VIII of mbi'a [laba'/taba'ah], to follow. See 
itlubii'H at 2:166, p. 78, n. 7). 

9. i.e., the Arabs who had not yet received any 

revealed scripture. £*! 'ummiyytn (acc/gen. of 

'ummtyy&n. pi, of ummy) = unscriptured people, 
illiterate. See ummiyySn at 2:7S. p, 36, n, 10). 

10. Ijji** iliiadaw = (bey received guidance, got 
guidance (v. iii. m. pi. past from itaadu. form VIII 
of hada [hadyi/hiddyahl. to guide. Sec at 2-157 p 
65. n. 2). 

1 1 ljJy tawattaw = they turned away, desisted, 
refrained (v. iii. m, pi. past from fuwultu, form V 
of waliyu. to be near. See at 2r246, p. 1 24. n. 7). 

12. j_ii balAgh (pi bal&gkHi) m communication. 

proclamation, announcement. communique, 
information, notification. 



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Sinili i A! Imran [Part [Jut ) 3 ] 



163 



Section (Rtiku'}' 
U&Q 2 1 . Verily those who 
■dij^ disbelieve 1 
jivy^ in Allah's revelations 
S^kSjiii j and kilP the Prophets 
« without any right. 



^M^JLs^ an ^ kill those who 
lJUL Jj^L enjoin justice, 4 
*j;^'v^? from among men, 
>-J»^p S' ve tr >em the good tidings 5 
^JM X^i of a punishment very painful. 

itti&p$ 22, Those are they whose 
deeds will fall through 
^f^_j in this world 
*^- -5-a 'j and the hereafter; 
s^C's and they shall not have 
^—<j?£*<Ji anyone to help.* 




£$ d&$ 23- Have you not seen those 

£±J>\jj who were given a portion* 
../-a-Ji^l of the Scripture 
it y^^SiS being called 10 to Allah's Book 



1. Oj>ii yakfiiriimt = they disbelieve, turn 

ungrateful, deny (v. iii. m. pi. inipftl from kaftira 
\kufr]. to disbelieve, to cover. See al 2:61, p 29, 
n. 10), 

2. Jjb^ yoqtuluaa = they tilt, slay, murder, 

assassinate (v. iii. m, pi, iltlpfct, ff«B 4<Udkj 
[<,uij|, to kill. See al 2:61. p 29, n. 1 1). 

3. Ojsli jpn'mrdna M ihey enjoin, command. 

give orders, instruct (v iii. m. pi. impfcL from 
'iimant | 'amr], to order. See vd mura at 2:169. p. 
79. n. 12). 

4. .kJ flt'ij = justice, equity, fairness. See 3:1$, 
p. 161.15. ? 

5. jii hiuhshir ■= give the good tilings. 

announce the good news <v. ii. m, 5. imperative 
from bajhshurti, totm II of baihara/bushira 
\biahr /huihr\ io be delighted, to be happy. See at 
2:22 J, p. 110. n. 7). The word is used hew 
sarcastically. 

6. pJ 'ttUm = agonizing, anguishing, very 
painful. See al 2:178, p, 85, n. 3, 

7 c^X*- habitat = fell through, miscarried, went 

in vain, was futile, was or no avail (V, iii. f. S. past 
from bubita [Wi), to come to nothing. See at 
2:217, p. 106, n. I). In the absence of belief in 
Allah, His Prophets and His revelations no good 
deed will can? any merit in the sight of Allah 

ft. o'^*'" nSsirin ( acc/gen of nasirun, pi. of 
iwi.ur i = helpers (active participle from nasara 
\na;r /nuw], to help. See 'irnsar at 2:270. p. 
141. n. 6).' 

O. - . -■ nastb (pt. itusub/ansibii'/u'isibtih) n 

share, portion, lot. See at 2:201. p 98. n, 2), The 
reference is to Ihose rabbis of I be Jews who had 
only a partial m superficial knowledge or their 
own scripture. It is reported that (be Jews of 
M.i di iu brought 10 the Prophet a case of a man 
and a woman who had committed adultery for 
adjudication. He awarded she punishment 
nicscriberJ in the Tamnih, (hat of stoning the 
culprit to death The Jewish rabbis insisted on a 
nominal punishment, refused to abide by their 
own scripture and attempted 10 conceal (he 
relevant statement, in it {Bukhan, no. 4_156). 
10. Cijf~k yud'awaa = they are called, 
summoned!, invited (v. iii. m. pi. impfct, passive 
Tram da'd [tfiTu'l. to call. See rfuu al 2:282. p, 
148. n 9). 



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164 



Surah 1: At 'Imrdn [Part Urn") 1 ] 



X^j so that it might adjudicate' 
*-&z between them, 
jyj^j then there turn away* 
rt£^£f a group of them, 



<*.••& ** 



they being backsliders? 3 



yt Xv\d& 24. That is because they say; 
j!3li£3J "The fire shall not touch 4 us 
•z/i/^t^ji save for a number of days"; 
jfcj and (here deceives* them 
j^.i j in the matter of their religion 
Cix^ly^u what they use to fabricate. 6 



^•JlSj 25. Then how about it when 
-< " «• » We shall get them together 7 
^jJ on a day 
*-J*l^v whereof there is no doubt, 
ojjj and fully paid" will be 

every individual 
^=»U what it earns, 9 






(i*> and they 

^V will not be wronged? 10 



I- |ȣ"w yohkumaim = he or h adjudicates, 
passes judgement, gives verdict, decides (v, iii. m. 
s. impfct from imkama \h»km\, to pass 
judgement The last ieltei is given fus/uiJi because 
or a hid Jen 'an in ihc iam of motivation ( U in ihc 
sense of kuy) coming before She impfct. vetb. See 
at 2: 1 1 3, p. 54. n 4) 

2 J J* yalawaM - he turns away, desists, 
refrains (v, iii, m s.. impfct- from lav/aliA, form V 
of mzft/o, to come near. See bnUiUott a| 3:20. p. 
162. n, II). 

J. Oj-i»yu mu'ridun (sing, mu'ntf) = backsliders. 

those lhal mm away (active paticiple from 

'a'mdti. Conn SV of 'urudu [ atd] lo be wide). 

4. ^r-; rainavrari<f = she or it touches, hits, 
afflicts (v, iii, f s. impfcl from nuu [nuuj 
/math], to louch, lo feel. The last letter lakes 
faiHah because of ihe particle fan corning before 
ihe impfct. verb. See al 2:80. p. 37. n. 8 ). 

5- > ghatrn - he or il deceived, deluded, misled, 
beguiled (v. iii. m. s. past [gharur]}. 

6 iijjiv yaftarHoa a they fabricate, make up. 
invent lyingly. Irarmp up, blander, calumniate (v. 
iii. nt, pj. impfcl. from iftord, form VIM ai furU 
\faiy\, to cut lenthwisc. to fabricate). Some rabbis 
fabricated lhal Ihc Jews would not suffer 
punishment in hell except for forty days, ihe 
number of days the Jews of old had worshipped 
the calf. They also fabricated lhal ihe Jews, as the 
supposedly favoured children of God. would get 
preferential treatment from Him. The ordinary 
Jews were deceived by such fabrications. 

7. Ut*~ jama'ni = we gathered, collected, got 
together, assembled, mustered (v. i. pi past from 
jamti'ti [jam'], to gather See jam" at J:9. p. 157 
n .7). 

8. djj wuffiyat - she was paid fully, given in 
mil (v. iii f s, pafl passive from *3jJ8. form II of 
trafa [wafd'Amfy], Id fulfil, lo be perfect, See 
yuwufla at 1171, p. J 42. n. 12). 

9. i^-i" kasabat =she earned, acquired, gained 

(v, tli. f. i past from kasaba ikusb]. lo gain. See al 
2:286. p. 152. n. 8). 

10. CijhJi* yuztamunu = ihey are wronged, done 
injustice, oppressed (v. iii m. p| impfcl passive 
from latafoa \zittm/iutm\, (o do wrong. See at 
2:281." p. 147, n. 2). 



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Surah 3: Al 'ImrSn [Part Uui ') 3 | 



165 



<.!■-' 



&»$ 26. Say: "0 Allah, 
iiiffi^L, Sovereign of the Dominion, 
^l&\ Sy you give 1 possession 1 

iHfj; to whom You will; 
^4iJT^5J and you wrest' possession 
it-jjlj from whom You will; 
>Jj and You bring honour 4 
'■£*!;_- to whom You will 
Jlij and You bring dishonour 1 



Oil^i to whom You will, 
^iifiJ^.. In Your Hand lies all good. 

&<&{ Verily You are over 
J&ftrif everything All-Powerful. 



"VStf-t-^* 






27. You make the night enter* 

into the day 

and You make the day enter 

into the night; 

and You produce 7 the living 

out of the lifeless 

and You produce the lifeless 

out of the living; 

and You give sustenance* 



1 . ,jy tu 'It - you give, bestow, grant (v. ii. m. j. 

impfct from 'aid [ ilySnf'aty/mu'lih], 10 give, to 
come See ya'li at 2:258, p, 133, n. 8). 
7. Jilt rnulk - dominion, kingship, monarchy, 

right of possession, ownership. Sec a! 2:247, p, 
125, n. (. l! is Allah Who bestows ownership, i.c., 
properly and wealth in all their sizes and forms, be 
it sovereignty over a vast dominion or possession 
of J little wealth. Similarly, it is Allah Who lakes 
away wealth and ownership. And in the like 
manner honour, life and death and everything is in 
His Hand, This and the next 'Ayah are as ranch a 
remarkable statement of monotheism as they 
Constitute an ideal form of prayer. 

3. £js taiai'u - you wrest, match, lake away. 

remove, divest, deprive (v. ii. m. s. impfcl. from 
mm 'a [naz'], to take away). 

4. j^ Wain - you bring honour, make 
respectful, dignify, strengthen (v ti. m. $ impfct 
from Waim. form IV or 'uzaa 
[ 'izz/'izuih/'taa&ih]. to be strong, respected), 

5. JA- tudkiltu = you bring dishonour, degrade, 

debase, humiliate, lower (v. ii. m. s. impfct from 
udhullu. form IV of dhalla [dhall /dhutt /dhillahf 

dhaMah /madhaUah], to be low). 
(V ~Jy tuliju a you insert, make enter, ihrusl. 

interpolate (v. if m- S- impfcl. from 'awtaja. form 
IV of walaja [lijuh/wulAjl to enter, peneirate). 
This pari of the 'ayah, which points oul to a 
significant scientific truth and is properly 
intelligible only in the light of modem knowledge. 
The night and Ihe day arc a continuous process, 
one receding into or gradually taking the place of 
the other - a fact which is possible and 
understandable only in the case of the earth's 
being a sphere and in constant rotation. 

7. i?j*i rukhriju = you bring out, produce (v. 
ii. m. s. impfct. from 'aihraja. form IV of khartiju 
\khurSJ], to go out, to leave See tukhn)inu at 
2:54, p. 39. n 8). Allah brings out the living from 
the lifeless such as seeds and eggs, and brings out 
the dead from the living, making it die and 
become lifeless. 

8. djj; torzuqu = you give sustenance, provide 

means of livelihood, bestow (v. ii. m. s, impfct 
from rtnuqa [rizi)]. 10 provide means of 
livelihood. Sec ramqna al 2: 172. p. SI, tl. 2}. 
This pari of ihe iSvuft is an emphasis upon whni is 
stated at the beginning of the previous 'Ayah. 



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Suruh 3: At (mrim [Part (Jut ') 3 ] 



idiu^ to whom You will 
i§y y^-»-jZL without calculation. 1 






*>, f.'f 






^1 



JV-**^ 



28. Lei not the believers take 2 
the unbelievers as helpers' 
in lieu of the believers; 
and whoever does that 
shall not be from Allah 
in anything; 4 

except that you apprehend 5 
from them a threat. 6 
And Allah cautions 7 you 
against Himself; 
and to Allah is 
the destination. 3 



i^ i J; 29. Say: "If you hide 
^ks»plC^C what is in your breasts 
•jjijjI or disclose" it 
lii*Il« Allah knows it; 



Rl 



,—- !J 



and He knows 



I 4^ whatever is in the heavens 
J^^Cj and whatever is in the earth; 



1. •^— - hiiSh tpl. hisSbSi)^ calculation, 
reckoning, accoutring, computation. See al 2:212, 
p. 102. n. 4. "Wilhaui calculation" means without 
limit, couniless/eountlesslY. incalculably. 

2. JU4 yaltakhidhiui - he lakes, talus up. tikes 

on, assumes, adapts (v. iii, m_ s. impfct in farm 
VIII of -aiktidlKi I 'akhdh\, to lake. The last letter is 
vowel (ess because of the prohibitive its coming 
before the verli Sec at 2:165. p. 71, n, It)}. 

3. «Ujt 'amtiyi' <pU sing.^j waliyy} m helpers, 

friends, patrons, protectors, legal guardians. See 
waiiyy at 2: 120, p. 57, n 6. 

4. i.e. anyone taking unbelievers as friend -he (pen 
will not be in ihc dm of Allah and will forfeit 
Allah's help (AlTabari. Tutfr, pi HI, p. 22S) 

5. 'j^; liUlaqw.n,:) = you all fear, be afraid of (v. 
ii. in. pi. impfct. fram titoi/ii, fomi VIII of kii^d 
[wuqy/wiqaytih], to guard, to protect. The terminal 
nun is dropped for the panicle an coming before 
the verb. See Wftotfitotf at 2: 1 79. p. 85, n. 5). 

6. i.e.. if the non-Muslims are inimical and pose ■ 
threat to the Muslims then a show 11 f friend!: hip 
may be mock Id them without taking them into 
confidence (Al-Taban, Tu/sir. pi, till. p. 228). ft* 
iuqdh = fear, anything to be feared, threat. 

T. jJ*i yuhadhdhiru = he cautions, warns, puis 
you on your guard (v. iii, m. s. impfct. from 
hadhdhaw. form If of hmlhtni [hidhr/htidhur], to 
be cautious. See ihdharu at 2:235, p. 119. n.l). 
Allah cautions you against Himself means He 
warns you against His wrath and punishment 

S. i.e., everyone sball have 10 return 10 Him and 
give an account of his deeds, j**, mastr - 
destination. desliny. end. See at 2;225, p. 1 52, n . Sj, 

9. iji-J(Mtn/fi(/iu) p you (all) hide. Conceal, keep 

secret, secrete (v. ii. m. pi, impfct. from 'akhfu , 
farm IV of khtifiytt {kkafA'/kklfah/khiifyak}, to be 
bidden. The lerminal nun is dropped because the 
verb is part of a conditional clause (preceded by 
'in). See at 2:284, p. 151, n. 3) 

10. jj4_» iudur (sing.j^. ittdr) - btvaMs, bosoms, 
chests,, hearts. 

II Ijjj tuiiiHj(nti) = you (alt) disclose, express, 

declare, reveal, make known (v. ii, m, pi. impfct. 
from 'abdil, form IV of bad& [ ttad&ww/bsM' J lo 
appear, to Come to light, The lerminal nun is 
dropped for the reason staled at n. 9 above See at 
2:284, p. 151, n, 2. 



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SHrat, y Al 'Imrdn [Part Uutl 3 | 



167 







111 j^^j-Wj 






9*3 












and Allah is over everything 
All-Powerful. 

30. On the Day 

every individual shall find 1 

what he did 2 of good 

brought face lo face; 3 

and also what he did of evil. 4 

He will wish 5 if there were 

between it and him 

a time-span 6 far-off. 7 

And Allah cautions 8 you 

against Himself; 

and Allah is Most Kind** 

to the servants. 

Section (ffwfcu'M 

31. Say: "If you are wont to 
love 10 Allah 

then follow" me, 
Allah will love 12 you 
and forgive you your sins; 
and Allah is Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 



I . jimi lajidu = she finds, gels, obtains (v. in T.&. 

impfct, from v/ujada [wujtiti], lo find. See tajidu 
at 2:283. p. 1 50. «l. 2>. 

2 ■jJ~* 'amitai = she or il did, performed, acted, 
(v. iii. f. s, past from 'umila I'umitl], lo do), 

3 ,~u~» mithftar - brought face 10 face, brought 

along, fclched, presented (passive participle ri.nn 
'ahdura, form [V of hudara [hudur], to be 
present. Sec liiujimh al 2:232, p. 149. n. 5). 

4. %f %&' (pi. JjJ "uiwd'l = evil. ill. offence, 

bad deed. See at 2:169, p, 79. n, 13. This part of 
the 'ayah stresses individual responsibility and 
indicates that anyone else's atonement will be of 
no avail against Allah's judgement. 
5- iy tawaJdu - she wishes, likes, loves, desires. 

hopes Tor, wants (v iii. f, s, tmpfel from wadda 
{midd fotudd h/idd Mtutdtt /wud&df muwaddtth), 
lo love. Sec yuwtiddu at 2:266. p. 139. n, 8). 

6. jl«' 'amad [pi 'ami'id) " span or stretch of 

lime, terminus. 

7. -M* bo'td (s.; pi. bu'add'/ bu&aV bu'ttiin/ 

bi'iittt ■ far. far-off, far-away, Tar-reaching. 
distant, unlikely. See at 2: 176. p, 83, n. 3). 
3 i.e., cautions you against His wrath and 

punishment. jJUq yahadhdhiru = he Cautions. 

wants, puts you on your guard (v. iii. rn s. impfct. 
from hadkdhara. form It of iiudhira 
{i\idhr/hutihar\. to be cautious. See at 3:28. p. 
166, u.7>. 

9. J*; ra'tij — must kind, most compassionate. 

most gracious (active participle in Ibc Scale of 
fa' St from m'afii/m'ufii [m'fah/ra'ajuk], to show 
mercy. See at 2:207. p 100. n, 4). 

10. Jjt—' tuhibh&na - you (all) love, like, wish. 

(V ii. m. pi. impfct. in form IV of Ijubba [fiabh]. 
to love. See luhibbS at 2:216, p, 104, n. 10). 
]|. \yJ Utahi'u = you (all) follow, imilatc. 
pursue, be on ihe track [v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
from ittabu'v. form VIII of lubi 'a [tabu Vtaba 'ah], 
to follow- See at 2:170, p. SO. n. 2). This ayah 
implies lhal whalcvcr he did Of advised was by 
Allah's directive 

12. l-**v ynhhib [originally yuhibbu, u: 
yuhtribu) m he loves, likes, wishes (v. iii. m, s. 
impfci. from 'akabba, form IV of habba. The 
final teller is vawelless because Ihe verb is 
conclusion of a conditional clause. 



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168 



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Sutnh I: Al ImrSn [Pan Uui'\ 3 ] 



SiijLVlj* 32. Say: "Obey 1 Allah 

— 'j*->\j and the Messenger." 

'>><jt Bui if they turn away," 

v^V^j^li then Allah does not like 3 

Uj>£$ the unbelievers, 









^it'^T^ 33. Verily Allah chose 4 
£->jf ill 'Adam and Nuh 
-^-rfii-riJ 1 *.} and the family of Ibrahim 
>j>*lS£j and the family of Tmnin* 
j|l SsjEiO* above all the beings; 6 
*yj 34. As offspring, 
one from the other; 
g? Zi\j and Allah is All-Hearing, 



1. y>f 'u/i'ii - V4iu (all) obey, be obedient 

in pi. imperative ([Dm 'h/h'u, form IV uf id'o( 
to obey. Sec 'alu w<i al 2:285, p 1 52, n. 3), 
repealed command to obey and follow the I'n 

2. r * uti'ff/tdh' = Ihuy turned away, 

refrained (v rii. m. pi past from ruiwi.'i'ii forml 
matron lo be near. See at J: 20, , p. 162, n 11). 

3. ^t>h yuhibbu = he loves, likes, wishes (v. 

s impfi'i Uumhtihbu\l}uhb\.ta\uvt See 31 I3j 
p ItW.a IftandywWufral 3:31. p. 167. n 12). 

4. i. c.. Allah chose for Prophelhood and 1 
of scriptures. ji**\ fftafS he chose. Selected (V.J 

m. s. past in form VIII of jiifii [.fu/H-Au/iiu/j^lK 
be clear, pure. See at 2:247, p. 125. CI.3). 

5. 1 Ml-sc ore mentioned by name because all | 
Prophets and Messengers were raised from i 
their progeny 

6. i.e., all the different nations of the time 

7. hj' dhurriyah Ipl -<- ■.-. dlufiyiii/j.-y- tihtim 

- offspring, progeny, children, descendant See 
2:266. p. 139. n. 14). 



j&i£ All-Knowing. 



•J^o^iUjii j^ 35. When 'Imran's wife 8 said: 
yj "My Lord, 
c/^,\\ I have dedicated 9 to You 
j£<$* what is in my womb 

u/«* as an offering. 
U-J^* So accept" [it] from me; 
^&\ verily You are 



" 



d ii^ 'imra'ah = wife, woman Her name •» 
Hannah. This 'liroran, husband of Hannah. is not* 
be confused with ■(rnfin, father of M Lisa (Motet) 
There was a lime- gap of about one thousand mil 
eight hundred years between the two pcrsott 
Hannah's husband Imran died before she gave Nn» 
lo her child 



9. &jii nadhartu - | dedicated, tnade a w% 
consecrated, pledged (v. i. past from HaJtini 
{nadhr/nudh&r]. to dedicate. See nadhisrtum u 
2:270, p. 141, n. 12). 

10 jj*»> muharrar = freed from all tics, it. 

dedicated, consecrated to Allah, Nix-ratal 
emancipated (passive participle from karrara, fan* 
II of harm [Htitr/har&ft>h\. to be hoi) Hamuli 
dedicated the child lo be bom to lu-r for the ternst 
of Allah. It appears from the ft*M 'iiyah that shew* 
hoping for a male child. 

II. Jji taqabbal = accept, receive, grant (v, « rn 
s imperative from luqtilrhutii, form V uf qabib 
\(ttth&t/tluMI\. to accept, See at 2:127. p. 60. n. II}, 



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Surah 3: At Imr&t [Part (Jiu ' J 3 ) 



169 



iL^i the All-Hearing, 1 
%iM the All-Knowing. 1 



LIU 



^ r*" 7 ^ 






&f&5 




^-^yi|J 



•CO, 

9 






36. Then when 

she gave birth 1 to her [Mary] 

she said: "My lord, I have 

delivered her, a female" — 

and Allah knew better 4 

what she gave birth to, 

and the male is not 

like the female — 

"and I have named* her Mary 

and 1 seek refuge 6 for her 

with You 

and for her progeny 

from Satan, 

the accursed." 7 



U^JL+tlii 37. So her Lord accepted* 
o^>- ^JSi her in favourable response 
L^fj and reared* her up 
1£Zj8Q in a good rearing; 
£ug an( * put her under the care 10 



1. i.e.. All-Hearing and Most Responsive to 
prayers 

2- i.e.. All-Knowing., among other things, of the 
intentions of His servants. 

3. ii-«-ij wada'al a she laid, laid down, 

delivered, gave birth lo (v. iii. f. s, past from 
wada'a I wad'], to lay, to put down). 

4. (Oct •a'iaimi = belief -knowing, betier aware 
(dative of 'dlim, active participle from "ttUtmt 
I'ilm], lo know. The statement "and Allah knows. 
better „„ like the female" is a parenthetical clause. 

5 .^— samntaylu = I named, called, 

designated, nominated (v. i. s. past from summjj. 
form II of ranni [sumumv/iuma'\. to be high- See 
musummun at 2:282, p. 147. n. 5). 

6. istf "v'iAhu - 1 seek refuge for, I place under 
the protection («. i. s. impfct, from V&ttw, form 
|V nf 'Mlm {'<iwdh/'iyMhfirui'3dh\. lo seek 
protection, to lake refuge). 

7. pjp^, rajtm - accursed, damned, stoned 

(passive participle on the scale of fit'tl from 
rajti'na [rajm], to stone, to curse). 

5. Jjf (aqsbtxila = he accepted, received, 

granted IV. iii. m. S. post in form V of qubila 
[qabul/qubut]. to accept See luqablml at 3:35. p. 
168, n, II) 

9. i.e. Allah arranged for her being brought up. 
^J 'anbata = he reared, brought Up. caused lo 

sprout, made grow (v. iii. m. s. past in form IV of 
nabata [nubi], lo grow. Sec unbeiuu al 2:261, p 
136. n, 10). 

10. J*T kaffala = he put under the care. 

provided, security, placed in charge (v. iii. ni s. 
past in form II of kufnltf/kufitti/ktifiilti 
\kuflAufil/kufalah]. to be responsible). Allah 
arranged for Maryam 10 be under Ihe care of 
ZaJuuiyya, husband of her maternal aunt When 
Matyuln's mother raised the question of her care 
and guardianship the rabbis of Bay I al-Maqdis 
quarrelled among themselves for her guardianship 
The matter was ultimately settled by drawing lots 
which fell in favour or Zakariyya (Stc supra. 
3:44. al p. 173). As Maryam came of age 
Zakariyya made for hei a Special Chamber. 
tr.ihrti!*. in Bay I al-Maqdis where she stayed and 
devoted herself to worship and prayer. 



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Suraft 3: "A I Imrdn [Part iluz) 3 J 



ifr r s ? s f 

t*jy\AJUE;Ji*-j 
'•- '' s 1?i 



to Zakariyya. 

Whenever Zakariyy§ called 

on' her in the chamber 2 

he found 1 with her provision. 4 

He said; "O Mary, 

whence 5 is this for you?" 

She said: 

"It is from Allah, 

Verily Allah gives provision 6 

to whomsoever He will 

without calculation." 1 



38.Thercat Zakariyya prayed 
His Lord. He said: 
4C~*wJ "My Lord, bestow* on me 
out of Your grace 
a noble 10 offspring. 
Verily You are 
All-Responsive" to prayer." 



lie ''' i--S' - 






iti 









39. So the angels called out 13 
to him - and he was still 
standing erect" praying 14 



1 . J" dakhala = he entered, went in (followed 

by the particle alu it means to enter someone's 
room, io l'jII ™| [v. iit, m. v past (from duiJiui]. 
to enter S« 'udkhiH at 2:208, p 100, ji, S) 

2. v'j*" mihr&b (pl,vo<~ nwUMA) = prayer 
niche, private chamber. 

3. Jjtj fiajada = he found, got, tame across {v. 

iii- m. s. past [from wuj&d], to find. See ttfjidu al 
3:29. p. I67.n I). 

4. djj rbjj (pi J'J u»^3 ¥ ) = provision, means of 

livelihood, food, sustenance. See al 2:233, p 116 
nil). 

5 J*\ 'ann& = whence, wherefrom, how, when. 

6 Jj> yarzvqu = he gives provision, bestows, 
provides (v, iii, m. &. irnpfct from riaai/a [riu/l 
to give the means of subsistence See iarjuifU at 
3:27. p. 165, n. 8), 

7. *J— »■ ftif4J (pl.jJW- AJ.u5J*5fl= calculation. 

reckoning, accounting, computation. "Without 
calculation" means without limit. 

counikss/cQuntlcssly. incalculably. See at 3:27. p. 
166. n. I). 

B. s-» hob - you bestow, give, granl, donate (v. 

ii, ni s imperative from wuhuba [ytahb], to grant 
See at 3:8, p. ]57,n 5), 

9, i±lul ^>» nun Wurric = from your side, i.e., 

out of your grace, not in lieu of any merit on the 
part of the seeker. 

10. ±± layyibah (pi i<J. lav.Wfcdi.- tiros fciy>J*J 
= good, noble, virtuous. See tayyibit at 2:267, p. 
140. n, S), 

1 1 £-- somV = All-Responsive. All-Hearing, 
Intensely Listening, Active participle in the 
intensive scale of fa 11 from mmi'a [mm - /soma' 
/wma'tih /masma J. to hear, See sami M at 2:285 
p. lSZn.2), 

Ii -znM aldal - she Called out. shouted. 

(v. iii. f. s, past from n&da, form 111 officii 
[nadu], to call) See mdiC at 2; 171 . p. 90. n. 12). 

II r ti qt'un = standing, untight, erect (active 
participle from qiitnu [ipiwrnak/qiyUm], io stand 
up), Secyat/imurm al 2:175. p. 144, n, 4), 

14, J-*. yuia/tf = he prays, worships, performs 

prayer (v, iii. m. s. irnpfct from .mltu isaluh). w 
pray, worship). 



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5liwfl 3: 'At ImrHii [Part (Jhi - ) 3 1 



171 



_ _.-__' .J 



in the chamber - [saying] : 

"Allah gives you the glad 

tidings 1 of Yahya, 

attesting the truth* 
-if <j;>-J£t of a word from Allah, 1 

of a leader 4 and a celibate, 5 
yj and a Prophet, 
y!-4^iv^ being one of the righteous." 5 






ul yjjLi 

,< -*^ v^v *^^ 






40. He said: "My Lord, how 7 
can there be a son* for me 
and old age M has reached !0 me 
and my wife is barren?" 11 
He [Allah] said: "Thus Allah 
does what He wills." 



C-jJt" 



41. He said: "My Lord, 
set^formeasign."" 
He [Allah] said: "Your sign 
A£=£fi is that you shall not speak 14 
to men for three days 
except by signals; 15 
and remember" your Lord 









1. jl-, yuba$h\hiru = he gives good lidings (v. 

iii. m. s. impfct ffQrn hufhjhura.. form II of 
kwthtirii/biiskirii [btshr/hashr], lo rejoice, to be 
happy See AtataAir ill 2:223. p, 1 10, n 7). 

2. J-'-«-- musaddio = ih:« which confirms, 

attests (active parliciplc from sadduqu, fofin 11 of 
sudtitfti [sadif/xidii], lo speak ihe Inith Sec at 3:3, 
p, J 54, n-*5) 

3. i.e.. iij. peace be on him is culled "a word 
front Allah" because he came into existence in his 
mother's womb by Allah's command kun (be). 

4. J^- fttyyut (pi. nsytid/iUdtih/iaddi'). leader, 
thief, nobte. 

5. jj-~- fcflfdr = celibate, one who ic mains 
unmarried and refrains from sexual intercourse, 
Active partictpte in the scale of fti'ul from husura 
[hasr], io hold back, to detain, to contain \ 

6. ^p^SLr nUuWr(acc/gentnve of sulihun, p] or 

fahh)= righteous, virtuous, good (active participle 
from talaha \ail,'ih/suluh/nui.}lahah\. la be good, 
right, proper. See ai 2:1 JO, p. 62, n. St. 

7. j!t 'anna = whence, wherefrom. how. when. 
See at 3:37. p. 170. n. 5). 

R. fU-ghal&m (pi, ghilman/Khilmah) = boy, lad. 
son, youth, slave. 
9 jf kibar m old age. bigness, eminence, 

II). Mi balagha - he or it reached, came 10, 

attained [v IB. ni. s. post from twlSgh, to reach, 
Sec balagkna at 2:232, p. I IS, n.B). 

1 1 . >u 'Sqir - barren, sterile (f.) 

12. Jm-i (/'a/ = (you) place, put. set, make (v. ii. 
rn. s imperative from ja'alu \ja't\. lo make. put. 
place. See at 2:260. p. 136. n, 2 

13. *&. 'ayah (pl,-^ 'dy&ft = sign, revelation. 

evidence, miracle, Sec at 3: 1 3, p. 1 59, n. I , 

14. fit: lakallimaimtt'i = you speak, talk, 

address (v. ii. m. s. impftl from tuiiiumu, fofln II 
of kutamit Ikiitm), lo wound. Sec kaliama at 
2:253, p, 129. n. 2. Prophet Zakariyya was 
granted the sign that he would be unable to speak 
lo men fur three days when his wife became 
pregnant, but he was nol made unable to pray dim 
Kalhtr. II. p. 31). 

15. j*j ramz [pi ^j rumfi;) = sign, signal. 

16. i e . say prayer. 



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Sarah 3.AI Imran [Pari Uuz) 3 ) 



\.*\*— in profusion 
^ijt^j^j and glorify 1 in the afternoon 2 
Mj and the morning." 3 

Section (Ruku')B 
JSiJj 42. And when the angels 
j^il^^j\ said; "O MaryaitV 

jJ^lO'-ifc) verily Allah has chosen 5 you 
4L>-**j and purified 6 you 
AVin'J j and has selected you 
tL-i,^*- over the women of 
\ all the beings." 



^fjL^L 43. "O Maryam, be obedient 7 
*±£j to your Lord 
S^m^ and prostrate 6 yourself 
J5% and bow* in prayer 
^^0 1 jf along with the bowing ones." 

Oiiu'i 44. This is of 



UlJ the tidings of the unseen that 
Hjj ,S*> We communicate 10 to you; 
jloJfcJ and you were not by them 



1 . £r- sabhih - proclaim (he sanctity, glorify, 
declare immunity from blemish (v ii 4 
imperative from sublmhu. farm J I atsabaha [jftbh 
nbSkah] 10 swim, to float. See nuiaiibihu at 2:30, 
p. 16. n. S). 

2. ,j-!j- 'arAii.Hr (sing •dfhiyyak) - evening, 
afternoon, the lime between noon and sunset. 

3. j*^ 1 'ibhar - morning, forenoon. 

4. After the description of the birth of Yahyfi » a 
very old fattier and an equally old and barren 
mother reference is made to a Mill more 
miraculous deed of Allah in the birth of [si 
(p-b.b-J through a mother only and tt> the other 
miracles that Allah caused to happen ill his hand. 
This is done only to illustrate the fact that he was 
only a creation or Allah's and a Messenger 

5 ,JL-A islafS - he chose, seleacd, picked out. 
singled out (v. iji. m, s, past in form VIII of sa$<l 
lsaf*/sufuw/s<tf8l to be clear. Sec at 2:247, p, 
123, n. 3; 2:132, p 62; n. °; and ijiBfaynA at 
2:110, p. 62. 0.4). 

6. j& iahharn = he purified, rendered pure, 
cleansed (v m. m. 5, past in form I] of iuhurat 
takura lruhr/(uh4rah]. to be clean, pure See 
tahhird at 2:125, p 59, n, 14 This pan of the 
'Si/ah emphasizes thai Allah selected Maryam for 
the honour of (he miraculous birth of "3sa Ip.h.h ,) 
through her and thai she was chaste and fret from 
the Name hurled at her by the Jews. 

7. jM uqnitti = be devout, dutiful, obedient! v 
ii. f. s imperative from qanata \tjunul\. to he 
obedient). See i/iiniiiii at 3:17, p. 161, n. I}, 

8. ifUawi mjWT = prostrate yourself (v, ii. f. s. 
imperative from sajada \su)Ctd\. to go into 
proslrafion. Sec asjudS at 2:34. p. 18, 0. 3). 

9 iS?/ irkut i bow , bend ihe body in prayer, 
lilted down (v, ii. f s. imperative from mttf 
[rukit ]. to bow, See iria'G at 2:43. p, 22, ft. J). 

10 y*-jf "iM = we communicate (v. i pi. 
impfct. from 'wvhd. form IV of wahii [tvtdfyl to 
communicate. The wanJ waky bears a variety of 
meanings, but technically il means Allah's 
communication to His Prophets ami Messengers 
by various means. Some of these means are 
indicated in the Qur'ln at 2:92, 16:2, 16:102, 
26: 1 93 and 42:51 . Sec also BiiWWrf, nos 2-4. 



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SSrsih 1, -Al •Imr&i (Pan (,/uz) 3 ] 



173 



yiil when they were casting 1 
+i}£JJi\ their arrows 2 as to 

^^ who of them should sponsor 1 
^ Maryam; 
*Jic*^=>Cj nor were you with them 



|p Jj—v«j~ i\ when they were quarrelling. 



ii 45. When the angels said: 
lal^i^i "O Maryam, verily Allah 
*r?H gives you the good tidings' 
*^t^H of a word from Him — 
^-J^**-; his name will be Messiah, 
r?J , v}J- J £ 'isa, son of Maryam, 
W-J^li^-j esteemed in the world 
*jffis and the hereafter 
{&losj^o;j and of those placed near," 9 



',v*>;i j— 



^Uij^suj 46. And He will speak to men 
■H^<i while in the cradle" 
°*+£=*i and during manhood, 
P-^yi^'ofj and will be of the righteous. 
^owJU 47, she said: "My Lord, 
•»id,bf*i$ how can there be a son to me 



1. i>a< yulquna = Ihey throw, east, Ping (v ui. 

m, pi. impfct. from tiiqH . form IV of t&qiya 
[lit/a ' 'l!iijyiin/!u^\-/!uij\tifi/liuf/iH]. to meet. See Jd 
lulqtialiWS.pM.n. 12). 

2, i.e., Ihey were easting lots wilti Ihcir arrows to 
decide who should lake charge of Maryam. 

'aqISm [sing, qaiam) = reed pens. pens, arrows 
for casting lots. 
}. ui, yakfutit - he sponsors, lakes charge of, 

becomes responsible for [v. iii. m. s. irnpfci from 
kufuiii\kafUkufut/kiifdtahX to be responsible for. 
See kaffala HI 3:37. p 169, n. 10). 
A. it. they were quarrelling about the mailer of 
taking charge of Maryam, Maryam's mother had 
dedicated her to the service of Allah and look her 
in H.;i,i .il-Maqdis where the rabbis quarrelled as 
to who should lake charge of Maryam, The matter 
was setded by casting lots which fell in favour of 
ZakariyyG See Al-Tabari. pi. III. 241-242. 267; 
[fan Kalhir. II. 34. See also infra. J: 37. al p 169>. 
Lij. ■«.< yakhtasimuna = they quarrel, dispute. 

argue, contest one another {v. iii. m. pi. impfct. 
from ikittasama, form VIM of kfuiftima [ khajm/ 
kMsiimAhuxumah], lo defeat in argument. See 
khiwm at 2:204. p W, n 4). 

5. j~i yubashshim - tie gives Ihe good i tilings, 

announces Ihe good news {v. iii. m. s. impfct. 
from boikshtira. form 11 of bmhura/bashira 
\bnhrfbushr}. to be happy, See bashshir at 2:223. 
p 1 10. n 7; 2:155, p, 73. r\, 12; 2:25, p. 1 J. n, 40. 

6. "IsS (p.b.ti.) is called a "word from Allah" 
because he came into existence in his mother's 
womb by Allah's word "be" tlbn Kalhir. II, 34). 

7. vrj vajih (pi. wujshS'} = esteemed, notable, 
distinguished 

S. Jiyu muqarrabin (aecigen. of muqtirnlbun, 

Sing ouiqamtii ) those placed near (passive 
participle from qurmba, form II of qaraba [qurbf 
maqrabah], 10 be near See Id Hiqtobu at 2:222, p. 
109. n. 7) 

9. This is one of the miracles given by Allah lo 
isa i.p.b h i -i+- mahd (pi .^ muhiid) - cradle. 
SeemA<3rfal3:l2, p. ISS. n * 

10 J«s* kahl (pi. kuhhal/ki/uH/kuhalAuhtdit) = 

man of mature age, full manhood. The reference 
ly his childhood and growth inlo full manhood is 
an indirect refutation of the claim of divinity for 
him iSafwttr al-Bayun , S I }. 



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174 



S&rvh 3; 'Al "ImrS/t {Part (Jm) 3 ] 




> 



JJ J 4*Uj& 



*3 






■f^J 



and there did not touch 1 me 

any man?" 

He said: "So it will be. 

Allah creates" what He wills. 

When He decrees* a thing 

He but says for it 

'Be", and it becomes." 

48. And He will teach" him 
the Book and wisdom 5 , 
and the Torah 

and the Injit — 

49. And [will make him] 

a Messenger to the Children 
of Isra'Il (and he will say]: 
"I have indeed come to you 
with a sign from your Lord - 
that I shall make 6 for you 
out of clay 7 

as if the figure* of a bird, 9 
then I shall blow 10 into it, 
so it will become a bird 



1. i.e.. did not cohabit with me ,^_ „ yamiia 
(yamassu from yum.wj«j= he [ouches, reels [v. iii. 
id J. impfct. from masia lmass/nuu:ix\. ID feet, to 
touch. The terminal letter is vowel less because of 
the particle lam coming before: [he verb See 
massal at 2:214, p. 103. n. 4 and tamussS 
2:236. p. 119, n 3. 

2. ji*H yakkluqu = he creates, makes, brings 
into being, cuigi tlBies, shapes (v. iii. nt. s, impfct 
I si 'in tJiataqa \khatq\, to create. See khuiuqa it 
2:228. p. 1 12. n. 2 and 2:2 1, p. II. n. 4). 

3. Kf H qada - he decreed, adjudicated, decided, 
judged, settled, cone tuded, executed (v iii m i, 
past from midW, to conclude. Sec at 2:1 17. p. 5j, 

n. ": ijiuiaytum at 2:200, p. 97. st. 3 and qutkvu it 
2:210. p. lOl.n. 3. 

5. fW yu'allimu = he teaches, instructs, trains, 

educates, informs, makes aware, earmarks l.v iii. 
in s. impfct, from 'aliama. form [[ of 'alima 
Vilm\, lo know. See at 2:282. p. ISO, n, I). 

5. i.e.. [he luntwh of the Prophets. 

6. jl*-l 'akhbtqu - I make, give shape, create (v. 

i s. impfct from khalaqa. See ytiihtui/n at ft. 2 
above. Here follows the mention of some of uV 
misacles thai Allah caused to happen at the hand* 
of "fsi p.b h). 

7. ^ fin = clay, soil. 

S. i±* hay'ah (pl.c-VL- buy' aft - shape, form, 
body, committee, board, skeleton organization. 



9. J. tayr ( coll, n.; pl.jji luytir) = bird. See at 

2:260, p. 135, n. 13. 



10. £i! 'anfukha - I blow, breathe, inflate, fill 

with air (v. i, s, impfct, from najakha [nufkk]. to 
blow). 



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SHrali y 'At Smrun [Pan (Jm") 3 ] 



175 



-aiiujU 













by Allah's leave 1 ; 

and I shall cure 2 the blind 3 

and the leper 4 and 

shall give life 5 to the dead 

by Allah's leave; 6 

and shall inform 7 you 

of what you eat* 

and what you store up' 

in your houses. 

Verily therein is a sign 

for you, 

if you are believers." 

50."And[I have come to you] 

as one attesting the truth 10 

of what has come before me 

of the Torah 

and to make lawful" for you 

some of what 

was forbidden 12 to you; 

and 1 have come to you 

with a sign from your Lord. 

So beware of Allah 



1. iiil "idhn (pi. _i ; i< Wniin /^A } J 'udhunui) = 

leave, permission auihon union, order (Sec at 
2:22 J. p. I OS. n.12). Note thai whatever miracle 
happened at the hands or "Isa (p.b.h ) was by 
Allah's authon/aiiion 

2. t*y! 'ubri'u - I cure. heal, acquit, absolve, (v, 

i. s. impfc!. from 'ubta'u, form IV o( bari'a 
\but&'uh\. to be clear (especially from a blemish 
or guilt \. See tabarra'a ai 2: 166, p 78, n 5 

3. «-£l 'akamah (pi. iJ" kumhj = blind since 
birth, bom blind 

4. j»jj 'abras m leper, leprous 

5. ^f*-' 'ukyt ~ I give life, bring UJ life (v. i. s. 

impfct from Wtyd, form IV of hayiyn \haynh\. to 
live. See ai 257. p. 1 33. n. 6). 

6. Note the repeated emphasis on Allah's leave 
which means that 'Isa ( p.b.h.} is not to be deified 
on account of bringing forth the miracles, 

7. ijA 'unobbi'u = I inform, notify, advise, tell, 

make known (v. i. s. impfct. from nobba'a, form 
II of imba'a [rmh'/nuhu'], to be high, prominent, 

See at 3:15, p. 160, n. 2} 

8, jjlil; /a'iu/uno ■ you (all) eal. consume (v. ii. 

in. pi. impfct. from 'aknia \ iikl/ma'kul]. to eat. 
SetyaluiMiia at 2:274. p. 144. ft, 3). 

9. iijjtX taddakhiriinn (originally Jjy>^ 

hidfuiMurumi) = yotl Store up. accumulate. 
amiss, hoard (v ii. m pi. impfct from iJJukluiru 
(idhiakhara), form VIM of dkakhura 
[dhakhr/dhukhr\, to keep, to preserve) 

10. Jj-m* musodSq = one who or that which 

confirms, venfics, attests (active participle from 
itiddaqa. form II of sadaqu \sudq/iniu). 10 Speak 
the truth See at 3:39. p. 171, n 2). 
1 1 J»-' 'uhiiteW = I make lawful, permit, allow. 

release, disengage (v. i. s. impfct. from 'aholtu, 
form IV of hulta | hall/hill], lo untie, to be lawful. 
See akaiia at 2:275. p, 144, n. 8, The terminal 
letter lakes fathuh because of Bit implied 'an in 
the panicle l&m (it tn the sense of hay. i.e.. Urn of 
motivation ), coming before the verb. 

1 1. (s- ftutrima - he or it was forbidden, na.de 

unlawful, made inviolable (v. iii. m. s. past 
passive from harrttma, form II of hamma/ harima 
lo be prohibited. Sec hamwtu at 2*27S,p.l44,n. 9. 



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SGwh 3; Al •Imran [Part (Jui) 3 | 



Cp i*Ai'j and obey me." 1 

'^ii\ Si. Verily Allah is 
r^*** — *-> my Lord and your Lord. 
•J-^* 1 * So worship" Him. 
J»>#Uu This is a way 5 

straight and correct. - * 

52. Then when IsS perceived 5 

infidelity 6 on their part 

he said: "Who are 

my helpers 7 towards Allah?" 

The disciples 8 said: 

"We are the helpers of Allah. 

We believe in Allah 

and you bear witness ' 

that we are Muslims." 



J/Lj 






53, "Our Lord, we believe 

in what you have sent down 10 

and we follow 11 

the Messenger 

so write us l2 down with 

the bearers of w itness. " ' - 1 



1. Jj»>' 'atf'6 + ni i originally 'aii'u+ni) = you 
(all) obey me, submit to me. icil!«»- me (v. ii. m. 
pi. imperative from aid a, form IV of t&ti [uWJ, 
lo obey. See 'aili ai 3:32. p. 168. n. I). 

2. IjJ-tl u'budu = you (all) worship (v ii m. pi. 

imperative from 'tibada 1'ibadutt /'ubAdah f 
'ubudiynh\. lo worship, lo serve. See al 2:21, p. 
1 1, rt. 2). Like all oihcr Prooheis of Allah. 'Isa 
(p.b h.) called upon his follower* lo worship Allah 
Alone and never claimed divinity for himself 

3. >V tlrSl - way, path. wad. See al 1:6, p. 2. 
ti.3. 

4 i /. ' ' • mttrrafliiii = straighl. upright, erect. 

correct, right sound, proper. (Active participle 
from tsttiqfimti. form X of fuw [^wjnoVdiwjjn]. 
to stand up. to gel Up See al 2:213. p 103. n. I). 
Note that the way or monotheism {lawfudi and Ihe 
worship of AHnh Alone is the straight and correct 
way, 

5. ^ 'oHassa = he sensed, realized, perceived 

(v iii. ret. s. pasl in form IV of haiiu {hint], to 
feel). 

6. J£ kafr - disbelief, unbelief, ingratitude. 

tnlidclny. See it 2:217. p. 105. n. 4 and htfaru at 
2: 2 12. p. 101, n, II. 

7. jLfcS 'amir (sing, itSfiri ■ helpers, aiders, 

supporters, patrons (active participle from nasara 
(nd.tr/niijurj, to help. See al 2:270, p. 141. n. 16) 
8- ^jij^ haH-anyyun (sing, hawiriyy) = 

disciples, believing and sincere followers of 'isa 
<p.b.h>. 

9. J+il uli-had - bear witness, attest, confirm ( v. 

ii. m_ imperative from iliahu/a [thukud]. to 
witness. See ashhida at 2:7.82, p, 149. n. 8). 

10. cJ>' 'anmlta = you sent down, caused lu 
descend (v, it. m. j. past from 'amain, form (V of 
naitila \nttiM\, to come down, to descend, See 

iwvilml at 2: 159, p.75, n.3 . 

11. UJ ittaba'ni a we followed, obeyed, 

heeded, pursued, succeeded (v. i. pi past from 
illabaa. form VIII Of labia llabaViabd'ah]. lo 
follow. See iitabu'a it 3:20. p. 162, n. 8) 

12. v^' idctub = register, wnie down (v. ii. m. 

s, imperative from kaiaba [luilb/ kabah kilabak], 
to wrile. See uklubi at 2:282, p 147, n. 6}. 

13. i.e., to monotheism and the truth of the 
Prophethoodof isa (p.b.h .). 



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Sarah 3: At Imr&rt [Pan t,Juz "> 3 ) 



177 



ts, s s 



ij.^=i>? 54. And they schemed; 
rti^saCj and Allah made a plan; 2 
l^j and Allah is 
!jp £f&K$L the best of planners. 



JtQliij 



*i :.-. ,| 






A* 4 

J- 






Section (fluJtu ') 6 

55. When Allah said: 
"Olsa, I shall fully take 1 you 
and raise 4 you to Me; 
and shall clear 5 you 
of those who disbelieve; 
and shall put 6 those who 
follow' you 

above" those who disbelieve 
till the Day of Resurrection. 
Then unto Me shall be 
the return' of you all and 
[ will judge 10 between you 
about what you have been 
at variance 1 ' with. 



Sitilli 56. So as to those who 
ij^iS disbelieve 



•far'**. •%: 
•*%■ 



1. i.e.. (hey planned to kill 'tsa (p.b.h.). ijj£- 

rnakarH m they schemed plotted, planned, had 
recount to a nisc (v. iii. tu, pi. pasl from mekara 
[makr], to deceive, to delude). 

2. i.e.. Allah planned so rescue Isa (p.b.h.i 
without any harm being done lo him. fj makara 

- he planned, made a stratagem Often the same 
ward is used in the Our' in to convey a contrary or 
different meaning, thus, while makr used in 
respect of the unbeliever; implies malevolence, it 
meant in respect of Allah countering that 
malevolence and punishing for it 
i. jiy* mutawafflf - one who Lakes in full, 

causes to die (active participle from luwvffs. form 
V afww/ii [wafu'/vtafyl, lo be perfect, to fulfil. 

4. £Uj ra/r' = one who raises, takes up. lifts, 
elevates (active participle from rafa'u [nr/*], lo 
raise See rttfa'es at 1:253. p. 129. n. 3} See also 
4:157-158 and 5: 1 1 7. 

5. ji** mutfiiiHir = one who purifies, clears, 
makes clean (aelive participle from lahhara. form 
II of tsharvJitthiint [tuAt/rdftlm&l. lo be clean, 
pure. Sec tukhara a! 3:42, p. 1 72, a.b). 

b, J*Ur JA'il- one who puts, sets, makes (active 
participle from jii'aiii tja'l}, to moke, lo put. See 
at 2:124, p. 59, n. !)^ 

7. \j*fi ittaba'G = they followed, obeyed, heeded. 

succeeded (v. iii. m. pi. pasl from iltaba'a, form 
VIII of tuhi'a [tuba'/taba'ah], lo foElow. See at 
2:166, p, 78. n. 7) 

8. i.e., in respect of rank and honour or in respect 
of evidence and truth, 

9. £»■_,. marji' (pi. *-v mtirQji') = return, place 

of refuge, source lo which some thing returns, 
resort, aulhority lo which reference is nude 
(verbal nuun/atlveib of place from raja'a. See 
lurja'una at 2:280, p. 146, n. 16). 

10. (&J 'ahkumu - I decide, decree. 

adjudicate, judge (v. i. s. impfct. from iuikamu 
[ituknt]. to pass judgement. See yahkumti ai 121. 
p. 164, n. 1), 

1 1 . ;jj*l>J takktatiftina ■ you differ (from one 

another), disagree, are at variance, dispute, quarrel 
(v. ii. m. pi, impfct from ikhsaiufa. form VIII of 
khalufu [khaif ] to follow, to succeed. See 
ytikhtalifuaa al 2:176. p 83. n. I and 2:1 13. p. 54. 
D.S). 






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178 



SSrah 3: 'At tmr&i fPart Out') 3 ] 






*Ti I shall chastise 1 them 
Us$iil?Ufr with a severe 3 punishment 
^■"S^L^-ili^ i n th e world and the hereafter 

.^ ty and they will not have 
SI? °V^<^ anyone to help/ 

v ^_^j]iUij 57. And as to those who 
i^ijij^ll believe 4 and do 
c-iluijf the good deeds, 5 
j*!k*x? He will pay them in full 6 

r^jr* their rewards. 7 
; if 5*5 And Allah does not like" 



M'^fldSJi the wrong-doers. 



t tw* S * 



.jt^^i 58. This is what We recite 10 



*<",.f- 



^i^-^iU* unto you of the revelations" 
^iJiJjij and the Wise 12 Recollection. 



&-*$> -Si 59. Verily the simile 11 of 'tsa 
*iilj- in the sight of Allah 
^jiljUS' is like the simile of "Adam; 
He created 54 him from dust 



y\J%& 



>>* 



JOi]' 3li^ then said to him "Be", 



1 , vJ*' '« 'adhdhibu = 1 chastise, punish (v. i. s. 

impfct from 'sdhdhaba. form 11 of "adkaba 

| VjJAJjj.it> obslrucl. See ya'tidhdhiba it 2:2E4. p. 
151. n. 6) 

2, Jfrii iftdJEd (s,; p). .uif 'ashiddd'/im shitted) 

■ severe, rigorous, harsh, difficult. See al 3:+. p. 
I55.n.4). 

3, ,>j<^ nifirftt (acc/gen. of Jxdjrnirt. sing, 
ndjfr) = helpers, assistants (active participle from 
nastira [natr/ nufQr], to help. See at 3:22. p. 163, 
n. 3}. 

4- lyV 'fimanu = uwy believed (v. m m. pj. past 
from' dntana, from IV of 'amino, to be safe, feel 
safe Sec at 2:137. p.65, n. I ). 

S. ^.bJU. salihal (p|„ sing. Uiiihah) = ^ood 

deeds/ things, snund iuid proper deeds (approved 
by the Qur'an and the sunnah) See at 2:276, p. 
145. n- 6. 

°- j*y u *">/fi - he gives in full, fulfil! (v. iii. rn. 
s, impfct. form waffd, form II of waja [wafa'\ 
fulfil. See yifwaffa al 2:272, p. 142, n. 1 2). 

7. jj»t 'uj'dr (pi.; sing. ^-' hj>) = remuneration, 
rewards. See 'a/r at 2:276, p. 1 45, a. 7. 

8. v»n ^ l&+yuhlbhu = he does not like, docs 
not Jove (v iii, m. s. impfct, from 'ahabba. form 
IV of htibba. Sec yuhibbma al 3:32. p. 168. n. 3). 

9. ,>»** z&limin (ace./ger). of ^iiimiin. sing 
al/im) = transgressors, wrong-doers, unjust 
persons. Active participle of glioma [zatm], to 
transgress, do wrong. See it 2:270, p 14 i. n.lS). 

10 i.e., of the account of 'fsa <p.b-h,). jis notiU 
= wc recite, lead aloud (v i. pi. impfct, from laid 
ititawah], to recite. Sec al 2:251, p. 1 24. n 1 1), 

11. ^V tydf (pi.; sing,«,v 'ayah) = signs, 

miraoles. revelations, evidences See at 3:19, p. 
162, n. 3; 3:7. p. IS6, n. 2; 3:4. p. 155. n. 3}. 

12. {£- hakim (s.: pi hukamu") = wise, 
judicious. (Active participle on the scale of fa 'it 
from hukama \fytkm\. lo pass judgemcni. See 
'dkkitmu at 3:55, p, 177. n. 10). Ai-dhikr ol-haktm 
is another name of the Qur'in. 

13. J> mathai (s.. pl.ju-E smth&i) = simile, 
likeness. example, parable, mode!, ideal. 

14. jU- khalaqa - he created, made, on gi ruled 
(v. iii. m. s. past from ktmiq, to create. See ai 
2:22B, p. 1 12, n. 2; and 2:29, p. 15, n. II). 



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Surah 3: At Imran IPart Urn ) 3 1 



179 



*p o£_Li an d h e came into being. 



■i-: 



^Jl 60. The truth is [this] 
ebj^ from your Lord. 
^*>& So do not be 
Siii^f of the sceptics. 1 



•2£C'Jj* 61. So whoever controverts 2 
*j you about him 
^'^i^^lj* after what has come to you 
^-J l ui of the knowledge, 
ja^^ujii sa y : "Come on, let us call 
$'£$5$ itZ-1 our sons 5 and your sons, and 
pi£jjliitljj our women and your women, 
|£— ^5j£!jurS and ourselves and yourselves 

J r'J Jj and then pray in earnest 6 
i^oIlJ Jii^j and thus lay 'Allah's curse 
IQu^siajTje upon the ones that lie." 8 



^ 
'■*<.< *■ i 



jillii^ 62. This indeed is 
^JiJ^JJi the true narrative;* 
&\&&> and there is none of a deity 10 
iWj except Allah; 



1 . ,»— mutwetfn (acc/gcn. of niumiii™, sing. 

imunrurin} = sceptics, the doubling ones, those 
who doubt, entertain doubts (Active participle 
from imtira". form VIII from mirytlh/fwyafi, 
doubt, dispute. See at 2: 147, p. 70. n 5}, 

2. «3n- hajja m he controverted, debated, 

disputed, argued (V. lii m, S- past in form III of 
hiijja, to overcome, to convince, to perform the 
kajj. See at 2:257, p J 33, n. 3). The immediate 
reference here is to the Christian delegation of 
Najran who came to Madina and, joined by (he 
Jewish scholars of thai place, had a discu&sian 
with the Prophet about "fsa (p.b.h.) and his 
message; but the statement is general and is 
applicable to similar situations at all limes and 
pl»«5, 

3. ft* -ilm = knowledge. Here it means thd 

especial knowledge communicated to the Prophet 
through wahy, particularly the ayahs concerning 
■tsa(p.B.h).5ee>tl-S<A-. Ill, 187. 
4 iyu; W&taw - you all come, come on, (v. it. 

m. pi. imperative from la'uia, form V] of 'aid 
[ir/«ww], tobehighj 

5. >U|1 'abnd' (sing^i ilm) - sons, offspring, 
descendants, See baftm it 3:14, p. 159, n 1 1). 

6. J& nabtahiHu) a we pray humbly, pray in 

earnest, supplicate, cui?e one another (v, i. pi. 
impfct, from ibiahula, form VIII of ba/utta [bahl], 
to curse. 

7 j—J naj'alW) = we lay, make. set. put, place, 
bring about <v i. p]. impfct, from /« 'ala \ju'l\, to 
make. See mij'ula at 2:259. p. 135. n. 4), 

g ^ilT k&dhibiit (acc/gen Of kmihibin. sing. 

-ail" k&dhib) = those that tie. liars, untruthful 

(active participle from kadhahd [kidhb/ kndhibf 
kadhbah/ kidhbah], to be. See kadhdkubiuta at 
1:87, p. 41, n. 11). 

<n*«B = narrative, tale, story, clippings, 



10. This is a repeated emphasis on monotheism 
and an unequivocal rejection of me Christians' 
claim of divinity for "isi (pb.h,). 






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SflraA i: A! lmrtot [Pan Uuz"i 3 1 






SSj_iiiii 











and verily Allah, 

He indeed is the All-Mighty, 

the All-Wise. 

63. So if they turn away, 1 
then verily Allah is 
AH- A ware 

of the mischief-makers. 1 

Section {Ruku *)7 

64. Say* 

"O People of the Book, 

come to a word 1 

straight 4 between us and you 

that we worship 5 none 

but Allah, nor 

associate* with Him anyhting 

nor some of us take up 7 

others as lords 

in lieu of Allah." 

Then if they turn away, say: 

"Bear witness* that we are 

Muslims." 



1. ijlji' lawallaw = they turned away, desisted, 
refrained (v. in m pi past from lanvaliii, form V 
of wuliyu. to be near. See at 3:32. p. 168, n. 2). 

2. &4— "» mufsUSn {sec, fgui of maftidin. sing. 

mufitii) — mischief-makers, troubk'makers, 
disturbers, active participle from 'afwdti, form IV 
uf fasada \feaM/fuijd\, to be bad. See ax 2.60. p. 
26. n. 10). 

3. i.e. an agreed and equitable formula. Uf 

kalimtkh (pi kulimilt) - word, speech, Joying, 
maxim, formula, brief statement. The 'uyuA was 
revealed in the context of the Prophet's discussion 
with the Christian delegation or Najran joined by 
the Jewish savants of Matiina. but it holds good 
for similar situations at all time*. Il constitutes i 
call to the worship of Allah Alone to the 
exclusion of all other beings and shows thai [hose 
who deify "IsS (peace be on him) and other 
personages arc nol monolhcists according to ibe 
Quran. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah 
be on him, also mode this call and incorporated 
Ibis pan or the Hynh in his letter to the Roman 
emperor Hcraclius, See fluJkAriri. nos 7, 2941, 
4551.7541. 

4. t'tf tawS* = straight, even, equal, same. See 
at 2:6. p 6 

5. Xfi na'bvdatu'i = we worship, adore, serve; (v. 
i. pt- imperfect from 'ubatiii [ibuAah /'uhudiifi/ 
'ab&diyak] to worship, serve. See at 2:133, p. 63, 
n 3 and !5, p 2, n.lj The terminal letter takes 
ftuhak because of the panicle 'an ( un+U) corning 
before the verb. This particle also governs Ihe 
succeeding two verbs, nanhnkn and \iiiuikhidha. 
See notes 6 and 7 below 

6. Jlj^J nushriku(u) = wc associate, set partner. 

give a share (v i. pi. impfct [ram iLihrnka, form 
tV of shanka [Jriirt / jfcuni&A], to share. See 
muhrikm at 2:221. p. 108, n 7). Setting partner 
With Allah is the wont Of sins and Mi enormous 
injustice, and wrung | see 31:13). 

7. -i*u< yaitakhMha - he lakes up, lakes for 

himself, takes, adopts (v. iii. s. impfct. from 
inakhudha, form VIII of ukhudha [tikhdh]. to 
lake. See tu yoiKikhittti at 3:28. p. 166. r», 2). 
G. ijJ+w Uh-hodH - you (oil) bear witness, call 

someone as a witness (v, ii. m, pi imperative 
from nihhiiiiit. form IV of ihahida lihukSd]. to 
witness. See at 2:282, p, 149, n. 8). 



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SiiraJ, 3: At imrOn (Part Uai'} 3 ] 



ISI 



J^&yH. 65, People of the Book, 
■Cjy^A ^ why do you dispute 1 
'f^%, O, about Ibrahim 
cJ^j and there were not sent down 1 
JjiVlj 'C jjT the Tor ah and the /n/ji 
i.jJJ^.-|i except after him? 
^**-i }*»[ Do you not use reason? 






*Yji*jL;lii 66. Here you are the ones, 

you have disputed^about what 
you have knowledge of; 5 
then why do you dispute 

Jv JjC-4 about what you have not 
any knowledge of? 6 
And Allah knows 7 
while you do not know. 






r^il^ 









67. Ibrahim was neither 

a Jew nor a Christian; 

but he was a kariif* — 

a Muslim; 

and he was not 

of those that set partnerts. 10 



1. i.c , why do you say lhat you. are on iho 
religion or Ibrahim and thai he Was a Jew or a 
Christian, while the fact is thai the Tnrah and the 

ttifil were sent down long after his time'' Jyt>«" 

lahajjuna a you (all} dispute, controvert, argue in 
apposition, debate, confute (v. jj. m, p|. impfel 
from h&jja, form III of fmjjti IkiJJ/fjajjj], to aim at, 
to overcome. See at 2:13-9, p, 65, n, &). 

2. cJ_yl 'unzUal - she was sent down (v iii. f. s 

pasr passive from tmsata, form IV of nmala 
[nuzui]. to come down. Sec anzalta at 3:53, p. 
176, n 10). 
3 ujiuu' W^iJiirta a you (all) understand, realize, 

be reasonable, comprehend (v. ii. in pi. impfct, 
from injiitu I'aqi], to be endowed with reason. 
See ol 2:241, p. 122, n. 4), 

4. piKnb- hajajtum - you (all) disputed, argued, 

controverted, debated (v. ii. nt. pi. past from 
hiijiu, form III of l/aj/a. See n. I above). 

5. i.e., about 'Isa (peace be on him) and his 
teachings because tie hod lived amidst you and 
you knew htm closely. 

6. i.e., how could you then dispute about 
Ibrahim (peace be on him) who lived long before 
the lime of 'isj (peace be on him) and how could 
you claim that he was o Jew or a Christian? 

T. i.e., Allah knows the truth about Ibrahim and 
'Ui while you do not know it. This part of the 
"ayah constitutes an authoritative summons to 
those who do not know to accept the truth from 
the One Who knows il. (See Al-Baiir. Ill, 201). 

8. j^i- hanif (s,; p|. .ll- hunafA'} = one who 
shorn the surrounding false religions and follows 
the true religion, a true monoiheist. The word 
hanif has been used in the Quran always in 
contrast With • polytheist. The ayah is a reply to 
the Jews' and Christians' claim that they were the 
followers of the religion of Ihrfmrm. It says that 
while he was a true monothcist and not at all a 
polytheist, they were not so. Sec at 2: 1 35, p. 64, n 

3). 

9. This term. Muslim, is in opposition to the term 
hanif and shows that the two words arc 
synonymous. 

10. This part of the 'ayah further explains the 
meaning of hanif and emphasizes that those who 
claim divinity for 'tsa, (pence be on htm) or others 
are mushriki (poly [heists) while IbrdhJm was not 
at ..ill so 



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182 



Strati i: Ai Viwdn (Party*;) 3 | 



^3£>\ 68. Verily the closest 1 of men 
^L to Ibrahim 
i£S\ j$ are those who follow him, 2 
yiiilij and this Prophet' 
] s&d^Mi ^d those who believe. 4 
'^yZiij And Allah is the Guardian 



JHr" 



IJJ1 of the believers. 



•*'*:• 



W\ any except themselves, 
'—jjj*^£j and they do not realize* [it]. 



Jg$ jj&t 70, O People of the Book, 
>«4irMfi why do you disbelieve 9 
**%$% in Allah's revelations, 13 
v^jj+ii'^jlj w (,jj e y 0U bear witness ?" 



J£\\ JiU 71.0 Peopie of the Book, 
^f^ijll-p why do you clothe 1 * the truth 
4^ wsth the untruth 1 ' 



-uuU^OjS 69. There wish" a section* 

s-^V^fe of the People of the Book 
Li , - 
y^j$ if they could lead you astray; 

^jjUulij but they do not lead astray 7 



1. JjJ 'awlS m the closest, the nearest, having 

the best claim to ( elativc of walivv. Sec waiiyy at 
2:2B2, p. 148. n. 6), 

2. i.e.. his faith and practice. i..*-' 1 ittaba'a u 
they followed, obeyed (v iii. m pi. past from 
ir«,*a 'a, form VIII of tabi a [tabu 'Aabd 'ah], to 
follow. See it 3:55, p, 177, n 7), 

3. i.e.. Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings 
af Allah be on him. because he represents and 
fulfils the din of Ibrahim, peace be on hi in. 

4. i.e. , the believers and follower of Prophel 
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on 
him. ij^V 'Smanti = they believed (V. iii. m. pi. 

past from 'dmmttt, from IV of "amina, to be safe, 
feel safe. Sec at 3:57. p. 178, n 4. 

5. &s } warfilai = ihe wished, desired, jowd (v. 

iii, f. s. past from waddu \wudd/wudtiAvidd], to 
love, to like See tuwaddu s»! 3:30. p. 1 67. n. 5 and 
yuwaddu at 2:266, p. 139. n. 8). 

6. liftl. t&'ffah (s.; pl.^,-> tuwa'ifl = section of 
people, sect, group, denomination, band. 

1. <i^* yttdilluna = they lead astray . mislead, 

misgide. make go astray (v iii m. pi, impfct from 
adaliei. form [V of dalla \deildlAiatdltih}. to go 
astray. See yudiStu at 2:26. p. 14. n. 6). 

8. >Jjy>-^ yosh'urSna = they realize, notice, 
perceive, feel, sense, come to know, see through 
(v. iii. m pi. injjiiLi from tfet'ara [shu'Sr]. to 
malias. ip know. See ar 2,12, p. (2, a.2). 

9. <>)j& takfurtna - you (all) disbelieve, be 
ungrateful, deny, cover (v. ii. m. p], impfct. from 
kafara [kafr/kafr], to disbelieve, to cover. See at 
2:85, p. 40, n, 8>. 

10. lAfy 'AyOI (jj|; sing, 'Ayah) = signs, 
miracles, revelations, evidences See at V5B p 
l7S,n, 11; 3:19, p. 162, n. 3, 

I !. i.e., you kne-w them to be true, jjJ+if 
tash-had&tta a you (all) witness, see with your 
own eyes {v ii, m. pi, impfct. from ituihidu 
Uhufiud/ftwhAdtih], to witness, to testify. See 11 
2:84. p 39, n, 10) 

12. jj-Ji tatbisdna = you (all) clothe, garb, 
cover, obscure (v ii rn. pi impfei. fitmi lubim 
[tubs], to wear. See W lotbisu at 2:42, p, 2 1 , n 9). 

13. Jl«l( b&til = untruth, false, falsehood, vain, 
futile, baseless, void, Sec at 2:188, p. 90, n, 9. 



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Sarah 3: At Imran [Part </ie") 3 | 



183 



JlJiujJSjj and conceal 1 the truth 
SyX^^j while you know? 2 






Section (Ruk&' I 8 

72, And there say a section* 
of the People of the Book: 
"Believe 4 in that which 
has been sent down 
unto those who believe 
at the appearance 5 of the day 
and disbelieved its end; 
may be that they revert." 6 

73, "And do not believe 7 any 
except the one that 
follows your religion" — 
say: "Verily guidance is 
the guidance of Allah" — 

£3 <j&; J "te &i& one should be given 
the like of what 
you have been given' 
or they may controvert 10 you 
before your Lord." 



^ J „ . } i*s 






it ' i 



^ 



fctT 



« 



1. i.e., why do you conceal tin: InilK about the 
coming of the lost Prophet as foretold in lite 
Scripture given 10 you? liy& taktumftna - you 

(allj conceal, keep secret, hide (v. ii. tn. pi. 
impfet. from foiMPiui {hum / kitnum], to hide, 
secrete, conceal. Sec at 2:72, p. 34. n. 8). 

2. i.e., you conceal the truth knowingly and 
wilfully Oj«b* fa'ia/nuna ■ you (all) know, arc 
aware of (v. it. tn, pi. impfci from 'alima I'ilm], 
to know. See at 2:280. p. 146, n. 13 See also hi 
su 'lamurta at 3:66. p 181) 

3. utL iii'ifak if. pi JJ> taw&'ifi = section of 
people, sect, group, band, See at 3:6$, p. 182. n. 6. 
4. \jJk 'dmind = you (all) believe (v. ii. m. pi. 

imperative front 'dimma, form IV of aimna 
\'anWunvjn/'amQnt>H\, to be safe, feel safe. Sec 
at 2:13, p. 8. n. 3), This 'ayuh has reference to the 
manoeuvre of the Madman Jewish leaders to 
prevent the spread of Islam there. They advised 
their followers to pretend conversion to Islam in 
the morning and to renounce it in the evening in 
order to confuse the weak-minded. 

5. "- j wajh (s : pi. wujuhj - appearance, face. 

founlenance, front, direction, purpose, goal, 
intent, objective. See at 2:115. p. 55, n. 3 sad 
wh;kA at 2:177. p. 83, it- 6 

6. i.c. revert to their former state of unbelief. 
ifyrj yarji'&aa = they return, come back, revert 
(v. iii. m pi impfcL from raja'a [rujH'\ to come 
back, return. See at 2: 18. p. 10, n. 4). 

7. This clause is a continuation of the Jewish 
leaders' advice to their followers. ijwjs *!/ la 
nt'minu - you (all) do not believe (v. ii. m. pi. 
imperative { prohibition ) from 'amana. form IV of 
'anuria {'timti/'amuii/'amAaak], lo be safe, feet 
safe, See n_ 4 above. 

S, This is also a continuation of the Jewish 
leaders' advice to their followers. 

9. The Jewish leaders did not like that 
Prophethood should be given to any other people. 

10. lyo-! yithajju (ungi rally yvhafi&iui) = they 

(all) dispute, debate, argue, contest (v. iii. HI. pi, 
impfcl form haifti. form III of hajju [hajj/hijf]. to 
defeat, to intend, to aim at, See at 2:76. p. 36. n. 
6). 



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S6mh i; At 'fmr&t (Pan (M) J 1 



J-IwJIjiJi Say: "Verily the grace 1 is 

^r^, in the Hand of Allah; 

*^o*i-rJi He gives il to whom He will; 

£**«*» and Allah is All-Reaching, 1 

©^ All -Knowing," 



^^iu 74. He singles out 3 



T^^. *;.' Lj for His mercy whom He will; 
y/^\j And Allah is the Owner 
ii-i| j. -Vltf of magnificent" grace. 



j*j 75, And among 
, -r< UjlT the People of the Book 

is he who, if you trust 1 him 

with a hoard, 6 

will deliver 7 it up to you; 

and among them is he who, 

if you trust him 

with a dinar, * 

will not deliver it to you 

unless you do not cease* 

standing over him. 10 

That is so because they say: 



I Irl 3 , 



■"'1- ■ I 



-? A' 



1. J-ii /«d7 (pi. Jjil /«jri!()= pace, favour. 

refinement, kindness, amiability, also surplus, 
excess See al 2 237, p 120, n <i. Here fadl 
(grace) means the special grace of Prophelhood 
and wuhy which Allah bestows on whomsoever 
He likes. 

2. i.e., in His grace and favour £-1j W&ti' = 
wide, vast, extensive, far-reaching, all- rest hm£. 
abounding (in mercj. grow, generosity); active 
participle from iwm'oAvaui'tr tiwad'uri], to be 
wide. See at 2:247. p. 125. n, 7). 

3. ,^«i<H yokhtttSln m he singles oul. earmarks. 

selects (v. iii. m. s. impfcl. from ikhiossa, form 
Vtll of khosfu \kha:,:Jkhtuu.\\ to distinguish, 
single oul. See at 210$, p 50, n, 4). Allah 
entrusts with His special mercy. Prophethood and 
revelation, anyone He wills of His servants 
despite the jealousy and ill-will of any individual 
or group of individuals 
4 fJkt- 'flifm = great, big. grand, huge, 

stupendous, immense, enomious. tremendous, 
magnificent. Sec at 2: 1 14. p, 55. d I, 

5. j«fc fa 'must jij = you trust (v, ii, m. s. impfct 

from 'timitu ( <imn/'unuin/'amuneh\ to trust, to be 
safe. The terminal letter is vowcllcss for the verb 
is pari of a conditional clause (preceded by in). 
See unrntu and t'tummti al 2:283. p, ISO, OS, 5 
and?;. 

6. jUu qinlar (pi. qtmdtir) ■■ a varying weight of 

measure, a hoard, no accumulated wealth. Sec 
at-ifandlh al'tnuq anturuk at 3: 14. p. 159. n 12. 

7. jj< yu'addi (originally yu'addi)- he 

discharges, carries out. fulfils, delivers, performs. 
executes (v. iii. m. s. impfcl. front 'oddii 
[la'diyah], form II of add \'udwv»>/'tuly]. to go, 
to proceed, The last letter y«' becomes vowcllcss 
and hence il is dropped because ihe verb is 
conclusion of a condilional clause, Sec al 2:283. 
p. 150, n 6) 

s A miLiH denomination of coin it means here a 
small amount, 

9. £**> L. mi dumia - you did not cease, you 

continued, you remained (v ii. m s. past from ma 

10 ic, you continue lo attend him and ask for 
return of (he amount 



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SSrah 3; 'Al 7wfln |Pmt OO 3 ] 



bijiJ "There does not lie on us, 
Ss^ftil regarding the unscriptured, 1 
J-^— any guilt;" 

**\ J^^ijJyjj and they say against Allah 
C-JSlii the He, 1 

||* Ct^.^t'i and they know [it]. 4 

ciji^i 76. O yes, whoever fulfils* 



1 ■ ' f, 7 

i^y-jj^* his pledge and fears , 
<4-iH*dJi verily Allah loves 
j^> the godfearing. 8 



I J ■ 1 ^'> E* j 



ix^i^ 1 o l 77- Verily those who buy 
4iU+L with the covenant of Allah 
irfr*-!^ and their oaths' 
■&£& a little value; 
— u^Jji such people 
^££. •$ will have no portion" 
jt>-s$*4 m me hereafter, 
*uitjli£=qi^j nor will Allah speak to them 
^l^&C-ij nor will He look at them 

ilijjf^ on the Day of Resurrection, 
^^•yy'j nor will He clear 12 them; 



I j^< 'uatmiyytn [KC fg,en. of 'ummiyyun, pi. 

of ummy) = unscriptured people, illiterate See at 
3:10. p. 162, n 9), The reference here is lo the 
Arabs who hod not yet received any stripturc 

2. J— jflfifl (pl.j~- jabul'u-J (isbtluhi - way, 

path, toad, means, guilt, blame, wrong. See at 
? M ; |- 12V n L Tliii word his been used in the 
Qur'in in »t least a dozen shades of meaning. (See 
AI-DamagMm, (jdntui al-Qur'An, pp 228-229). 
The Jews despised Ihe Arabs as a people without 
any scripture and claimed that Allah would not 
lake them to task If they spoliated the unscriptured 
people (See AbTabari, pi. IV. a 31 3>. 

3. i. c. the lie that Allah had allowed them to 

spoliate others. </iif kadhib = lie, falsehood, 

untruth, deceit. See kMhibin. nl 3:61, p, 179, n, 8. 

4. i.e., they lied knowingly and wilfully, o^u, 

ytftam&iut - they know, are aware of (v iii. m 
pi, impfcl. from 'ttUmti ( 'Urn], to know See at 
2:230. p. Il4.il 8) 

5. jijl 'ew/a = he fulfilled, gave 10 the full (v. 

iii. m i. past in form |V of mi/3 |wu/u'|. to be 
perfect, to live up to. Sec "aw/fl al 2:40, p. 20, n. 
12), 

6 J+fr '«M (s.: pi. >jt* 'uhtof) ~ covenant, 
pledge, pact. vow. commitment. See at 2:124, p. 
59, n. 4. 7. i.e., fears Allah, ^i'l lliat/d = he was 

on his guard, protected himself, feared Allah (v. 
iii, m. s. pas! in form VIII of waqA 
[n/titfyJwutiiyah]. to guard, to protect. See at 2: 
203, p. 93, n. 3). 
K ji. jnuiiaffft (accJgcn. of multaq&n, sing. 

mi/Sia^ni) = those who are on their guard. 
godfearing. Active participle from illaqa. See n. 7 
above. 

9. lijjiij yoshiaruna - they purchase, buy, (v. 

iii. m pi. impfct, from ishwrtl, form VIII of (fcrrd 
[TAiran/TAf™],tobuy. See at 2:174, p. 32, n, 1). 

10, JU< r 'aymdtt ipl , sing ^— , ywmin) - oaths, 
righl hands. 

I I J-iU AWa? = portion, merit See at 2:200, 
p. 97, n >. 
12 ^S*j< yumJttf - he purifies, clears, declares 

just, increases [v. iii, m. s. impfct. from mkka, 
form II of ioM [takd']. to grow, be pure, be just. 
See at 2:174. p. 82, n. 4). 



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tS6 



Siimh J: At Imrtm rPait (Jin ') 3 ) 



^i) and (hey shall have 
(g) _Ji wUc a punishment very painful. 
i-+i-i5ij 78. And verily among them 
5*j£ (jkjJS is a faction 1 that twist 2 
-^XJI *tJ-J *eir tongues - with the Book 
*3^^l so that you think" it is 
^aJ^o? from the Book, 



Y^i^^* Uj but it is not from the Book; 
j*-jifJJ^j and they say: "It is 
wfjieJU from Allah"; 
«i(jLJ^_Ji£j but it is not from Allah; 
ibl&ijyCj and they say against Allah 
M^3» the lie, 5 
jj-L*^ and they know.* 



LAiitC 79. It is not for a man 7 

* * 

Sf*rtj*o1 d™ 1 Allah gives 4 him 
jXilfJ 4-^^ the Book and judgement* 
V^3\j and Prophethood 
l,-UJJ Jj^li then he would say to men: 
mjl^&fy^ "Be worshippers 10 of me 
«iuf ojj ^; instead of Allah"; 
d^ij but (would say): 



section, group, faction party, band- See 11 2:146. 
p. 70, n, 10). Here il refers to lhe leadeis and 
rabbis of the Jews 

2. iijjfi yalwuna = they Iwisl, turn, crook, curve, 
distort, fie*, avert (v. iii. m. pi. impfct from ftihiJ 
[toyy/bruity], to turn, to crook), 

3. i.e., they mispronounce and pervert ihe sound 
And warding while Ihev recite or read out lhe 
Book in order lo give ihe text a different meaning. 
■ — i ekinah (pi.; -in;: tb&tj - tQn$Kf 
languages). 

4. 'j!— "J taArfl*0(ttf} = you (all) think, reckon, 
count, assume, suppose, (v. ii. m. pi. impfci from 
hatiba' thaib. hisdbfltisban/huibtin]. to reckon, to 
count. The terminal nun is dropped because of a 
hidden <m in the tdm of motivation [li in the 
sense of kuy] coming before the verb. See yuhsabu 
at 2: 273, p. 143. ti. 5). 

5. v***" kadhii = lie, falsehood, untruth, deceit. 
See at 3:75, p. 185. n. 3. 

6. i.e., they did so knowingly and wilfully. Oj-u, 

ya'Iamuna = they know, are aware or (v. iii. m. 
pi, impfct from ulima ['ilm\, lo know. See al 
3:75, p. I85.n..4>. 

7. i.e., it is neither right tlOr rationally 
conceivable for a Prophet. The negation . ma 
k&na, ii general and is intended to demonstrate 
the absolute unreasonableness of the idea thai a 
Prophet should or could ever ask his followers to 
regard him as a divine being and worship turn as 
such. The ayah was revealed in the Conlcxi of the 
discussion or the Najran Christian delegation to 
ihe Prophet at Madina who were also joined by 
Ihe Jewish leaden of that place. They asked the 
Prophet whether he intended to be worshipped by 
his followers as ihe Christians worshipped '[si. 
peace be on him. (See Al-Tabarf. pi, Iff, pp. 
324-325; Ibn Kalhif, IE, pp.54-55), The denial is 
made for all the Prophets, including 'TsS (p.b.h.) 

8. yJJi yu'ff - he gives, bestows, grants (v, iii m 

s. impfci. from "did. form IV of 'aid [iry3n/ aiy/ 
maldh], to come, See did at 2:251. p. 128. n 3). 

9. f&r hukm (pi, r*W 'ahMm) = judgement, 
order, decree, wisdom, judiciousness. 

10. iL* 'ibid (sing. -Lr'abd) = servants (of 

Allah), human beings, slaves, serfs, worshippers. 
See at 2:40, p, 43. n. 4). 



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J'flrwn J: M Imran |Pait (Juz) 3 J 



187 




JT-r?j W "Be practising savants, 
because you do teach 2 
the Book and beacuse yo do 
study [it]." 1 













Xjli 



80. Nor would he order 4 you 
that you take 5 the angels 
and the Prophets as lords.* 
Would he command you 

to unbelief 7 after that 
you are already Muslims? 

Section (Att^')S 

81. And when Allah took 
the covenant 8 of the Prophets 
(saying): "Whatever I give 
you of a Book and Wisdom, 
then there shall come to you 
a Messenger confirming 9 
what is with you, 

you must believe 10 in him 
and you must help" him. 1 ' 
He said: "Do you affirm' 2 



1 j^j rsbhiatyytn (acc./gen, of rahbuniyyun k 

mii;. 1 rabbdni) m model savants who educate and 
train people. (See Al-Tabari, pt. Ill, pp. 326-327). 

2 Oj«JUi tu-aiiimdna = yco (all) teach, instruct, 
educate (v, ii. m pi. impfct. from allama. form 
[J of 'alima \ 'ilm], lo know, See yu'ullimu at 3:48. 
p. 174, n. 5) 

3. -iyy^ tadruiuna - you (all) study, team (v 

ii. m. pi. impfct. from durum [durs\, to study). 

A,jt\t Ya'mutu = he commands, orders, bids (v 

iii. m, s impfct. from 'amuru I umr\, to order, to 
command. See at 2: 169, p. 79, no. 1 2). 

5. \yu^.itUitikhtAhu\na) = you (all) take up, take 

for yourselves, adopt (v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 
UtakHadhu, form VI II of 'ukhadha [tikhdh], to 
take The terminal nun is dropped for the particle 
'an coming before the verb, See yattaMiidha at 
'•rvi. ,i I80,n.7). 

6. *A,J 'arbSb {pi,: sing, rabb) = lords, masters 
See at 3:64, p. 170, 

I, jif kufr - unbelief, disbelief, ungratefulness, 
infidelity. See al 3:52, p. 176. n.6). 

8 <jtV mfthiq (s ; pi. j,V nuifrultitv) = 

covenant, pact, solemn agreement, compact. See 
at 2:93, p 44, n. 5 Allah lock the covenant from 
each Prophet to believe in one another and a 
succeeding Prophet and lo instruct his followers to 
do so (See AITabari, pt III, pp. 331-333). 

9 J.w- musaddig = one who or that which 

confirms, verifies, tmesis (active participle from 
/uddaifii, form It of sadaifa [taJif/iidi/}. 10 speak 
the truth. See at 3:50,. p. 1 75, n. 10). 

10 ji-jd taHu'itinufjna = you must believe, 

you have to believe (v. it. m. s. impfct. from 
'amtmu. form IV of 'timing 

{ iiiiui/ umwiJ'iimiinuk\, to be safe, feel safe. The 
terminally doubled nun is for emphasis. See 
anuria at 3:72, p. 163. n. 4. ). 

I I. J/-^J la+tmaurwtaa m you must help, you 

have 10 help (V. ii, m. S. impfct, from nasara 
[netfr/ nusur\, to help. Sec nasirln at 3:56, p, 178, 
n.3) 

1 2. ^jjf "aqrartum - you (all) affirmed, agreed. 

assented, averred, avowed, settled (v. ii, m pt 
past from 'aqurra, form IV of qarru [qardr], lo 
settle down. Sec muitaqtirr at 2:36, p. 13, n. 10} 



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)8g 



Surah 3: At 'Imr&n (Part (Jm") 3 } 






'UK 






5 1j- * 



-"T -t ->:> 






m 



*4& 



^ >*-•/ 

^-■j**-^ 



^td-i;^ 



and take on that {condition] 
My Covenant?" 1 
They said: "We affirm." 2 
He said: "Then bear witness, 3 
and I am with you among 
[hose bearing witness." 

82. So whoever turns away 4 
after this s 

then such people, 

they are the sinful ones. 5 

83, Is it then other than 
the religion of Allah 
they seek to attain, 6 
while to Him surrenders 7 
whoever 8 are there in 

the heavens and the earth, 
willingly* or unwillingly, 10 
and to Him 
they shall all be taken back?" 

84,Say: "We believe in Allah 



1.^1 'iir tpl. ji-.'. djiir} = tiivrniiit. compart, 

bond, encumbrance, burden, load. See at 2:286, p. 
153. n. 2). 

2. Ljjil 'aqmrn& - we affirmed, agreed, avowed. 

assented, settled (v.. i. pi, past frorn 'aqarm. form 
IV of qarra [oarar\. to settle Jaw n See 'aqrartum 
;u fi 137. ji. 12). 

3. 'j-iht-M iih-haffl - you (all) bear witness. 

witness, attest, testify (v. li, m. pi. imperative ftom 
■thahidu \.<huhutt\, to witness. See isti-had at JtSS, 
p. 176, n, 9). 

4. Jy tawallA - turned away, desisted, refrained 

(v. iti, m s, in rutin V of waiiya, to be near. See 
tawatlaw at 63, p. 180, It, 1% 

5. Oyi-U f&iiqSn (pi ; sing, jJtt /a«9) - 

disobedient, defiant, wantonly sinful (active 
participle from fasitqa \fisa\, to slray from the 
rifhl course, Ic- renounce obedience. Sec at 2:99, 
p, 47. n. 3,. 

6. J>h .tafrtfMia - lln-'y welt, seek to attain, 

wish, desire, covet (v. iii. ro. pi. impfcl, from 
ba%ha [bugha"], to seek, desire. See ibtigM' U 
37, p. I56,n, 8). 

7. ^1*1 'aiSama = he surrendered, submitted, 

committed himself, resigned himself tv. iii. ftl. S, 
past in I mm IV of ultimo [mlunuih/xatuir.], to be 
safe, secure. See at 2:112, p, S3. El. 6; and 
'uflamiu at 3:20, p, 162, n. 6), 
8 Note the pronoun, man. which stands 
particularly for living beings. This clause of Ihc 
'dyah thus constitutes a clear mdicamiri Idai there 
are living beings in the heavens (skie&) apart ftom 
the living beings on the earth 

9. Ujt tam'aa ■ willingly, obediently: from 

law', to obey, be obedient. See 'aiVu at 3:50. p. 
176. n, I). 

10. l»jf karhaa ■ unwillingly, hatefully, 

reluctantly, grudgingly: from itnrk. hate, 
detestation, aversion, dislike, antipathy. See VtrdA 
at 2:256, p, 132, a. 1) 

11. ijMrjf yurja'&na ■ they (all) are returned, 

taken back, sent back (v. iii, m. pi. impfct. passive 
from ruju'u [ruju'], to return. See turjti'Snu at 
2:280. p. 146. n. 16; and marji' at 3:55, p, 177. n. 
9>. 



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Surah 3; 'At Imrun [Part(jHi') 3 ] 



189 



J>iU> and what has been sent down 
J^jLit* upon us and what was sent 
i*—*^!;^ down upon Ibrahim 
<P*\s &P(s and Isma'fl and Ishaq 
l&$Q v^. J and Ya'qub and the Tribes, 1 
^3*}* -jj'Uj and what was given to Mflsa 

t^^Cs-^y and l \sh and the Prophets 

- *i 

r-fi-^ift from their Lord. 

ijytii We do not differentiate 2 

+■* £*lji> between any of them, 

^u^j and we are to Him 

ail-submissive (Muslims)." 



■**V ,* jt 



te^iWi 85. And whoever seeks 3 

(T^j* other than Islam 

L% j as a religion, 

■T *F »> *t*i* 

J-^.^ it shall not be accepted 4 

* > * > • 

j*J*-* of him, and he will be 

•j-^V'ij in the hereafter 

i>-/-^*J'o? of those in loss. 



«Li\iJw4J Ji^ 86. How can Allah guide 
y 3j*£=\*? a people that disbelieved 



1 . iL-4 'asbil (sing. J*_ i/6f j s grandsons, the 12 

mbcs of [he Israelites, so called because they arose 
aul of the 12 sons of Ya'qub. See at 2:1 36, p. £4, 

n. 6 and 2:140. p. 66, n I. 

2. J * ttttfarttqu ■ Wc differentiate, make 

distinction, divide, separate (v. i. pi. impfct from 
farniqe, form 11 [tafritj] of famqa \faraffurqdn\ 
to separate. See At 2:285, p. 152. n I; and 2:136. 
p. 64. n.7). The meaning here is that we do not 
differentiate between the Prophets in respect of 
our belief in litem; but they were given different 
ranks by Allah, as staled at 2:253 - "Those 
Messengers. We preferred some of them to the 
others: some of them Allah spoke to and raised 
some of them over the others in ranks..," Like 
2:136 and 2:285, this 'ayah {3:84) also 
emphasizes the fact that Allah has sent the same 
religion to mankind through all his Prophets and 
that that religion has been completed and finalized 
by the Final Prophet, Muhammad, peace and 
blessings of Allah be on him. and the Qui'an 
which has abrogated and replaced all the previous 
scriptures 

3. f^t yabtaghiiQ = he seeks, desires, aims at, 

aspires after, strives for (v. lii. m. s. impfct. from 
ibtaghS, form VIII of bughd [bugba'], to seek, 
desire. Sec ibtigha" at 3:7. p. 156, n 8; and 
yabghuna at 3:83. p 186. n 6). The last letter yii" 
is vowcllcss and hence dropped because the verb 
is pan of aconditinnl clause (preceded by man), 

4 Jrt yuqba!a(u) = it is accepted, received (v. 

in m. s. impfct. passive from t/abila 
laubil/qubSl], to accept, The last letter lakes 
fathah because Of the particle fun Coming before 
the verb. See yuqbalu at 2: 123. p. 58, n. 7; and at 
2:48. p. 23. n. 9). 
5. &S* 1 * khtistrtn (accJgen. of khdiiriln, sing, 

kMsir) - losers, those in loss, those thai incur loss 
(active participle from ktosom [khusr MwxsSr 
/khmHrnh /yhusr&n} to lose, be in loss See at 
2:64, p. 31, n. 2). Such persons wUl be the losers 
in the hereafter 

6 *j>f ksfarH = they disbelieved, became 
ungrateful, rumed infidel (v. iii. m. pi. nasi from 
kafara [kitfr], not to believe. See at 3:4. p. 155, n. 
2; and :2 1 2. p. 101. n. II). 



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190 



Sfrah 3: At 'fmrtin [Part (Jw) 3 ] 



-j after they had believed 
l -»-*f£j and had borne witness 1 

,3^-J^lji thai the Messenger is true, 

' * zf 

■■**Vj and there had come to them 

CwLii the clear evidences? 

J ^ * -^l? And Allah does not guide 

uruiiUI >jili the transgressing people. 



87. Those people, 

their recompense 4 is 

that (here lies on them 

the curse of Allah 

and the angels 

and of mankind as a whole; 



■l; 1 









88. Abiding therein for ever. 3 
No mitigation will be made 1 
wlijll^ for them in the punishment, 
nor shall they be respited. 7 






OJl'i- 



" : f J i' 



89. Except for those who 
repent after that 



1. !jJ+i thahidS - they bore witness, witnessed. 

attested, testified (v. iii. in pi. past from s/iaiiida, 
[shuMd), to witness See shahida al 3: 18, p. 
161. n (>). The 'dyith applies as well to trie People 
of the Book who knew the description of the 
Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings or Allah 
be on him, in their scripture and believed in his 
coming but disbelieved in him when they found 
thai he was raised from another people, as also to 
those who believe and accept Islam and then falls 
away front it, Sec Al-Tabarf, pi III, pp. 340-341; 
Ihn Kathir, II. pp. 33-39. 

2. ckVf buyyiaat (pi,; sing, bayyinah) - clear 

signs, indisputable evidences, see at 2:213, p. 
102, n. 10; and 2:253. p. I29.n 5) 

1. 1 >r«JlU xalimSn (ace. /gen. of ztftimiin, sing. 
zdtim) = transgressors, wrong-doers, unjust 
persons. Active participle of zutumti [zttlm]. to 
transgress, do wrong. See at 3:57. p. 1 78, n. 9; 
and 2:270. p, 141, n. IS). 

4. *tp» Ja&t' = requital, recompense, reward, 
return. See at 2:SS, p. 40. n. 9. 

5 j*jA# khilidin (accusative/genitive of 
kMJidUn, pi. of khiittd} * living for ever, 
everlasting, eternal (active participle from 
khalutta [khalitf], to live for ever, See at 3:13, p. 
160, n. 6: and 2:161. p. 76, n. I). 

6, <-"*s yukhaffafa - he r>[ it is lessened. 

lightened, mitigated (v, iii. m, s, impfct passive 
from khaffafa, form II of khuffa Ikhiffah], to he 
light. See jt 3:162. p. 76. n. 31; and 2:86, p. 41, n. 
I). 

7, ijjfci yunier&na = they are respited. 

reprieved, given lime, deferred, looked al, glanced 
al tv. iii. ni. pi. impfct. from naiara 
Xnttzr/manyar], to sec. view, took at. See at 2: 1 62, 
p. 76. n. 4). 

8, ijfU fdM a they repented, became penitent, 
turned from sin (v iii. m. pi, post from (aba Jtuwfr 
ftavtbaht maiAb), lo repent, be penitent. 
Technically luwttih means, in respect of man, to 
turn to Allah in penitence and with resolve to 
reform, and in respect of Allah, to turn in 
forgiveness and tncrcy. See at 2: 1 60, p. 76. n. 9: 
and ;ri>«i at 2tl87. p. 89. n. 8). 



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SflruA 3: Al '/mron (Pan (Jut) 3 ] 



191 












tffiiz 



and make amends, 1 

for verily Allah is 

Most Forgiving, 

Most Merciful. 

90. Verily those who 

disbelieve 

after their having believed, 

and then (hey increase 2 

in disbelief, 

never will there be accepted 3 

their repentance; 

and they are the ones 

gone astray, 4 



iX 



l/$S[ 91. Verily those who 

t^Lij^jiS disbelieve and die 

jVkS f-»j while they are unbelievers, 

Sr*iJ* there shall not be accepted 

(^•^-j-'of from any of them 
^jVl i ji the earth's fill 4 in gold 

&XJ$ J j even if he ransomed 6 himself 



i a, therewith. 
*4 Jipji Such people shall have 



1. !^Lj[ 'osiahu - rectified, made good, made 

amends, mended, put n;;h< (v m m. pi past from 
'tijluha. (euro FV of folaha. \stiltift/ suluh/ 
majtahah\, in be good, proper. See al 2:160. p. 
75.0. 10% 

2. ljibjl izdodu - ihey increased, grew, 

compounded (v, iii. m. pi, pasl from adtida, form 
VII I of lAdti \liyttduh\. 10 be more, to increase. 
See tMa al 2:247, p 125. n. 4). 

3. Jji fwflfojfaiu) b she nr it is accepted. 

received, approved (v. iii. f s. impfct passive 
rri.ini qabita [qab&Vqubul]. ID accept The last 
leuer lakes faihah because of the particle Ian 
coming before the verb. See yaqbala at 3:86. p. 
189. n. 4) 

4. JjJU. ddllun (sing.JW ddtl)= those gone 

astray, misguided ones, (hose who go astray by 
abandoning monolhcism and ihe 'straight psih" 
enunciated by Allah (active participle from dalla 
{dii!dl/da!ulah\. to go astray, to stray, to err. See 
d'dllin at 2:198. p, 96 n 1 2 and al ji7. p. 3. n.7). 

5. t J- mil' (s.: pi, t*J'aml&') - filling, quantity 

which fills something Mil' al-'ard - such a 
quantity as fills the eaflti, an earth's fill . 

6. gtA=>' ifiadd = he ransomed himself, redeemed 

himself, freed himseir (v in m s, past in form 
Vlll a\ [iula \fitian/fitta'\, to redeem, to ransom, to 
sacrifice. Sec i/ladiu at 2.22V. p. 1 13, n. 6}. 
7 The 'ayuh has a two-fold meaning: (a) That a 
person who disbelieves and dies in thai state, all 
his munificence and benevolent deeds, however 
great, wilt be of no avail in the hereafter, The 
Prophet, peace and blessing? til AUah be <>n him. 
was once asked aboul 'Abd Allah ibn lad' in, the 
wealthiest and most bencvoicni man of Makka ai 
his time, whether his benevolence will benefit him 
in any way on the Day of Judgement. The Prophel 
replied in [he negative saying that he CAbd Allah) 
had never prayed for Allah's forgiveness, (See 
Muslim no, 214 iKit.il' ai-'tman) and Ibn Kaihir, 
II. p. 59, (b) That such a person shall not avert due 
punishment when faced by il even if he were ihen 
able and willing to make amends ai big as paying 
a ransom equalling the earth's fill in gold. This is 
reiterated at many places in the Qur'an, See for 
instance. 2:4E; 2:123; 10:54; 13:18. 39:47, 57:15 
and 70:1 1-14. See also for an authentic hadllh to 
ihe same effect reported by "Anas ibn Mali k (r.a.) 
in Sukhdri. no, 6538; Musntid Ahmad. Itl. pp. 
127; Ibn Kaihir, II, p 60 



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1°2 



Surah 3: 'At Imriot (Pari <J«! M] 






imjuj 



•*-t,-i 









3f^ 






an agonizing 1 punishment 
and they shall not have 
anyone to help. 2 

PART(Jhz')4 

Section iKuktV) 10 

92. You shall not attain 3 piety 

unless you spend'* 

out of what you love;* 

and whatever you spend 

of anything 

surely Allah is 

about it All-Aware, 

93. AH the food 5 

was lawful 

for the Children of Isril'tl 

save what Isra'tt had tabooed' 

upon himself 

before that 

the Torah was sent down. 8 

Say: "Bring then the Torah 

and recite it, if you are 

truthful." 

94. Then whoever fabricates 5 

against Allah the lie 



1. pJl 'aRm ■ agonizing, anguishing, very 
painful Sec at 3:21. p, 163. it. 6, 

2. i.e.. against [he judgement of Allah. j^L 

nasirin (acc./gen, of minni™, sing, ndiir) = 
helpers. assistant; (active participle from aaiiara 
[mar/ najur\. (o help. Sec at 3:56. p. 178, n, 3). 

3. iJts WlH&ina) = you (all) attain, reach, get 
hold of, affect (v. ii_ m, pi. impfct. from nata [ 
nay! fman£f\, to reach, atlain. The terminal nun is 
dropped on account of the panicle fan corning 
before the verb. See Jttndhj at 2: ] 24. p. 59, n. S>, 

4. i.e.. spend in the way of Allah, ljiti 

lanfiqa^a) m you (all) spend, expend disburse, 
lay out (v, it. m pi. impfct. fttmi anfaaa, form IV 
of nojaqa/nafiqa [najatj], to be used up. The 
terminal nun is dropped for an implied an in 
fcofru coming before the verb. See at 2:272, p. 
142, rt. 7). 

5. i.e., you spend in chanty what you yourself 
would like to have and posses;, Sec 2:267, p. 140. 
jjj~" tnhitibuna = you mill love. like. wish, want 
(v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 'ahabbu, form [V of 
hubba [habb\, to love. See at 3:3 1, p. 167, n. 10). 

6. fUt ta'am (pJ ^ al'imah) « food, dieU meal. 
Sec at 2:25°, p 135, ft. I 

7. f r fyarrama = he prohibited, made unlawful, 
interdicted, proscribed, made inviolale, declared 
sacred, tabooed (r, iii. m s. past in fofffl II of 
haruma/harimci . to be prohibited. See at 2:275, p, 
144. a. <J: and hariim at 2:217. p 105, n, I), The 
reference is here to the meat and milk of camel 
which the Jews considered unlawful and which 
tsrfl'il (Ya'qub) tabooed in consequence of his 
vow not to take the food and drink he loved most 
if he were healed of an ailment he had been 
suffering from. Allah had noi mode these 
unlawful, (Ibn Kalhir, II, pp. 61-62), 

S. JjJ (unazzatat,it) - she is sent down, caused to 
descend {v. iii. f, s. impfct. passive from nimaiu, 
form II of nawia [nuzu!]. to come down. Sec 
'umilal at 3:65, p. 181, n. 2), The terminal letlef 
takes fathak because of the particle 'an coming 
before the verb, 

8. iSjH iflard ■ he fabricated, made up, invented 
falsely, trumped up, slandered (v. iii. in i past, in 
form VIII of ford \fary\. to cut lengthwise, to 
fabricate. See yaftattina at 3:24, p, 164, a 6). 



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Surah 3: 'Al 'Imran fPart(Juz')4| 



19 3 



^•£>it after that; 



-4pi« then such people, 
p jjiyjifU ihey are the transgressors. 1 



jj 95. Say: 
J ^ljH "Allah speaks the truth. 2 

i^iS So you all follow* 
fiffyi* tne religion 4 of Ibrahim 
Cl_^L as a hanff, A 
u&Uj and he was none 
iti of a pol ytheist. 



1- 



v^; Jj'ol, 96. Verily the first house 1 
o-Uli^j set up for mankind 
*5sl ti^SJ is indeed that at Makka, 
SjC full of blessing 8 
{j^lXsj^ 3 and guidance for all beings.* 



is 



'->J**J 97, Therein are signs 
f all too clear, 10 (such as) 
t*& p£* the Stand-spot 11 of Ibrahim; 
»ii~><Lr*3 and whoever enters it 



U*l»ut> becomes secure. 



ij 



1. OjJtb z&lim&n (Sing, ,JA Jr/itfm) a 
transgressors, wrong-doers, unjusi persons. See at 
3:86, p, 190. n. 3) 

Z. i.e., Allah speaks the truth in all thai He 
communicates to His Prophet by means of wahy. 
particularly relating !0 !he mailers dealt wilh in 
the previous 'ayahs about the conducl and 
assumptions of (he People of flic Book 

3. After the emphasis on Ibrahim's noi being a 
Jew or a Christian, here is a command 10 follow 
the religion of Ibrahim, which is Islam and true 
monotheism. ij»Ji iiiabi'u = you lain follow, 

pursue, be on the track (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
from ttiaba'a. form VIII of labi'a [taba'/tah&'ah], 
to follow, See at 3:31, p, 167, n, 115. 

4. J^a- hanifipl ,u^, huneifd '} = one who shuns 

the false religions and follows [he true religion, a 
tine monothetsl. See ai 3:67. p. 181. n.7}. The 
Hmfc is a reply to the Jews' and Christians' claim 
thai they were the followers of the religion of 
Ibrahim. [I says that while he was a true 
monolhetst , they were not so. (See Al-Hahr, III. 
266). 

5. i.e., the first house for mankind in general for 
their worship and pilgrimage. {Jbn KnlWr. II, 631; 
Al-Xabarl, pL IV, 8-9). 

6. £jj wiifft'a = it was set up, erected, laid, laid 

down, placed (v. jij, m, t, past passive from 
wtidti'a [waft'], to lay. See wada'tit at 3:36, p. 
I®, n. 3}. 

7. lb., the Ka'ba. 

8. iljL. muborak - blessed, full of blessings. The 

Messing* consist Of Ihe immense men Is of prayers 
at ii and of the great material provisions lhai flow 
lo it l mm all directions. 

9. i.e., as qiblnh and as the place from where 
guidance emanates (Af-Sdftr. HI, 26°). 

10. i.e.. clear signs and evidences that it was 
erected by Ibrahim and that il is full Of blessings 

1 1 t Li- maqam - spot, site, standing, station. The 

slone on which Ibrahim stood while raising the 
foundation of the Ka'ba and which is still 
preserved by its side. 

12 The Ka'ba and its precincts are rendered 
inviolate and secure by Allah ( See 28:57, 29:67 
and 4; 106-} Even in pre Islamic limes the Ka'ba 
precincls were inviolate and a killer, if he look 
shelter therein, was noi attacked in retaliation as 
long as he remained there (Ibn Kathtr. II, 65). 



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J 94 



Surah 3: Al 'Imrasi |Part {Juz'i 4] 



t^bUJ^j And Allah's due upon man is 
.jJlii«^- pilgrimage 1 to the House — 
^p&Llt ji whoever is able to makeHo it 

& $ 5 

i*-L- a way; - 
j&o*} and whoever disbelieves, 
VifjU then verily Allah is 
j^Ci\^.^ in no need 5 of ail the beings. 



ji 98. Say: 
w^JljitS "o People of the Book, 
jj^kj^i why do you disbelieve 6 
*iloUL in the revelations 7 of Allah, 
-^^ij while Allah is a Witness 8 
& jjJ— iwjc over what you do? 



I 



99. Say; 

"O People of the Book, 

why do you deter* 

^J^- ji from the way of Allah 
those who believe, 
seeking™ it to get crooked, 11 
while you are witnesses? 11 

Jjj^u ilfaj And Allah is not unmindful 13 






'4 ■Jf'- 



J , .j— ^ij 



'■ C"~ f^ = pilgrimage, The pilgrimage lo the 
Kaba wasjwiiaimcd by Pro^bei }brih'w>, peace 
be on firm, on Mali's command. See 22-2S-27. 

2. i. e„ financially as well as physically able lo 

travel lo it. {Al-Tibarf, pc_ IV, 15-1 8). £jlft«l 

istaiS'a - he was able to, was capable of (v, iii. 
in s. past in form X of tit'a |fuw'], tu obey. Sec 
israta'8 at 2:2 17, p 105, n It: and U vaslali'S of 
2:282. p. 148, n 3 

3. J^- saWf (pl-J- lutodALJ aiMuh) ■ way, 
path, toad, means, guilt, blame. See ai 3:75, p 
185,11.2. 

4. i.e., whoever refrains from performing il in 
spile of his ability to do so is guilty of unbelief, 
kufr (Inn Kathir, II. 69) /£ kafara = he 

disbelieved, denied. turned ungrateful (v. iii. m. s 
past from kufr, to disbelieve, 10 cover. See 
yctkfururta a! 3:21, p. 16.1, n. I). 

5. jt ghanfyy (s.; pi. ,,^ tigbtiyti') = above 
want, free from want. rich. Followed by the 
particle 'an the word gives the meaning af : "has 
no need". Ste rughniya at 3:10. p. 157. n. 10. 

6. jjji£; takfumna - you (all) disbelieve, deny 

(v. ii. m. pi. impfct, from kafara. See n. 4. above; 
and lakfur&ita at 3:69, p. 182. n. 9). 

7. .siiiV 'SySl (pi,; siryg. «£ uyaA) = signs, 

miracles, revelations, evidences. See at 3:70. p. 
182, n. 10. 

8. ±&i shahid (pi, shuhwitY) = witness, martyr. 
Sec ihuhadH' at 2:133, p 63, n. I. 

9. CiyJ^i tasudd&na - you (all) deter, hinder, 
divert, dissuade, alienate, turn away, prevent (v. 
ii. m. pi. impfcl from sadda [sudd], lo turn away. 
See Wrfal 2:217, p, 105, n. 3), 

10. i>j*? tabghflna = you (all) seek, seek to 
attain, wish, desire, covet (v, ii. m. pi. impfct. 
fioril baxkS [buf>hit'\, lo seek, desire. See 
yabxhuna al 3:83. p. 1 88. n. 6). 

11. £j* Hwaj = crookedness, twist, bend. 

curvature. Here the infinitive has been used in the 
sense aimu'awwaj, crooked, twisted. 

12. i.e., you know that ii is true but still try to 
distort it. See n 8 above for skuhada '. 

13. JM> gMJU {s„ pi. ijU ghSfitSn) - negligent, 
unmindful, heedless, inattentive, indifferent to. 
Active participle from ghafula [ghaflah / ghufO{\, 
to neglect, not to heed See at 2: 140. p, 66. n. 7. 



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Stlrah 3: 'Al Imran [Pari (/«') 4] 



m 



d S jCS tl*- of what you do. 






*■> *" -iJ , L^ Jl f -" 



'"^ 



hi- 
l*J*Jt 



U&vijJ 



100. O you who believe,' 
if you obey 2 a group of those 
who were given the Book, 
they will drive you back/ 
after you have believed, 
as unbelievers. 



-£ 






^ 






V', 



101. And how could 
you disbelieve 
and you are the ones, 
unto you are recited -1 
the revelations of Allah, 
and amidst you is 
His Messenger? 
And whoever holds fast 5 
to Allah 

JiijyiJiju has indeed been guided* to 
a straight 1 path.* 






■oil 






Section [RukQ') 11 
102. O you who believe, 



1. The 'Syah has immediate reference 10 the 
manoeuvres of Mine Jewish leaders of Madinn to 
mislead the new Muslims there and to create 
dissension among them by recalling and fanning 
the old jealousy and enmity between die 'Aws and 
the Khaznij tnbes; bui its meanings and 
implications are general. See 2: 1 09 and 3:69. 

2. ljaJiiMff' ti{nu) ■ you tall) obey, comply with, 
accede in (v li m. pi. impfct. from ai&'u, form 
IV dI ta'u Ifaw']. to obey. The terminal ««« is 
dropped because the verb is in a conditional 
clonic (preceded by 'm ). See 'a/fti at 3: SO. p. 
176. n. 1; and ii'at&a at 3:97. p. l?4, n, 2). 

3. ijij, ydrurfifii(ntj) = they tinve back, put back. 

send back, repel (v, iii. m. pi impfct. from radda 
[ritdd], 10 pul back. The terminal nun is dropped 
because the verb is Ihe conclusion of a conditional 
clause. See vtimdduna nl 2:217. p, 105, n, 10). 

4. Js tulM - it (fern.) is reciicd, read out, read 

aloud (v. iii. f. s. impfci. passive from tali 
\tUa\Koh\. lo recite See natlu al 3:56, p. 173, n. 

II: and nl 2:251, p. 128, n. II). 

5. Holding fusl to Allah means tD hold fast to His 
din as lought by Him through His Messenger, 
that is Islam. ^ ya'tasimiu) - he holds fast, 

clings, resons. keeps up (v iii in s, impfct. from 
i'tasamu, form Vtll of 'ufama \'afm], lo restrain, 
lo protect. The Icmiina! Idler is vowelless {sfikin) 
because the verb is pan of a conditional clause 
(preceded by man). 

ft j-u hudiya m he is guided, led, shown the 

way (v. iii, m $. past passive from hada [hady/ 
hadanf hid&ytth], to guide, lo lead. Sec hada at 
2:143. p. 68, n, 3). 

7. f ^ i - • muslaqim = straight, upright, erect, 

correct, right, sound, proper. (Active participle 
from istaqaimt. form X of qi'ima [aawmah/qiySm]. 
[a stand up. lo gel up. See al 3:5 1 , p. 1?6. n. 4 and 
2:213, p. 103. n. t). 

8. JWjrf sirSt - way. palh, road. See al 3:51, p. 
176, n. 3 and 1:6. p. 2. n. 3. 



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196 



Surah 3: 'Al Imran [Pari (Jui") 41 



■^iijili dread 1 Allah 
.jililji the true dreading 2 of Him; 

;jP-% and let you not die 3 
Is ^'j'j'I except as you are Muslims. 



L 



% 103. And hold fast 4 



-ifj^i to the rope 5 of Allah 

&-J- all together, 
jyj^^j and do not be divided;* 
Ij^Kj and remember 
p3A^M^i Allah's favour upon you 
i\j»A AiS j^ when you were enemies 
'fSLji'JC JJU and Allah united* your hearts; 
' 'Ji so you have become'' 
by His Grace brethren; 

^(^X^j ^ y° u were on tne v £rge 10 
j\jl\^)^l of a pit" of fire, 

l^^iili and He rescued you from it. 
4^jL*.^3l*Jo Thus Allah makes clear 15 

.o> [>J for you His revelations, 
jjx^^U that you might be guided 




j&j 104. And let there be 



1. lyJl iHaqu = you tall) beware, be on your 

guard, fear, dread of {v. ii. m. pi. imperative from 
illuqd. form VIM of waqd ( waqy/wiq&yah). to 
guard, safeguard. See it 2233, p, 1 17. fl. I0>. 

2. iLij mqah = tearing, dreading, threat See at 

3:28, p, 166. n. 6, True fearing means carrying out 
His injunctions and abstaining from His 
prohibitions, (ftin Kaihi'r, II. 71). 

3. Leu, remain on Islam till death. ^JjJ V id 

CamuluKita - you must not die. let you not die (V. 
it, m, pi. impfct. j negative 1 from mUta \nuiwi], to 
die. , See at 2:132. p 62. n. 10). 

4. i,— t^ i'Hisimu - you {all) hold fast cling, 
tccp up (v. ii. m pi imperative from i'lajaasa, 
form VJII of 'flfdfflrt {'ufm\. In restrain, to prelect. 
See ya'in/im SI 3:101. p, 195, n. S). 

5. i. e. the Qur'an and Islam (See tbn Kathtr. 11. 
73). Jp~ habt (pi, hibaiyahbttWtikMUhabSSy = 
rope, cord, string, vein, sinew. 

6. y> V U lafarrat/ti (originally /,; 
iauifarraifa't= you (all) be not divided, separated 
from one another (V. ii. m, pi. imperative 
(prohibition) from tofarraqti, form V of furaqa 
\fnrtj$itfqiln]. to separate . See nufurriqu at 3:84, 
p. I89.n 2). 

7. iUti 'tt'M' (pi.; sing. Wuwk)= enemies, 
adversaries. See aduww at 2:208. p. TOO, n. 1 1. 
The immediate reference is to (he 'Aws and 
Khazraj tribes of Madina but it is applicable to 
the Muslims of all lime and climes. 

8. ->$ "altafa = he united, joined, combined, put 

together, composed:, tamed, habituated (v. hi. m. 
s. past in foim II of stlfti [ 'alf\. jo be acquainted). 

9. r*r"' 'ojAafctum = you (all) became, became 
in the morning (v. ii. m. pi. past from 'afbahu, 
form IV of subuha {sabh\, to be tit the morning), 

10. Lii shaft - edge, rim, brink, verge, border, 

1 1. ijtr- hufrah [pl.^ hujar) = pit, hollow, hole, 

12. -ii! 'anqadha = he rescued, saved, salvaged. 

recovered, delivered: (v. iii. m. s. past in form IV 
of ttwfiitihu \rsw/dti}, <o save, lo rescue). 
13- ir* jubayj/inu = he makes clear, explains, 
elucidates [V. iii. m. s, impfct from hayyana s 
form II of bH/Ui ( btiyun], to be clear). See at 
2:266, p. 140. n, I). 



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SSfah i Al -Imrtin [Pari (Jk: >4] 



197 






«3* 



M£& 






«8 
* j > -J '*: 

m 



from among you a class 1 
calling 1 to the good, 3 
enjoining 4 the approved/ and 
forbidding* the detestable. 7 
And such are the ones 
to have attained success.* 

105. And do not be 

like those who got divided* 
and ran into disagreement 10 
after there had come to them 
the clear evidences. 
And such people will have 
a stupendous punishment. 

106. On the day 
white will turn" faces 
and black will turn 11 faces. 
So as to those whose 
faces will turn black - 
"Did you disbelieve 
after you had believed? 
Then taste 13 the punishment 



1. i-l "ummah (pl.,-f 'IPIUWI) - community, 

people, nation, generation, species, category, 
class, one m whom all Ihe good qualities ait 
combined. See at 2:213, p. 102. ti 5, 
7. tijt-\t yad'&na m they call, call upon, invite (v. 
iii. p. pi impfci, from dtt'H {du'&), to call, to 
summon. See at 2; 221, p, 108. n. 10). 

3. i.e., 10 Allah and islam 

4. ijy»tj ya'murina = they enjoin, command. 

give orders (v. iii, m. pi. impfci from amaro 
I'amr], to Oftfcr. See ya'muru at 2; 169, p 79. n. 
12). 

5. J),*. ma'r6f= known, welbknown, generally 

recognized, beneficence, approved by shart'ah 
(passive participle from arafa/'arifa [ma'rifah f 
iTfan], to know, See at 2:263, p. 137. n. 9). 

6. Jj« yanhawna - they forbid, prohibit, 

proscribe (v iii, m, pi. impfct from mifii'i. 
\nahw/nahy\, 10 forbid. See intuha at 2:275. p. 
144, n. 11). 

7. jSc- muitkar (pi. munfaardt) = detestable. 

disagreeable, abominable, disapproved (passive 
participle from 'aitknra, form IV of atliara 
[nuir/fiukrMukur/na&ir}. not to know). 

8. Oj~t« tnuflih&n < sing. maflitt). successful 

ones, those who attain Allah's pleasure and 
rewards; act. participle from 'aflalja, form IV or 
falaha \falh\~ to split, cleave Sec at 2:5, p. 5, n. 
10).' 
9 •>,■* tafattaqu b ihcy became divided, 

separated (v, iii. m. pi. past from lafarruqa. form 
V at faraqa [fatq/furqSn], Eo divide, to separate. 

See W lafarmqH at 3:103. p. 1% (36}. n. 6), 

If) tyk^i ikhiatafu - they differed, disagreed, 

were at variance, disputed (v. iii. m. pi. past from 
ikhiatafu. form VIII of khaktfa \klralf], to come 

after. See at 2:253. p, 129. it. 9), 

1 1. J& laifaddu - she turns white, brightens 

up (v, iii. f. s. impfct, from nhyaiidu. form IX of 
bdda \ha\ii\, to lay eggs, 1o settle down). 

12. ij-i laswaddu - she becomes black, 
blackened (v. iii, s. f. impfct- in form IX from 
samda. to blacken). 

13. yi>S dhtiqS - you (all) taste (v. ti- m, pi. 
imperative from dhaqa [dhawq], 10 taste). 



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I9S 



Siirak 3: jii Imrdn [Part [/"«') 4J 



V-i Lj for that you had been 
04££f disbelieving, 1 " 



f**tV 






^jjiUiJ 107. And as to those whose 
-1 faces became white, 2 
*^4-j*J<>* they will be in Allah's mercy. 

i^i-U They in there 
@5jiyl shall abide for ever. : 






% 108. These are 

*it i^j; the reve \ ation s 4 of A 1 1 ah — 

Jdiekijii' We recite* them to you 

&^\ in truth, 

ijjSfcj And Allah does not intend* 

Jp lUiiiit injustice 7 to the creaturtes. 8 



,i- 109. And to Allah belongs 
:,r jU all that is in the heavens 



i^a'4**J and all that is in the earth; 

^JU and to Allah shall be 
i**Vfjj£j? referred back 9 all matters. 

@ Section (KuJfcii') 12 

^.l^^jT 1 10. You are the best nation 



10 



J. l>)j£i takfurSna a yau (all) disbelieve, deny 
(v. ii. m, pi. imprci. from tafaru. [kufr]. to 
disbelieve, See at 3:98, p 194, n.6). 



ii abyatfdai = she became while, 
brightened up (v, iii, f, s past in form (X of bdfa 
[bayd], to lay eggs, to be settle down. See 
tobyiid<tu at 3:106, p. 197, n 12! 

3. d^iti* kMSMSn (sing, j*, ttoWirf) = living or 

remaining for ever, eveilasting, eternal (active 
participle from khalcuiu [khatudj, to live or 
remain forever. See at 2:275, p. 145, n. I; 2:157. 
p. 133. n. 2: 2:81. p. 38. n. 6; and 2:25. p. 13, n. 
14). 

4. o^it 'iydi [pf: sing. >,L 'Hyuh) = signs, 

miracles, revelations, evidences, See at 3:98, p. 
194. n. 7; 3:70, p. J 82 F n. 10 

J. jto nallu ■ we recite, read, read alnud (v. j, pi, 

implex from tuts \titOwuh], to recite. See at 3:58. 
p. I78.il, 10; 2:251. p. I28.n, II). 

6. -^jyurtdu = he intends, desires, has in mind 
(v. iii. m, s. impfcL form 'arSda. for IV from rida 
\rawd\. to walk about See at 2:353. p. 130. n. 2; 
2:IS5.p. S8,ij,3). 

7. fib zulm ^injustice, iniquity. wrong, 
oppression. See pltimfn at 3:94, p, 193, n. I , 

8. j^te- 'Slamtn {occJgen. of jjJu 'tilamun, 
sing. fU 'Mam, i.e., any being or object that points 
lo it* Creator, &ing. 'Hum) m all beings, ciCalurcs. 
See at 2:131. p 62, n 1: 1:2. p. I.n.4, 

9. (frj lurfa'u = she is returned, sent back, 
referred bade (v, in. f. s. tmpfct passive from 
raja'a \fU}&'\ . to retuni). Sec at 2:210, p. 10 i, n. 
4; and turjauna at 2:280. p. 146, n, 16), 

10. j,/ 'umtif (pf.; siruj.^ amr) = affairs, 
matters, issues, concerns See nl 2:210, p. 101, n 



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SSwh 3; 'M Imr&n [pan f/uj'j 4] 



199 






JJ-fi • 1, 









'fat 






*»>0J 



raised 1 for mankind, 

enjoining 2 the approved 

and forbidding 3 the detested, 

and believing in Allah. 

And if there believe 

the People of the Book, 

it will be good for them. 

Some of them are believers, 

but most of them 
are sinful.* 

111. They cannot harm 5 you 
except hurting; 6 
and if they fight with you 
they will tum 7 towards you 
the backs;* 
then they will not be helped. 9 

1 12. Struck 10 on them will be 
ignominy" 

wherever they are met with 12 , 
except by a rope '''from Allah 

and a rope from men; 

and they have incurred' 4 
i, the wrath of Allah 



1. ^-"-j^t 'ukhrijat - she is raised, produced, 

brought out (v. iii. f. s. past passive from 'akhruja. 
form tV of knaraja [khur&j], [o go mil. See 
'nkMrti)Rtl al 3:267. p. 140. n. 7). 

2. lijyt ta'mur&na = you (all) enjoin, 

command, give orders (v. si m, pi. impful In; in 
'iwuirn [ wnr\, to order. See ya'murumi at 3:104. 
p. 197, n 4). 

3. jj4^ tanhavna - you (all) forbid, prohibit (v. 

ii, m pi. impfcl. from 'nttM, [nuhw/nahy\ h to 
forbid, See yanhawnu m 3:104. p. 197. n. 6). 

4. j ji^lJ fdsiq&n (pi., sing, fasiq) - disobedient, 

defiant, wantonly sinful (active participle from 
jtisutjii Ifivfl. to slray from the right course, to 
renounce obedience See at 3:82, p. 168, n. 5). 
S >ijji yadurriUna) = they harm, hurl, damage. 

impair (v, iii. m pi- impfcl. from darm [darr], to 
harm. The terminal nun is dropped for the particle 
Urn before Ihe verb. See nl 2:102. p. 48. n. 13). 

6. tsat 'adhaa = insult, offence, harm, injury, 
hurt See at 2:262. p. 137. n. 5: 2:1%, p. 94, n. 9. 

7. ijJjd yuvaHH{nii) = they mm, turn away (v. 

iii. in, pi. impfcl. from walla, form It of watt ya, lo 
lie next. The terminal nun is dropped because the 
verb comes as conclusion of 3 conditional clause. 
See tawatlS at 3:82. p. 188, n 4). 

8. jtfjl 'adbar (sing >-> dubr/dubur) - backs, 
backsides, rear parts. 

9. b)s*k yunjar&na = they are helped, assisted 

(v. iii. jn. pi. impfcl. passive from nasara \nujr 
/nusur], to help. See al 1 : 1 23, p. So. n. i 1 ). 

10. **j* duribat = she or it ivnsstruck. hit. 

pitched [v. iii. f. s post passive from tjurubn 
[darb], to strike. See at 2: 61, p. 29, it. S). 

1 1. iii dhiilnh - ignominy, debasement, townc&s, 
depravity. Sec ludhillu at 3:26, p. 165. n 5. 

12. l/ii thuqiJH = ihcy are found, met with (v. 

iii. m. pi. past passive from fhaqifa [thaqf], to 
meet, be skilful). See ihuqifiumu at 2:191, p 91, 
n. 14). 

13. L ft, by Allah's covenant or protection. J^- 
^oAf = see at 3:103, p 196. n. S. 

14. j. i. bd'u = ihcy relumed, came back. 

incurred (v. iii, m, pi. past from ba"a [ baw'), lo 
come back, to return. See at 2:90, p, 43. n.S). 



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200 



S&raii 3: Al Vmrdn IPart (Juz) 4] 



- .. ■ 






CM 






and pitched on them 
is poverty. 

This is so because they 
have been disbelieving 
in Allah's revelation 
and killing 2 the Prophets 
without any right* - 

this is so because 

they defied 4 

and went on trasgressing. 5 












™2 uj-k^pij 



1 13. They are not all alike. h 
Of the People of the Book 
there is an upright 7 group*, 
reciting* Allah's revelations 
ijfiSiI during the night hours, 10 and 
they prostrate themselves." 



*il. 



* y 






1 14. They believe in Allah 
and the Last Day; 
and they enjoin" 
the approved 12 
l£-J V- j*r~ j an d fo rbi d ' i the detes ted ; ' 4 
and they rush 15 






1 vS—f maikanak - poverty, indigence. 

2. Li>iv yaqiuluna = [hey kill, slay, muidcr. 

assassinate {v. ill. m, pi. irnpfcl from qatala 
\qatt\. id kill. See at 3:21, p. 163, n. 2). 

3. J* Adff - right, truth, duly, liability, tdgal 
claim, justification See at 2:282, p. 147, n. 1 1. 

4. i>** *tuaw m they rebelled, tie Tied, disobeyed 

(v, ML m. pi, put from 'ofS I 'ifyiin/ ma m siyah\, to 
rebel, lo oppose, lo disobey, to defy, See it 2:61. 
p, 29. n. 1 2). 
5. ijJij ya'UuiHius = they transgress. . cross 

the limits, overstep I v. iii. m. pi. impfct. fram 
i'tudd, lorn i VI [I 'uiJ(i | 'i/Jii']. lo run, dash). 

6. J j- jaw!' » straight, even, equal, same, 
alike. See at 3:64. p. 180, a. 4. 

7. «M qS'imah (f.j mas. gd im) ■ standing, 

upright, erect, straight (active participle from 
.jti'iiit \qawmiik/qiy6in\. 10 Stand Up, tc get up). 
See u8 im it 3:39, p, 170, n. 1 3. 

B (J 'ummah (pi. r l 'wttuirn) = community, 

people, nation, generation, species, class, 
category. See at 3:104, p. 197, n. I 

9. i.e., reciting during Ihe prayers, ijjkt yalluna = 

they read aloud, recite (v. iii. at, pi. impfct from 
lain [litdwuh], to recite, Sec at 2:121. p. 57. n. 8) 

10. »1jV 'And' (pi.; sing, imy/'iny) = hours, 
especially of night. 

1 1. ctj/-t< yn'miirHna = they enjoin, command, 

give orders. (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from 'amam 
I'amr). to order. See at J: 1 04, p. 197. n, 4). 

12. •Jtjf ma'rSf = known, well-known, 

generally recognized, conventional, appropriate. 
fairness, equity, kindness, beneficence, approved 
by siitin'uh (passive participle from "urufu/'ufifa 
[ma'nfub / irfun], to know, lo recognize See at 
3:104, p. 197. n. 5). 

13. Oj^ yanhawaa e they forbid, prohibit. 

proscribe, prevent (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from mUE, 
\mihwJmihy], to fortsid. See at 3: 104, p 197 n 6) 

14. jSi. mtintar (pl.^ijf- tnunktirill\ = detested, 
disapproved See at 3:1 10. p 199, n 5), 

15. <>^>/-*i yusari'una = [hey make haste, rush 

(v. iii. in pi. impfct from xdm'a. form 111 of 
turn' a [mru'/sarn'/sur'iih], lo be quick- See sari' 
al3:19.p. I62,n.4). 



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Sfcah 3: Al 'tmr&n [Part . {/«*') 4) 



201 



ij^jol^ at the good deeds; 
— f-l^ijij and they are 
Vgo*?k-^ ] c-t among the righteous. 2 



iiiJiij 115. And whatever they do -1 

ff-lrt °f a g°°d deed 

ij^L^su^Aa they will not be denied 4 that; 

.» ,'r- ^fj and Allah is All-Aware 

it of the godfearing. 5 



1 16. Verily those who 

disbelieve, 

there shall not avail 6 them 

their riches 7 

nor their children 

against Allah whatsoever. 

And they will be 

the dwellers* of the fire; 

they in there 

will abide for ever.' 






*| $JJ&± 



3S 17. The likeness 1 " of 



i^)C what they spend" 



I- ot^ khayrM [p|,; sing .— khayrab) = good 
ihings, good deeds. Sec at 2: 148. p. 70, n 9. 
2, jj>1> sdhhin (accusative/genitive of .tiifrAuu. 

sing irii'./ii = righteous, virtuous, good (active 
participle from itiiuhu {saltHi/iuliih/maslaiutbl, lo 
be good, right, proper. See at 3;39.'p. 171, n. 6). 
i. ijj*^ jin/'old^iw) ■ ihey do (v. iii. in pi. 
impfct. from /a "aid. [ftt'l/f,'!}. to do. The terminal 
nun is dropped because die vein is part of a 
conditional clause (preceded by mo)}. 

4. Ijj&t yitkferti{na} ■ they are denied, rejected. 

disbelieved, covered (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. passive 
from Iwfom [ktifrj, to disbelieve, lo cover The 
terminal nun is dropped because of the particle 
Ian coining before the verb, See laifara at 3:97, p. 

194. n. A and lukfaruna at 3.106 p. 198, n. 1) 

5. jj=* muilaaln (ace /gen, of muHaqiin, sing. 

muaaam) ■ Chose who ore on their guard, 
godfearing. Active participle from iUaa§. form 
VIII of wutjd \wat(y/ wiqHyah\. to guard, lo 
protect. Sec ui 3 76. p. 185. n. 8). 

6. yjj tughniyat.n>)= she or it suffices, makes 

free from warn, makes rich, avails, helps (v. iii. f. 
s impfct. from 'aghna. form IV of ghaniya 
ighinan / ghuiiu' ]. to be free from want, lo be 
rich, The last letter takes ftabah for the particle 
Ian coming before the verb. Sec at 3:10, p, 157. 
n 10). 

7. JijJ 'amwai (pL; sing. rnUI) - riches, wealth, 
properties, possessions, goods. 

S. i^U-»r 'ashab [pi.: sing. ^— l. sahib) - 

inmates, dwellers, companions, associates, 
comrades, followers, owners, possessors See at 
2:257. p. 133. n. I), 
ft- Jjjfc* khaiidaa [sing, khalid) = living or 

remaining far ever, everlasting, eternal (active 
participle from khalada [khuiHd], to live or 
remain forever. See at 3: 107. p 198. n. 3). 

10. Jj> maihal ("pl.JnJ ■amthdf) = simile, 

likeness, example, parable, model, ideal. Sec al 
3:59. p. 178, n 13. 

I I . jjii* yunfiquna = ihey Spend, expend, 
disburse. lay out (v. iii. rn. pi. impfcl. from 

aitfaqa, form IV of nufaqa [na}aq\, lo be used 
up See at 2:273. p. J43.ii. 10). 



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202 



Sirah i, 'At 'Imr&t [Pan Out) 4] 



li 2\V£jt\» J> j [j n this worldly life 

5^4 i ~^ = * is the likeness of a wind 1 
j~° '■vt wherein is extreme cold that 
^ji^i/io^l strikes J the tillage 4 of a people 

, MS ft l-*'' , ill 

*4 m\ yjLs who wronged themselves 

*ii=u*u and destroys it. 



ia>«V.lb i-j Allah did not wrong them 
jl^j but themselves 



r / i £' they wronged. 






l>*i* ujjjltplij 1 18. O you who believe, 

iiiV>Ujj*b( do not take as intimates 

£■* > '» 
pvj J o^ those that are not of you. 

i^j>^ They will not fail to do you 

"VL^ mischief.'"* 

J J J They love 10 that which 

uJi you would suffer adversely." 

ZZ There already has come out 12 

extreme hatred 11 

rt*y'j; fr° m tne ' r mouths, l4 and 

>J*j^j what their breasts conceal 13 

j->; .fit, . 

jp i ,-**jjj— is graver. 

il£ja We have indeed made clear 
^s/'f-^j to you the revelations, 
'ilil'jJT- 1 '^ y° u ^° understand. 



1. pj ftt (p). riyHh/arw&h/ary&hf) - wind, 
smell, 

2. j* 5i>r = extreme cold, severe sound 

3. ohhJ 'taabal = she slnick, hit, afOicied, 

befeltfv. iii. f. s. pail from 'aitOba, form [V of 
jrlftu [,wwl>/jtfybu'ftuA|, lo till the mart, to be 
tight. Sec at 2:156, p. 73, it 13), 

4. -i^*- Wrfi = tillage, cultivation, tilth, crops. 
See at 3: 14. p 159,0. 18. 

5. o£l»t 'ahlatal = she destroyed, devastated, 

mined (v. iii, f- 1- past from 'ahlaka. form IV of 
hidaku [lmlk/halk/laliiulaifi{, lo destroy, Sec at 
2:205. p. 99. n .7). 

6. (jifcr t la lattakhidhti = you (nil} do not take 

up, lake for yourselves (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
[prohibition] from itiukhadhti. form VIII of 
'akhadha I'tiUuth], lo lake See itiitakhidhd nt 
3:90. p. 187, n. 5) This and the following two 
'ayiiht warn the Muslims against taking the 
hypocrites and mm- Muslims as close friends. 

7. «iAh bit&nah ( pf Ji* ihllU'w) = inside, inner 
side, lining; figuratively intimates, close friends, 

K. JJt< V la ya'luna = they do not fail, do not 
fall short, spare no effort (v. iii. m. pi. impfct 
from 'ai& [ alw], io neglect, to fail lo), 

9, Jt^ khabal = mischief, evil, confusion 

10, ijaj waddu = they wished, desired, loved (v, 
iii. m pi. past from wtuidt; [wudd/wudd/vttdd], lo 
love, to like See waddai at 3:69, p. 182, n,5), 

I'll fiir 'anlltum = you suffered adversely, felt 

distressed, grieved, (v. ii. m. pi past from tafia 
\ttntil]. to he in distress, io suffer adversely, See 
Vnafu at 2:220. p. 108. n. I) 

12. *J, hadal = sfle became clear, evident, 
manifest (v. iii, f. s. p&SI from badA [ badHtw/ 
bads' ] to appear, to come to light See labdu at 
3:29. p. I66.n I), 

13. iUi~ baghdi' m extreme haired, detestation, 
animosity, antipathy, aversion. 

14. Jji' 'afvah (pi.: sing. fAkah) a mouths 

15. ,yUj tukhfi - she conceals, secretes, hides 

(v. iii. t, s. impfel from 'akhfi. form IV of 
khafiya [kkufU'Aliifiiti/khufyah]. to he hidden. 
See lukhfS al 3:29. p. 1 66. n. 9), 



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Sarah 3: "At imran (Part (/ur'I 41 



203 









119. Ha, here you are those, 
you Jove them 1 
but they do not !ove 2 you; 
and you believe in the Book 
in its entirety; 
and when they meet 3 you 
they say: "We believe", 
but when they are alone 4 
they bite 5 against you 
the tips 6 of fingers 
out of rage. 7 

Say: " Die with your rage; 
verily Allah is All- Knowing 
^jjjJjl^t 1 of what lies in the breasts."* 












|JClli:4 120, If there touches 9 you 
[i-»j-j <^» any good, it grieves 10 them; 
^v-£*uij and if there afflicts you 
Hj l jj~jj<ci- any evil, they rejoice at it; 
'jt^-jjojj but if you persevere 

iji^y and be on your guard" 

^£=SjQi there shall not harm 14 you 
*i;3^ their machination 11 
,*, n whatsoever. 



), ijjj luhibbHita = you (all) love (v. ii m. pi 

impfct. From atuibbu. form IV of habbu [fuibb], 

to love. See al .1:92. p. 192. n. 5). 
2 i.e.. the hypocrites cfc> not love you 
1 ijil Iflf u ■ ihey met, came across (v, iii. m. pt. 

pail from laaiya [liaa' I luqy&n Auqy Auqyah/ 
\uti(vt\ to meet. See al 2:76. p, 36. n. 1), 

4. ijl* khataw = they retired into privacy, 

secluded themselves, were alone, became vacant 
(v. iii, in pi. pas! from khah't [khu!u'Aha!a'\, la 
be empty Sec at 2:214. p. 103, n 3). 

5. i^ji*- 'addu = they bit, grabbed wilh iccth <v 
iii. rn pi past from 'udda \ "adtj/'adid\, to bite), 

6 J-'lii 'andmil (pi., sing, u-J i/nmu/ciA) = 
fingertips, 

7. ^-ghajz = rage, wrath, anger, fury, 

S. if iL, tudur (pi.: sing. ^ stutr) m breasts, 
bosoms, hearts, from, beginning, start See at 
3:29, p 166. n 10 

9 ^j— ~ fomsaiiu- tanuasu) = she touches , 

hits, afflicts (v, iii f. s. impfct. from man {mass 
Smash], to touch The last letter is voweltess 
\>akm ) for the verb is part of a conditional clause 
(preceded by rn). See at 3:24. p 1 64, n. 4) 

10. j-i lasa'lu) m she grieves, saddens, hurts (v. 

lit. f. s impfct ttam sou [sawfta'/masd'ah], to 
be bad). The final letter is vowel less for the verb 
is ihc conclusion of a conditional clause. 

1 1. ^—^ iHsibUaiibu) = she afflicts, befalls, ints 

(v iii f. s impfct. from 'OfSte form IV of wba 
liiarb/saybubuh \ . to hit the mark, to be right. Tne 
final letter is vowel less and hence the medial >u' 
is dropped for the vetb is part of a conditional 
clause. Sec 'tiitibal at 3:1 [7. p. 202. n.3J. 

12. lj»-/h yttfrahiUna) = tbey rejoice, become 

happy, delighted {v. iii. m. pi. impfct. frrmi/urrijiii 
\jaruh\, to be glad. The lernal nun is dropped . 
II. 'jArf !aiiaqu[nu! - you (all) beware, act 

righteously (v. ii m pi impfct. from ittuqd. form 
VIII of waqa ( wttqy /wiifHyah). to guard, 
safeguard. The terminal a&n is dropped!. 

14. jj^yedttrru u he or it harms, hurls, damages 

(v. iii. m s. impfcL from darra \darr], to harm. 
See at 2:102, p. 48, n 13) 

1 5. j^~ kayd - machination, plot, ruse. 



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204 



Survfi J: M fmrOn [Port (Ml 4] 



TO 1 



«*I»i Verily Allah is, 
L^Hj about what they do, 

AU-Encompassing. 

Section {Ruku') 13 
i[j 121. And (remember) when 
ojIjb y° u ' e f* ear ^y ' n me morning 2 
^A^lit your household 
itijjiifjf^ making the believers' 
*ji-ji |'j'^ take positions" for the battle- 
i^'^l, and Allah is A] I -Hearing, 
lie All-Knowing. 

^li^ 122. When there thought 5 
^=^qLU»tii two sections 6 of you 
^-i^ui to act cowardly 7 - 
C^ljiilj. and Allah is their Protector - 
Jpj£y* *»t Jej and upon Allah should rely 8 
oAjift the believers. 

&$^Jiijij 123. And indeed Allah had 
jJL given you victory* at Badr 
Ajjf ,,i;fj when you were despicable. 10 
[^JJ-iUjAjii So fear Allah that you may 
p oj^Zh express gratitude. 



1 t. i.e.. in knowledge. Jt« «ntiMf ■ one who 

closes in on,- surrounds, encompasses, 

J comprehensive. Active participle from "ah&ia, 

form IV of hdta |fcaw| /JifwA / ftiydftiA], lo 

encircle, enclose, guard. See at 1:19, p. ID, n. 12). 

2, ojj^ K huJuwla m you lefl early in the 
morning, (v. it. in. s. pasi from ^faorfu Ighuduw/ 
gtuidw/ gkudwuh], id go or come or be m lbs etuly 
morning). This and Ihe succeeding iiyiihi till 
'ayah I SO refer to the battle of "Uhud and related 
matters and allude to ihe battle of Badr and 
Allah's special help on that occasion by way of 
encouraging the Muslims 10 keep up their spirits. 

3 (SfJ tubawvi'u = you make (someone) take 
position, settle, put up, provide accommodation 
(v. ii. m. s. impl'ci. from tiawwa'u. form of ba 'a 
[ftiif'],ni be back. See ba'i ai 3:1 12. p. 199. n 
IT) 

4. Atfb maqa'id (pi.; sing, maq'sd) a positions. 

seals, places to nettle down (advert) of place on the 
scale uf mafat from qa'ada [qu "Qd\. to sil down). 

5. £•«■ hammai = she rlnuii , !u (of doing}, was 

;iboul K.>. »av concerned, worried (v in f s. past 
from hamma [hamm], to worry, to he important). 
The reference is here to what happened on the eve 
of the battle of 'Uhud as "Abd Allah ibn 'Ubayy. 
Ihe arch-hypocrite, suddenly withdrew with about 
one thousand of his followers causing concern 
among the Muslims, especially ihe Iwo clans of 
Hand Salimah and Band Hindu!). 

6 JtillV (a'ifaian = (dual: sing.uu, id'ifak: pi 
ftiwd 'if} = two sections of people, two sects, two 
group See tHifith *i 3:72. p. 183. a. 3, 

7. ILi* tafshati = Ihcy (two, fern.) lost bean, 
despaired, failed (v. iii. f. dual impfct. from 
fathitu Ifashal]. lo lose heart, be cowardly, fail). 

8> J*" r< yatawakkaHu) m he relics, depends, puts 
his [rust in. appoints as representative (v iii. m. s. 
impfcl. from {tmukkuiu, form V of waktita 
{wtikt/nukul], lo entrust). The final letter becomes 
vowelless < flkm ) fur (he particle 1dm uf command 
coming before ihe verb. 

9. f*i aasara = he helped, gave victory, assisted 

(V, iii. m. S, past from mur /na\ui. lo help See 
yaruuruna al 3: 1 1 1 , p. 199, n. 12). 
10 *)it "adhUlah (pi.; silSgJJ. dhaTit} = 

despicable, despised, lowly, contemptible. 



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Surah 3. 'At 'fmfSn [Part Uuz} 4] 



205 



Jiju j|. 124. And when you said 
ifejiis lo the believers: 
'JZJZj\ "Will it not suffice 2 you 
J3jjJ"lJ J that your Lord reinforce - ' you 
yjil dial with three thousand 
i^iili j* of the angels 
(p lAJ* being sent down?" 4 



125. O yes; if you persevere* 
and be on your guard, 6 

and they' come upon you 
at this very instant 8 of theirs, 
your Lord will reinforce 5 you 
with five thousand 
of the angels 
making their marks. 10 

126. And Allah set it not 
but as good tidings 11 for you 
and that reassured 12 might be 
your hearts thereby; 

and no victory can there be 

except from Allah, 
the All-Mighty, 
the All-Wise. 



; ft*, 



1 The address here is lo the Prophet, peace and 
blessings nf Allah be on him 

2 ^ji£i jatyr = if or he suffices, is enough (v, iii. 
m. impfct. from knfii \ UfByah], to be enough). 

3. Jjh yamidda{u) = he helps, .supplies, 

reinforces (v. iii. tn, s. impfct. from 'amadda, 
form JV of madda [madd], lo extend, to prolong 
See yamitddu at 2:15. p. 9. n. 3, The final teller 
takes falhah because of I he particle 'an coming 
before Ihe verb). 

*■ &>** '»""ts»ff« (occ fgtnJ of nutnmliiit, sing. 

manail) = the sent down on«, those descended 
(passive participle from 'lawalu, form IV of 
naiula [nuiil], to coine down. Sec 'umilai at 
3:65. p. LSI, n. 2). 

5. 'jj-a rorfciniiNdl - you have patience, 
persevere, hear calmly (v. ji, m, pi. impfct, from 
Utbara [aofef, to be palient. to bine). See libirin 
at 3:15,' p, 160, n. 10] The terminal nun is 
dropped for the verb is in a conditional clause 
[preceded: b> 'in). 

6. IjjL; fattaa-dtnu) = you all fear, be afraid of, be 

on your guard (v. li. m. pi. impfct. from mm/a 
form VIII of iirJi/r? [waijy/wiqiiyah\. to protect. 
The terminal nun is dropped far the verb is in a 
conditional clause (preceded by 'in ). See at 3:28. 
p. 166, n. S). 

7. ie, the enemies, 

8. ijjifawran = immediately : min fit*riiii/mm 

ttt-faw/'fttS aUfuw = instantly, at once. 
forthwith, straight away, immediately 

9. J-t-4 yumdid m sec yumiddu ai n. 3 above. 

The final tetter is rendered vowcllcs and hence not 
assimilated because the verb comes as the 
conclusion of a conditional clause 

10. jjj — ■ mwiBwwimfn {accJg.cn. of 

musuwwimun, sing, mumwwim = making marks, 
being distinguished (act. participle from 
sOwwtmp, form II of s&ma [sun.™], to impose, to 
mark. Sec masuwwamah at 3:14, p. 159. n. 16. 

1 1' sAi bashrd - glad tidings, good news. See 
at 2:97, p. 46, n, 9. 

12, Cr~^ tatrna'innaUi) = she is reassured, gets 
resu is at ease(v. iii. f. £.. impfct. from itnta'&mti. 
The final letter takes/artdJi because of a hidden 
'tut in ihe lam of motivation Hi in the sense of 
Iruy) coming before the verb. See yaltrw'innu at 
2:260, p. 135. n. II). 



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206 



Surah 3: 'Al 'Imran [Part (Juz'i 4] 



£&, 127. That He might cut off 
*jM ji L»PJ a part 2 of those who 
ij£iS" disbelieve 
^iSj! or repe I ' them d isg racef ut 1 y 
\£U-j so that they fall back 4 
0Z&& disappointed.* 

^A^-4 128. It is not for you 

*<i^Vf^ to determine anything; 
!$£$$ whether He forgives 6 them 
^jiljt or He punishes 7 them; 
^jjIj for verily they are 
^ £j>4& wrong-doers. s 

Zs\ 129. And to Allah belongs 
•Zj'^LiM^a all that is, in the heavens 
^j^'4W an d all that is m the earth. 
'A^iO-iilj^l He forgives whom He will 
itS j^iilj and punishes whom He will; 
jjil iuij ^d Allah is Most Forgiving, 



Most Merciful. 

Section {Raku ') 14 
i^^^jiiC^bj' 130. O you who believe, 
^}\\^kJc'i d o not devour^ usury 1 



ji' 



1 . ^Vij yatftu - u{u) = he cuts, cuts off. severs (v, 

iii. m s impfct from ^<ifd'« \aai'\, to cut . The 
lm.il letter takes /urta/i for a hidden 'an m the lam 
of motivation Ui meaning kuy jcoming before the 
verb. See \atfiu 'una at 2:27. p, 14. r. 10). 

2. i.e.. the unbelieving Makkan leaders. <*ijm 

(tore/" (sing.; pi. 'atrafj - part, utmost part, fringe, 
side 

3. "^~Si pakblla&i'i = he repels with disgrace, 
stifles, retrains (v. iii. hi. s impfct. from kabata 
[kabi], to stifle. The Tina] letter lakes faOuth for an 
implied "an in "aw coming before the verb) 

*• ***** yaaaaliMinti) = they turn, turn about, 
retreat, fait back (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from 
mqufaba. form VII of qtiluba [qalb], to trtlft, to 
turn about The terminal nun is dropped because 
of a hidden 'an in the fa before the verb, 

5. gj **■ knS'ibttt (acc/gen. of khU'ihin. sing. 

kha'tli) = disappui tiled, frustrated, thwarted, 
unsuccessful (active participle from ktuibti 
Ikhuybah}. to fail, la be disappointed. 

6, ^>r* jattiba(u) fc be forgives, he turns in, he 
returns (v. iii. m. s. imperative { from t&ba [lawh. 
limhah f mal&b\. to turn. The final letter takes 
fuilmh because of an implied 'an in 'on- coming 
before the verb) Technically Idba means, in 
respect of Allah, 10 turn in forgiveness and 
mercy; and ill respect of man. to turn in 
repentance and resolve lo reform. Sec laba at 
2:IS7.p. B9. n. 8. 

7 v-^i yu^adhdhtbaitt) = be punishes. 

penalizes, chastises, to menu (v iii. m. s. impfct. 
from 'udhdhaba, farm It [lu'ilhib] of 'adkuba 
| ntlhh]. lo impede, to obstruct. Sec at 2:2B4, p, 
151, n. 6. The final letter takes fatiwh because of 
the reason mentioned in the previous note) 

8. O^JOi lalimun (p|,; sing, pilim) = 

transgressors, wrong-doers, unjust persons. Active 
participle of miama \zulm\. to transgress, do 
wrong. See ifflimin al 3:94, p. 193, n. I. and 
wiimua al 2:229, p. U3, n. 9} 

9. tjlSl; la ta'kuid = you (all) do not eat, 

consume, devour [v. ii. m, pt. imperative 
{prohibition} from 'akala [ukttt/ma'leal], to eal. 
See al 2:188. p. 90. n.S). 

10. Itj riban = usury. Usurious interest, interest. 
See 2:275 and 280 



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Surah 3: 'Al 'Imrart [Part (Skz'}4| 



207 



iiii^iUiiji in doubles' compounded, 3 
'-djiiyw^j and be afraid 3 of Allah 
iS^liu^Clj that you might succeed. 4 



'.■i.*r^<' 



jlllUjiii) 131. And beware of the fire 
CUerot which has been prepared 5 
ftp jj&\ for the unbelievers. 



'^iji^lj 132. And obey* Allah 
i^j and the Messenger tha 
jj might be shown mercy. 7 



,C^=*U J^tfj and the Messenger that you 



-*-■'. > -'. 



^njc^j 133. And rush 8 towards 
^s^jj l ji# J iJw forgiveness from your Lord 
*jJ-j and a paradise 
W-V the width of which is 
^jV^tSju^Ji the heavens and the earth, 
iSi^ioIel prepared for the godfearing"- 



4 ii^| 134. Who spend l0 in 

JcU (i *^ f pfos^ri ly ' ' and ad versi ly , ' 2 

jI:^",' ,.L.£-i q and are in control 13 of anger, 

lg\M^. Ui^'i and forgiving 1 * to men. 
dJ&i And Allah loves 



1 Jk>l 'ad'Sf (pi , sing Ji"/) - doubles. 
multiples, See at 2:245, p. 57, n. 7. 
2, u^-4- muda'afah If.-, m j«* miiduaf) = 

compounded, increased many limes (passive 
panic iple fiom oVi'i^ii, font) 111 of ^fl'qfff [da/1. 
to double. See yiidd'ifu at 2:261. p. 1 36. n. 12). 
1 'ji? 1/i.nfd 3 you (all) beware, he on your 

gourd, fear, be afraid (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from 
iittiifu. form VIII of wuqd ( wiitiy/wiifayah). 10 
guard, safeguard See at 3:102, p. 196, n. I). 

4. O/^i: lujlihuna - you ijlli succeed, prosper 

(y. ii. m. pi. rnpfci from 'oflaha, form IV of 
/aJuAu (/dtt), lo split. Sec al 2:189. p. 91 , ft. 10). 

5. ojitl 'u'iddal = prepared, made ready (v. ill. f 

s past passive Ironi "a'aiidu, form IV of WtAj 
( WJj. to count. See at 2:24. p. 13, n, 3). 

6. y>[ 'ati'i a yon (alll obey , be obedient , 

follow (v. ii. m. pt. imperative from iil&'a, form 
[V of rd'u Trawl, to obey. See at 3:50, p/176, n. I. 

7. Oj— J turhamOna m you {all) are shown 

mercy (v. ii. m. pi. impfct passive from ruhima 
| ruhmiih I marhurruth\, to show mercy). 
K ijf-jU uui'ii - you (all) hurry, hasten, run, 

dash, rush (V. ii. m. pi- imperative hum sdra'a. 
form III of .mru'ti [liraVsur'ah], to be quick. See 
yuidri 'una al 3:114, p. 200, n 16), 

9. i j£. muttaqin - Sec n. 3 above and at 3:1 15, 

p. 201. n. 5: 3:76. p. I85,n,8). 

10. i.e., spend in the way of Allah, ia ejiarity. 
jjiij yunfiqdaa = Itiey spend, expend, disburse. 

lay ouc (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from unfaqa. form 
IV of mifuqu Imtftiq]. to be used up. See at 3: 1 17. 
p. 201 .nil; 2:273. p. 143. ft. 10). 

1 1 . J j- tarrS' - prosperity, happiness. 

32 .ij- darra' - affliction, suffering, illness, 

distress, adversity See al 2:214, p. 103, n. 6; 
1177, p. 84, a 3. 

13. jrJrtS" kazimi/t (ace /gen. of Jhirimiin. sing. 

kaym - those who keep calm ( in anger), are in 
control (of anger) (active participle from kazama 
[ka&n/kuplm], lo conceal or suppress). 

14. ^i** 'Sfln (accJgen-f of 'Afou, sing, a/in) - 
forgiving, excusing, pardoning (active participle 
from 'njti \'afw/af3']. to efface, lo forgive, See 
yv'funa at 2:237, p. 120. n. 4), 



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SQrult 3: At Imriin |Part Ijia }4] 
I- a*— 



the righteous. 1 
jjl j 1 35. And those who, 
ijiji^j fit if they do a vile deed 1 
^jiti^i^jl or do wrong 3 to themselves, 
^(fj^ij remember 4 Allah 
lYliLlS and ask forgiveness' 



rH*-} 



J for their sins 6 — 






>i » 



yjif j^ji'^jand who can forgive' sins 
-Li'i'i except Allah — 
ii^^Jj and do not persist* 
i^uuCi je in what they did 
[f^X^^j and they know. 9 



i&aS jjH 136. Such people, 



*l!v. their reward is forgiveness" 1 



■i"-j T^'Jj- f rom their Lord and gardens 
t^^cs Jf flowing" below them 

jf j' the rivers, 
Hi ^^*- abiding for ever 13 therein. 
^.Ipij And excellent is the reward 
uiUjiJi of the practising ones. 14 

iJ^j* 137. There have passed l3 



™ muhjiiri'n = (act /gen, of jnu/urfntfn. 

sing mu/r.tiMl n those who du right things, 
charitable (active participle Tram 'aiuana, form 
IV of hasana [Turin], to be good. See at 2:236, p. 
119, n 11} 

2. *Jj-ki fSMshah (pi i*-*y /awufiuAJ s vile 

deed, grave sin, monstrosity, adultery, fornication 
Scc/oAjW at 2:263. p. 140. n. 15. 

3. i.e., by committing any sin ij*JJ» zatonid = 

they transgressed, did wrong , committed shirt (v. 
iii. in pi past from ptlama Izalm/ptlm], to do 
wrong See jaffmfn at 3:94, p. 193. n. I). 

4. i.e.. they call to mind Allah ')y* dhakaru = 

liiey remembered, called to mind (v. iii. m. pi. past 
{torn dhakani {dhikr /tasthk&r\< to remember. See 
u<MAwiial2:23l.a M5.n 2) 

5. 'jj*^' 1 utaghfaiH = they asked for 

forgiveness (v. iii. m. pi. past from istughfara, 
foim X of glmfora [ghafr fmaghfirah /ghu/rdn\. 
to forgive. See iitagtifirii at 2: 199, p. 97, n 2). 

6 v/ J ilhuniib l.nl , sing, rfhnnb) - sins.. 

offences, crimes, misdeeds. 

7. >s yaghfim he forgives tv, iii. m s. impfct. 

from. £*»/«"'- See at 2:284, p, 15 1, n. 5), 

8. yBfirnJ(ivi) = ihey insist, persist (v, iii m pi 
impfct from 'asarra, form IV of surra 
\sarr/;arir\ to creak, to tic up. Tne terminal ndn 
is dropped because of the particle lam coming 
before the verb). 

9. i.e.. they arc aware and conscious of the 
offence and of the fault in persisting in it. 

10. iji^ maghfirah - forgiveness, pardon, 
remission See at 2:268, p. 1 14 1, it. 1. 

1 J. j/-; lajri - she or it runs, flows. streams (v, 

rii. f, s. irnpfcl. from jara [fury], to flow. Sec at 
3:15. p. ISO, n. S; 2:265, p. 139. n. II) 

12. j$ anhar {sing, naftr) = rivers, streams. 
Sceat2:25.p r 13. n 8. 

13. j*jJ^ khStuitn - living for ever, 

everlasting, eternal See at 3:87, p. 190, n 5} 

14. (yiW*- 4 <bmtbt (accJgen. of 'imtlim, sing, 

'unirl) - the practising ones, (he doers (acl 
participle from '(jmiiu [Vinui], to act). 

] S. islrt tchatat - she passed . passed away. See 
at 2: 141, p. 66. n. 10) 



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SOmh 3: At ImrOn [Part(jMZ) 4J 



209 



j^P^-iij; before you ways of deal ing; ' 
J^ji^bj^j so travel through 1 the earth 
jb^JtjijjJiAt and see* how was 

jiyjS5!Jtiifr the end 4 of the unbelievers/ 



<iOjS» ] 38. This 6 is a statement 7 



u;^ for mankind. 
*&e'i*3<£^} and guidance and advice 8 

9 



$£j*l£l for the godfearing. 



\£M) 139. And do not fee) small 10 



'^'j^i'i nor be sad; 1 



OjjvWi~;^ f° r y° u w ^ ^ tne superiors 11 
j^+yij^jfjl 'f y° u a™ believers. 



Zj£)\ 140. If there has touched 1 ' 
pj you a sore,'* 
,JSjj& then there already has hit 
fXJ^f^Jf'^ ^e people' 5 a sore like it; 

rM^^iij ^ sucn are ^ e ^ a y s ^^ 

j-^lf^l^jjij- We alternate 16 among men, 
iaiiLXJ j and that Allah may know 17 
ijUC ^,-il those who believe 






1. i.e.. Allah's dealing wilh the unbelievers. ^-* 

lunan (pf: sing, sunnah) = ways or dealing, 
usages, practices norms 

2. i JjK - (hi ■ you (all) travel, go about, journey 

(V ii. rn. pi, imperative from siira [sayr hayrurah 
/ masir /masiraA/taiyfir) to move, to travel), 

3. '.,,-Vi uniuni b you (all) see. look at. observe 

(v. ii rn pi. imperative from niHOtO 
[na7jt4r/manuir], to sec. See yanzwunu at 2:210. p. 
100. n- 14). 

4. IH* iqibah (s., pi. yiy YmviL/rtO a end. 
outcome, upshot, consequence, effect, result 

5. j^i^" mukadkdliibin (ace. /gen. of 

makudhdhibun. sing, mukadhdhib) b those who 
cry lies (!o), unbelievers (active participle from 
kiidhdhttba. Form II or kadhiba [kidhb /hulhih 
/kadhhah I kidhbah\, to lie. See kadkdhabu at 
3:11. p. UK. n H 
o. i.e., this Qur^n. 

7. JrV) 6en?urr = statement, declaration, 
communique. 

8. iU* j_ mt^'izan (pi. mdivii'jj) = advice, 
exhortation, counsel. See at 2:275. p. 144, n. 10. 

9. nfr mattaqin , see 3: 133, p, 207, n. 9. 

10. i>+5 "i IS lahinu = do not feel small (v. ii. m. 

pi. imperative [ prohibition! from h&nu \hawn\, to 
be easy, be of little importance. See muhin at 2: 90, 
p. 43, n. 7). The reference is to the temporary 
setback of the battle of 'Uhud and such situations 

1 1. Iji;*i V Id lahzanH = you (all) da not be sad. 

do not grieve (v, ii, in. pi. imperative [prohibition) 
from (m'tiiiu [huzji/faazan], to be sad See 
yatwjinun at 2:276, p. 143, n. 9) 

12. ijLst a'lawna (pi.; sing.JfT 'a'ld ) = higher 
ones, superiors, victors, 

1 3. lJ _ i yamsas (yamussu from yamasu)= be 

touches, feels (V, iii. rn. S. impfct. from maim 
[mass/mtuiz], to feci, to touch. The final letter IS 
vowcllcss tiukin) for the verb is in a conditional 
clause (prcoeded by 'in) See at 3:47, p 174, n, 1 ). 

14. ^y qarh (pi, ifuruh) = wound, ulcer, sore. 

15. i.e., the Makkan unbelievers at Badr. 

16. Oji-ii nuddniu ■ we alternate, rotate, cause 

to come hy turn (v. i. in. pi. imprci. from d&wala. 
form III of data [dawl/dawlah\, to rotate. 

17. i.emay make known: for Allah knows 
everything, open or secret. 



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210 



SSrah 3: Al Vmrdn [Fan (Jm) 4] 



pC- i~ j and may take 1 from you 



sTi^. martyrs; 



.^O/'iLvj and Allah does not like 
pi>jjill the wrong-doers. 



Att ^ny. . .' ,j 










vM'&£i\%j 










141. And that 
Allah may refine* 
those who believe 

and eliminate 4 the infidels. 

142. Or do you think' 

that you will enter 6 paradise 
while Allah not yet knows 7 
those of you who fight" 
and knows the steadfast?' 

143. You had indeed been 
wishing 10 for death" 
before meeting it; 

now you have just seen it, 
and you were looking on. 

Niriii.iiiAtoftjri 15 

144. And Muhammad is not 
any more than a Messenger. 



1 . Jul* Yaltakhidhotu) = he lakes, he lakes Id 

himself (v. iii. in s. impfct, in Farm VIM of 
tikhadha \,i>Ju!h\ lo take. Set al 2:165. p. 77, n. 
10- The final leuer talcs fttikih because of the 
particle Lim with implied 'an (Ii in ihc sense of 
kay. i.e., lam of motivation) coming before the 
previous verb to which this verb is conjunctive!. 

2. i'J+i shukmlS" [sing, shahid) = witnesses, 
martyrs. Sec al 2:133, p 63. n. 1. 

3. ^.*~* yumaMtisaiu) = he refines, purines, 

rectifies, (v. iii. m. s. impfct. Tram mahitasa, form 
II of mahasti lmata). to purify, to render clear. 
The final letter takes fttihah for the reason stated 
at n I above). 

4. jm*j yamtmqa[u) = he eliminates, effaces, 

erases, eradicates, annihi lales, exlerminalcs, 
destroys (v. iii. m. s. impfct. from mahaqa 
[maht)\, lo efface. The final letter has taken fathah 
for Ihe reason slated al n, 1 above). 

5. <w~»- (uuibtum = you (all) calculated. 

reckoned, thought, deemed (v. ii. m, pi. past from 
httS<iba{timti/ltisM>], lo calculate. See at 2:214. p. 
103. n. 2). 

6. \^*-js tadkhuliUfia) = you (all) enter, gel into 

[v. ii. m. pi. impfct from dakimla [ilukhiil], to 
cnler. The terminal nun is dropped because of the 
panicle 'tin coming before the verb. Sec dukhahi 
at 3-37, p. 170, n 1). 

7. i.e., makes known, for He knows everything. 

8. i jo*u jSkadu = they fought, struggled hard, 

strove (v. iii m pi- past from j/thadii, font! Ill of 
jahuda \jatd], lo slrive. See at 2:2 IS. p 106. n 
5) 

9. i.e.. steadfast in the hour of trial and fighting 
jjijLt J&birtfi (ace Jgen. of sobirin, pi. of fuhir) 

m the palient, persevering, steadfast (active 
participle from sabam [$uhr\. patience, 
forbearance Sec at 3:142. . p. 160, n, )0). 

10. iljvJ lamanaavaa (originally 
laliimannawna) = you wish, desire, yearn (v ii. m 
pi. impfct. from tamimnd, form V of auma 
[maw? many\, to put to test, tempt. See 
yatamtmnawna U 23S,p. 45, n. S). 

1 1. i.e., you had been eager for meeting the 
enemies and attaining martyrdom. The ayah 
refers lo the state of feeling of a section tif the 
Muslims before the battle of Thud and after it 



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Sarah 3: Ai Imrdn [Part Uui) 4] 



211 



'1><. 



ja There have passed away 1 
J-^4po- before him the Prophets. 
±^*j\cj\Z$Ji If then he dies or is killed, 
*^*»ji will you turn round 
fS^'ZJP on your heels?' 
yj,> -tjj-3 And he who turns round 4 
*Zl*-& on his heels 
*if J^j& will not harm'Allah 

iijl whatever, 
'^f^^lj And Allah will reward 6 
xtl*j<~=t*\\ the grateful. 7 

Svl»Uj 145. And it is not possible 

*J for any being that it dies 

jilCpU^ except by Allah's leave — 

■)4-3iu^ as a writ 8 fixed in time. 5 

»j» ^_^S And whoever desires 10 

CJlOy the reward 1 ' of this world 

££**£ > We shall give him of it; 

*£ jij and whoever desires 

&H5-* Lj ; > the re w ard of the heieaf te r 

£; »***£ We shall give him of it; 

^f>— -j and We shall reward 
©S^^i the grateful, 



1. uJ* khalat - she passed . passed away. 

became empty, became alone, went privately (v. 
in f i pasl liinu khniu [kjwiu'/khala'} See al 
3:137. p.' 206. n. I5>. 

2. tifM inqalablum - you (all) lurried round. 

turned, turned about, retreated, fell basic (V || m 
pi. past from inqalaba. form Vlt of qalaba 
\qatt>\. to Inrn, to turn about. See yanqaithu at 
J: 127. p, 206. n. 4) 

3. i^/MiX 'a'q&b (pi.; sing, 'ttaib) = heels, ends. 

A. — *, yanqalih; u i m he truns round, turns. 

turns about (v. iii, m. s. impfct. from ifujalaba. 
See n, 2 above]. The final letter is voweteles^ 
HMtn) because the verb is pan of a conditional 

clause (preceded by man) 
5. fit yadurraiu'i - he harms, damages, hurts, 
adversely affects Iv. iii. m. s. impfct. front darrii 
[darr], to harm. See at 3:120, p. 203, n. 14. The 
final letter takes ftuhah because of ihc particle Ian 
coming before the vert) ) 

6 tSyt yajri - be rewards, teeompenses, 

requites, repays (v, iii. m. s. impfct. from juza 
\ju-u'\, to reward. See foyjial 2:123. p. 58. n. 6). 

7 ^t/\± th&kiiin (accigen. of shdktrun, sing. 

skakir\ = appreciative, thankful, grateful. Active 
participle from shakara [shukr /ihukrdn], to 
titanic . See shakir at 2:158. p. 75, n, I). 

8. lyli" kilAb = writing, writ, book., document, 

contract. The ayah reminds ibal none can die 
except by Allah's will and leave and therefore 
Muslims should not hesitate to fight in the way of 
Allah for fear of death. 

9. J»-y ma'ajfal = fused in time, deferred, 

postponed, delayed, dcadlined, Passive participle 
from 'ajjaki. form tl of "ajita [ 'aja!\, to linger. 

1 0. j> yurid lyundu^ he intends, desires, has in 

mind (v. iii. m. s. impfct. form 'ardda. fox IV 
from radii [rawd], to walk about. The final letter 
becomes vowelless (sdkin) and so the medial yu" 
is dropped because the verb is in a conditional 
clause (preceded by man ) See yuridu at 3:108. 
p. 198. n 6). 

11. i/ly thar/Sb = reward, recompense, requital 

mtjtt = we te*ard, recompense, requite (v. i pi. 
impfct. from jmd [/orf'l, to repay. Sec yajii at n. 
6 above). 



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212 



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SHraiil. At 'Jmnfe (Part (../«") 4 1 



J-Crt^S 146. And how many a 
Jlii^iJ Prophet waged war, 1 
j^Jj 0^* with him devout savants 3 
j& in numbers; 
b^jUi but they did not languish^ 
^LJ HJ f or what afflicted'' them 
^■y^fl*! in the way of Allah; 
ijitSUj nor did they become weak 5 
ij^Bsl— iL-j nor did they give in. 
IjjcZ&Lf*^') And Allah loves the patient.' 



.LjJjioSuj ] 4"7- And they uttered nothing 
L^jijJlijTyi except saying: "Our Lord, 

£*y ju^ijtl forgive us our sins 
^Itjtii^ij and our excesses 10 in our act. 
bJail c^j and make firm 1 ' our feet 12 
JpL^iifj and give us victory 13 over 
it££=u\^\ the infidel people." 



ill^ta 148. So Allah gave them 
(l%C,\y the reward of this world 

r'lyc^-j and the fairest reward 14 

%Aj V^ifi of the hereafter; and Allah 
,. X \}4 i loves the righteous. 15 



1 , JAJ q&iata - he fought, battled, waged war (v. 

iii, m. s. past in farm lit of </'""■'" ly<"f). to kill 
See yuqutili al 3' 1 1 1 . p. 199, n. 9). 

2, Jjjj ribbfyy&n (pi.; sing.^j ribbiyy) = devout 
savants, large bands 

3, ijjj, wahaaS - they lust heart. Celt ran down. 

languished (v. in. m. pi past from wakana 
[tnihti]. tn lit weak, to languish). 

4 — '— ■' 'asatm Ik.' ur it hit. reached, affected, 
befell, afflicted (v. iii_ m. s pwi in form fV ol 
nieVi |imWi /smbObuH |, to hit, to be tight, See al 
2:265. p. I39.n.2j. 

5. V.)"-* fa'ufH - they became weak, feeble, 
languid (v ill m. pi past from da' Ufa \du'fi^u'f\, 
to became weak) 

6. ij;t<i-i irra££jiu a they gave tit, yielded, 

surrendered (v. in. in pi pas! from uuik&nu, form 
X of faint! t*ow«j, to be ), 

7. i.e., steadfast in ihe hour of dial and fighting. 

_*/-* s<JWrfn (acc/gen or jdWWta, pi. of jufw>] 

= the patient, persevering, steadfast (active 
participle from sabum [sabr], patience, 
forbearance Sec at 3: 142, . p. 160, n. 9). 

8. /»> ijA/Sr = you forgive, pardon (v, ii. m. s. 
imperative from ghafara [ghafr /ghafran f 
mashftrah}. to forgive. See at 2:286. p 153. n. 7). 

9. •vyi dhunub (pi.: sing ilhtmby - sins, 
offences, crimes. See al 3:135, p 20$, n 6, 

10. i_h^i isrSf a intemperance, extravagance, 
waste, i m moderateness excesses, transgression, 

11. CnJ thabbit m {you} make firm, stabilize. 

strengthen (v. ii. m, s, imperative from thabbata. 
form II of ihi/biiin [ ilru!>,'u/thuhui]. ts> stand lirm 
See at 2:250. p. 127. n. 10). 

L2. i.e.. oui stand in fighting against the enemies. 
fU»t aqdom [pi , sing, tfadam) m feet, steps. 

!3. j*i uRiur = (you) give victory, help (v. h, 

rn. s, imperative from itu.ru™ [nujr/nj>ju>], to 
help, to give victory. See al 2:286. p. 153, a. 10). 

14. i.e., paradise 

15. (>>■■*■" muTm'nln = (ace, /gen. of muA.nni/n 

sing. nttrA,riB) = those who do right things, 
righteous, Chun table (active participle from 
"ahsana, form IV of hasuna \hitin], to be good. 
Sec at 3:134. p 208, n I). 



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Strait 3: At ImrSn [Pw Um ) 4] 



ZI3 






~*s>*- 






Section {Ruku') 16 

149. you who believe, 
if you obey' 

those who disbelieve 
they wiil drive you back 2 
on your heels -1 

and then you will turn back 4 
as losers, 5 

150. Nay, Allah is 
your Guardian-Proteor; 6 
and He is the best of 
helpers.' 



1 5 1 . We shall plunge* 
in the hearts of those who 
disbelieve 

panic; 5 for they set partners 10 
with Ailah, for which 
He had not sent down 
£J}JlL any authority; 11 

and their abode 12 will be 



**i*^S*f? 






the fire; and bad will be 

the habitation 11 
of the transgressors. 



I lj*Jd turi'u\na) = you (all) obey, comply wilh, 

accede to (v. i i . in pi knpfcl. from ufua, form 
IV or td'n [law'], lo obey. The terminal niin is 
dropped because [he verb is in a conditional clause 
(preceded by in}. See at .1:100. p. 195. n, 2. 

2. \p A yaruddu(nu} = (hey drive back, put back. 

send back, repel (V iii, rrt pi, impfcl. from radda 
Iriii/i/j, Hi put back The terminal nun is dropped 
because the verb is the conclusion of a conditional 
clause. Stt ytinidd&rta at 3:100. p. 195, n. 3). 

3. i.e.. they will make you revert to unbelief. 
-j'-kj-' 'u'tjah (pi,; sing, 'aifib) = heels, ends. Sec at 
3:144. p. 21 1, n. 4. 

4. ijXU ianqal\biHna\ = van lum round, turn 

buck, lum about (v. ii. m. pi, impfct. from 
inqalabti, form VII of qalaha \qulh\, to lurn. (a 
turn about. The terminal niin is dropped Sin the 
verb comes as conclusion of a conditional clause. 
See yanqalsba at 3: 1 27, p. 206, n. 4). 

5. ,*•■*** kliSsirfn (acc/gen. of ifcfctfjirtui. sing 
tAiitij-) a losers, those in loss, those thai incur loss 
(active participle from khaswa [kfuur /khasar 
Mmsamh /khusr&n) lo lose. See at 3:86, p. 1 89, n. 

5). 

6. ^y> mawi& = Lord-Psotecior, Guardian- 
Prolccior. Sovereign, Sec at 2:2116, p. I S3, n. D , 

7. mf*h nasirm (acc/gen. Of mlsir^n. Sing. 

NSfir) = helpers, protectors, assistants (active 
participle from nasttra [nasr/ mtiur), to help. See 
at 3 91, p. 192, nj). 
K jU nu/^f = We throw, cast, fling, plunge (v. 

tH m. pi tmpfct, from 'aiqd . form IV of Ittqiya 

[liqtY /luqyun/hiqy/laqyah/luqeiii], to meet. See 
yulqina at 3:44, p. 173, n, I ). 

9. ■-^■j m'b= terror, panic, frighl, alarm. 

10. ijfjri' "aihraku - they set partners, 

associaled, gave a shore (v. iii, m. pi past from 
'ushrukn. form IV of iharika [ Jthirk/tharikah]. to 
Share. See nasnrika at 3:64, p. 1 30. n. 6), 

11. uOJ- sultan = authority, mandate. 
authorization, power, might, rule, dominion. 

12. tfjU ma'weut m place of refuge, abode, 
shelter, retreat, habitation. 

13 <Sr" utathwau - habitation, resting place, 
dwelling, abode. 



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2J4 



Sarah i; Al 'Imran [Part (/^') 4] 



UJI^l^liJj ]52. And true indeed Allah 
?j-L&j| proved to you His promise 
r+-jl£3i\ when you were killing 1 them 

T^jL by His leave, 
/-Lli 'Jl T^fc till you lost vigour 3 
/jl j &*^} and disputed about the order 

y'^ rj and disobeyed' 1 
■£jjTC jJ^^J after that He had shown you 
^^jOU what you love. 
i^^-^^i There are among you those 
jl^jliJL.j; J who desire ?his world, and 
^ p==c** there are among you those 
•^-j^l-L^ who desire the hereafter, 
ft— ^j ^'jS Thereafter He diverted 5 you 
y^r- from them 
^ii-"j that He might test 6 you; 



'* *■ 



JotLiiuIiij and indeed He forgave you; 






*l)lj 



and Allah is Full of Grace 



J^¥i\& u P on tne believers. 

ii 153. When 

^>i^j£ you were running 7 uphill and 

f&ifc&$5% were not caring 6 for anyone; 
j >•*♦{* while the Messenger 



IV 



ij-^5 taftuuiijia ■ you (all) kill, extirpate 
ii. m. pi. impfct from Aawu [hisie/haxs]. to 



mate a rue's perceiving power dead, i.e.. to til!). 
The 'Ayah refers to the hatile of 'Uhud The 
Ptophct, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, 
placed a selecl band of 50 archers on lop of a 
strategic hill at the field Of 'Uhud to guard the 
rear of the Muslim array, instructing them not to 
leave iheir position whatever happened in the 
field of battle. Soon the enemy tanks were broken 
and they retreated in all haste, the Muslims 
pursuing [hem and capturing booty. At this Sighl 
the archers, excepting some ten of I hem. left their 
position to collect booty, Noticing this the enemy 
cavalry appeared from the rear, attacked the 
Muslims and killed a number nf them including 
Ham/ah (ra.J. The Prophei himself, peace and 
blessings, of Allah be on him, was wounded This 
and the following few 'ayahs remind the Muslims 
that what had happened io liiem was due to their 
disregard of the instructions given to them. 

2. f-iii feshittum = you (all) lost vigour, lost 

heart, despaired, failed [v ii m, pi, past from 
fashila Ifashall, to lose heart, be cowardly, fait. 
See tefshutH at 3: 1 22. p. 204. n. 7). 

3. *3*jM lanaza'lam = you fall) disputed, 

contended, contested, attempted to wrest (from 
one another} (v. ii. m. pi. past from lan&ta'a. 
form Vf of nam'n [naz'\. to putt out, to remove. 
10 lake away. Sec lanzi'u at 3:26, p. 165. n. 3). 
1 4. j^nt -d fay rum = yuu tall) rebelled, defied, 

disobeyed (v. ii. m. pi. pas] from '<utf I isyaW 
ma 'pyahl, to rebel, to oppose, to disobey, to defy. 
See asaw al 3: 1 1 2, p 200, n. 4). 
5- k>>» sarafa = he turned away, diverted [v. iii. 
m. S, pas! from surf, to turn, to turn away). 

6. ^i jrabtaliya = he tests, trie.-., afflicts (v. iii. 

m. s. impfct, in farm VIII of hulu [baiiv / bula'\. 
lo test, to try. The final letter lafcei faihtth because 
of a hidden an in t&m (li) coming before the 
verb. See ibiala at 1: 1 24. p. 58. n. 12). 

7. O j i' « > tus'iduna = you (all} go upwards, 
ascend, run upland, (v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 
'at 'adii. form IV of sa ida [su ud\. to climb) 

g. jjjli talwi'imi = you turn, twist, look back, 

avert, ihink back, pay attention or heed lo. care (v 
ii. m. pi. impfct. from rVjini [layy/lawy], io turn, 
to bend See yuhvuna al 378, p. lfifi, n, 2), 



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Surah 1:AI Imrdn [Fart Vtti') 4] 



215 






". fc* 






SJ, < »W r* 






was calling 1 you in your rear. 
So Allah requited 2 you 
with one distress' for another 
so that you lament not over 
what slipped away" 1 from you 
nor over what befell 5 you. 
And Allah is All-Aware 
of what you do. 
154. Then He sent down 6 on 
you, after the distress, 
security 7 - somnolence* 
overcoming 9 a group 10 of you, 
while another group, 
whose selves worried 1 ' them, 
thought 12 about Allah 
that which was not right - 
a notion of ignorance. 
They said; "Have we any part 
in the matter whatever?" 
Say:" Verily the matter solely 
belongs to Allah," 
They hide lj wilhtn themselves 
what they express" not to you. 



I \ l- , .it i hi.- hunk- rich! of Uhud f-M yad'u = 

he calls, invites (v. Ms. m. s. impfel. from da'd 
[dud], 10 calf, See yad'ind 4! 3:104. p. 197. n.2). 

2. tytf aihaba - he requited, rewarded, repaid, 

(v. in. ra s. past in form IV of thaba \thtmb], to 
come back . See thawOh at 3 : 1 45, p. 2 1 1 , n. 1 1 ). 

3. fj- ghatam - grief, affliction, distress 

4. i.e.. or victory and booty for their disregard 
of Hie Prophet* instructions, oli ftta = he 

slipped away, escaped, eluded (v. lii m. s. past 
from favulfuwdl, to pass away, slip away). 
5 —\-J 'asaba a he hit, reached, befell. 

afflicted [V. iii. m. 1 pas! in form IV of st'ihu 
\itin-b /sciybubah 1, to hit, in be right. See asahat 
n't 3: 1 I7,p, 20a.n.3), 

6. J>t "mzala = he sent down (v. iii. m, s, 

impfel in form IV of nmala [ttuzul], to Come 
down. See at 3:7, p, 1 56, n. 1). 

7. fcJ 'umanah = 'amn = security, safety, peace, 

8. u rU; nu'os - somnolence, sleepiness, 

drowsiness After the Prophet had withdrawn UV 
Muslims lo safety in the valley of 'Uhud- The 
Muslims had a spell of somnolence which 
recouped their energy 

'■ u 1 ** yt*ghsk& = be covers, overcomes (V. iii. 
m s, impfel. from ghashiya \xtmshy/ghishawah\, 
to cover. See ghishtiwuh at 2:1. p. 6. n 8). 

10. ti"U» ffl'i/oA (pl.jSji lowii'if) = section of 
people, sect, group, band. See at 3:72. p. 1 83. n. 3. 

11. i.e., the hypocrites. ^-»*' 'ohommsi - she 

concerned, preoccupied, worried, distressed, 
affected (v Mi f. s. past from '{ihsmma, form !V 
of htimnm [iiiimm/mfihamiruttrl, lo distress). 

12. j J*i yazunniina = ihey suppose, conjecture, 

think, alio, lliey firmly believe (v. iii. m. pi. 
impfel. from zanna \cann], lo firmly believe, to 
suppose. See .it 2:249^ p. 127, 11, 3). 

13 ^j^ij yukhf&na = ihey hide, conceal, secrete 
(v iii. m. pi. impfci. from 'akhfil fonii IV of 
kkafiya {khafa'/khifah/khufyah], to be hidden. 
See tukhf, at 3: 1 IS, p. 202, n 15). 

14. <jj^ yubduna = they express, make known, 
disclose |v iii. m. pi impel from abtlfi, form IV 
of badO (.bud&ww/budd ') , to appear, lo become 
clear. Sec tobttii at 2:2:284, p, 151. it. 2). 



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216 



Surah 3: At 7m/wi (Part <Jw') 4] 






They say: "Had we had 
in ihe matter any part, we 
would not have been killed 1 
in here." 

Say: " Even if you had been 
in your homes, there 
surely would have come out 2 
those on whom was decreed 
the killing 
to their dying-spots; 
and that Allah might test 4 
what is in your breasts 5 
and that He might rectify" 
what is in your hearts. 
And Allah is All-Knowing 
of what is in the breasts. 



■3^4 155. Verily those who 
sfc^igj turned away" of you 

' ly on the day 
ZiS jjJI me t w ° hosts 9 met,' 

■:-* there only toppled 10 them 
*,; Satan 



j25i 






Si 1 



-^ because of some of what 
ptf-a v ^*^ they had acquired" {of sin); 
"-^ilix-jSlj but Allah has forgiven them 



1. Ua qutilnl - we wtrc lei lied, slam, put in 

death (v. i, pi pail passive, from ifuiulu \uutl\, to 
kill. See q&tuUim 3:146. p. 212. n I), Thii pan of 
ihe ViyuA speaks about the nimmu rings uf the 
hypocrites after the battle o f ' Uhud . 

2. jji baraza m he came nut, appeared, emerged 

(v iii m 5 past from baruzu \buru::\, to come 
into view, See bura.ua at 2:250, p. 127, a. SI 
J. j»U. madajt' (pi., sing, £— - <rW/« ") = beds, 

couches, places Tor lying down. dying-Spots 
(adverb of place from daja'a \daj'/duJS'\, lo lie 
down, lie on one's side). This part of the 'ayah 
stresses thai life And dtalh is in Allah's Hand and 
none can avert, hasten or delay it. 

4. jk, yabtaliya = he tests, tries, afflicts {v. m. 

in. s. impfct. in form VIII uf futlii \balw /bald'], 
lo try The Tina) letter lakes futhah because of a 
hidden im in fans [It m the sense of kuy) coming 
before ihe verb See at 3: 152, p, 2 14. n. 6). 
5 jjx^ mdur (pi.; sing.^- wit?) - breasts. 

chests, bosoms, hearts, from, beginning, start. Sec 
at 3: J 19, p. 203. n.S. 

6, u»»*H yamafiijisaW a be refines, purifies, 

rectifies, puts righl (v iii. m. s impfct. from 
muhhiisa, form II of nmhajn \nrnh.\], to |>urilY. to 
render clear. The final Idler takes futhah because 
of the reason mentioned at n. 4 above. See at 
3:141. p. 210. n S) 

7. ijiji tavallan- = [bey turned aw»y. domed, 
refrained (v. iii m pi post from tattiiiUu, form V 
of inoflya, id be near. See ai 3:32. p. J6S, n 2), 

8 JW* jam' an (dual tif ^- jam") ■ two hosts, 

Iwo gatherings. The reference is 10 the encounter 
of the two armies of the Muslims and the Makkan 
unbelievers al 'Uhud 

9. jiJ< iliaqi - be met, encountered, confronted 
(v iii. in s, post in form VIII of tnqiya \iiqa' 
/tut/van Auay /luqyah /Im/ari], to meet. See 
illaqalaatl \3, p. 159, n 2). 

10. J^l ixtezalla n be caused lo stip/ err, 

lopplcd (v. iii hi. S, post in form JC of mlla 
\. w aliil\. lo slip, stumble, lo commit an error. See 
'amllit at 2:36, p 19, n. 6) 
1 1., i^—i" kasabu m they earned, acquired, 

gained, gathered (v iii m. pi past from kaiabo 
[kieb], lo gain See at 2:64, p 138. n. 10). 



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SGrtih 3: 'At -Imran [Part Uuz) 4] 



217 



^*oi Verily Allah is 

* j ' 

jjj* Most Forgiving, 

|SjL£ Most Forbearing 



Section {Ruku') 17 

(£&&jf <i% I56 - ° y° u who brieve, 
itMifpsy do not be like those who 
yUjij^-i? disbelieve and say 



ifyt^J'j^ to their brethren 1 when 
tjijityjgj*' they travel ihrougtr the earth 
i>>iiji6j1 or are out on fighting:* 
uxciyS^ "if they remained with us 



ri,*^ 



ijlLU they would not have died 



'* i 



\& {*'} nor be en killed" 4 - 
JU'i'IifjiiJ so that Allah might make it 
p£*"<I'j—* a regret in their hearts; 

.^ciJlj for Allah gives life 6 



tit* 

■Oil. 






and causes death: 7 and Allah 



o^lIo£-> is about what you do 
0%J> All-Seeing. 8 
,*-**? o*lj 157. And if you are killed* 
• jl ^i^t—sJ in the way of Allah or die, 
*il^#iiJ surely forgiveness from Allah 
jii.ili.jj and mercy are better 



1 The 'ayah refers to what (he Madman 
unbel icvci 1 i and hypocrites said in iheir fellow 
unbelievers and hypocrites afler ihe temporary 
set-hack for (he Muslims at the battle of 'Uhiiii 
ilyii 'ifcfcvijn (pi,; sing,-' 'uJkfc ) = brethren, 
brothers 

2 l>j> darabu =lhey struck, hit. beat (v. hi. m 

pi, past from dtirbu !<hir!>\ to beat Ihu-bu n 
nl- unl it an idiomatic expression meaning to 
travel, to go about in the land, especially for trade 
or in search of livelihood- See at 2:273. p. 173, p. 
4). 
-1. iSji-ghuusn (originally ghuzuh, sing ghoyni 

= fighters in the way of Allah Active participle 
from gfuad {ghuitr], to strive, to conquer!. 

4. ijJii furi/li - ihey were killed (v. iii, m. pi. past 

passive from qasula \utut\ to kill. See qatilna at 
3:154, p. 216. n. I). 

5. i.e.. such thoughts and want of faith on their 
pan might be a cusc of regrets Tor ihcm in the long 
ran (Sec Al-Tabari, pt. IV, p. 148; At-Baht. Ill, 
402). ij^r hasrah (pi. -^j*- haxur6t)= rcgfcl, 

lamentation, grief, sorrow, distress. See httsarQt at 
2: 167, p 79,11.4). 

6. j»* >uA^r ■ he gives life, brings to life, 

animates, reanimates, revivifies (v. iii. nt. s. 
impfel from uhyii, form IV oi linyiyn \)wyah\. lo 
live See at 2:259. p. 134, n. 9), ' 

7. c^t yumtiu - he causes death, puts to death 

(v. iii. m. s impfct from omnia, form IV of 
mtUii \nuiwi\, lo die. Sec at 2:237. p. 133. n. 5), 

8. ^--r hafr ^All-Seeing, All-Observing. See at 

2:255, p. 139, n 7). 

9. While the previous Hyah disapproves of the 
conduct of the unbelievers and hypocrites and 
asks the Muslims nol lo be like them, the present 

'uyuA encourages the Muslims to keep up their 
spirits and participate en thus iai teal ly in the 
fightings for the cause of Allah, assuring Ihcm 
that if they were killed or died in the way or Allah 
they would be rewarded with Allah's forgiveness 
and mercy, i e. janntih, which are far better than 
what the unbelievers and hypocricls accumulate of 
sins and worldly gains. (See AUTabari. pi IV. 

149: Ai-Btihr, lit, 404-405) ^ qutiltum = you 

(all) were killed, slain, put lo death (v. ii. m, pi. 
past passive horn yataiti [<jt)lt\, to kill. See n, 4 
above). 



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Surah 3: 'Al imraa [Pari (J«) 4] 






I 






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lJUe 






1». 









than all that they amass. 1 

158. And if you die 2 

or are killed, surely to Allah 
you all will be assembled." 1 

159. And by Allah's mercy 
you became soft 4 with them; 
and had you been rude* 
being hard-hearted, 6 
surely they would have 
dispersed 7 from around you. 
So condone 8 them 

and ask forgive ness'for them 

and consult 10 them 

in the affair: 

and if you take a decision" 

rely 12 on AUah. 

Verily Allah loves 

the relying ones.'' 1 

160. If Allah helps you 
none can overcome you; 
and if He abandons 15 you, 
then who is there 



1. j^h yajina'tina - they (all) accumulate. 

gather, collect, amass, bring together (v. hi m. pi. 
impfct- from jamtt 'a \jam'\, lo gather, to collect) 

2. i.e.. if you die in the natural process, 

3. i.e., on tlie Day of Judgement fot assessment 
and reward. ^jj-J^J tuhshariinn a you are 

gathered, collected, assembled, mustered, herded 
(v. ii. m pi. impfct. passive from fuuhara [haskr], 
to gather, See at 3:12, p. 158, n. 7), 

4. This "Syah alludes In the Prophet's moderation 
in dealing with those who disregarded his 
instructions it the battle of 'Uhud. liJ linta = you 

became soft, mild, lender, supple (v ii. m. s. past 
from lana \lin/l«j)dn] h la be soft). 

5. Sifini (S.; pi 'afdit)= rude, eoarse, impolite, 
uncouth, rough 

ft kj* ghatiz (*.; pi. ghilur.) = thick, crude, 

rough, uncouth, harsh, ghtilh ul -quilt - 
hard-hearted 

7. l_p-il infaddu = they dispersed, scattered. 

broke up, disbanded (v. in m, pi past from 
mfadda. fonn Vtl til fadda [fadd], lo break, to 
scatter). 

8. jn ii'/ii a you efface, forgive, excuse, 

condone (v. ii. m pi. imperative from "of a 
['afWafU'], to efface, lo forgive, See at 2: 286, 
p. 153. n. 6). 

9. jjli th&wir - you consult, lake counsel, seek 

advice (v. ii. m. s. imperative from shawara. forrn 
HI of ihAra {jfemrj, to look nice. See Iwth&wiir at 
2:23 J, p. 1 17, n. 4). 

It* ii— j* 'mamla - you took a decision, 
resolved, determined, made up your mind, (v. ii. 
m, s. past from 'eijuma [ 'azm/'tJumnli], to resolve 
See 'aiumu at 2:227. p. 111. n, 6). 

1 !■ Jf r lawakAal = you depend, put your trust 
in, rely, appoint as representative: (v. ii m s 
imperative from lawakkulu, form V of waktilti 
[imkl/wukif], to entrust. See yaiawokkal at 3: 1 22, 

p. 204. n. 8). 

1 2. ttjlf j^ mutawakkilUn = relying one*. Active 
participle 1 1 mwakkaia. See n. 1 1 above. 

13. Ji** yakhdhutiu) ■ he abandons, forsakes, 
deserts, leaves in the lurch (v hi. m. s impfct 
from Uitulfuilu [UiadhlAhidhlanl, lo desert. The 
final letter is vowctless (.niJttn) Tor the verb is part 
of a conditional clause < preceded by 'in). 



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Surah 1: 'Al 7m™ [Part {Jvz') &} 



219 



«ilij*J 



that can help you after Him? 

And on Allah 

then let the believers rely.' 



&*4 

***** jr*l 

Uuii 
is 



Zs^jj&C j 1 6 1 .And it is not for a Prophet 
that 1 he will pinch 1 the booty 
and whoever pinches 1 booty 
shall come up with 
what he pinched 
on the Day of Resurrection; 
then fully paid 4 shall be 
every individual 
what it earned;' 1 
ijlLi^ lij, and they will not be wronged * 

— m *»■ J* * ^^ rf 



■* >'r>.-r *>- 






1 62. Is then the one who 
pursues 7 Allah's pleasure 
like the one who incurs 8 
the wrath 9 of Allah? 
And his habitation 10 is hell; 
and bad is the destination!" 

163. They are of grades' 1 
in the sight of Allah. 



Jf ft yaiavakkaHu) = he relics, depends, puis 

fir- [fusl in, appoints as representative (v. in m s. 
impfct from tawakkata, form V of wukuki 
[wakl/wni.61]. 10 entrtlSO The final letter is vowelless 
because of the panicle /dm of command before the 
verb. See al 3; 122, p 204, n. B). 

2 i e„ it is neither propef nor conceivable on the 
pan of a Prophet. 

3. Jit yagkuUaW m he pinches, takes without 

permission, hides away, inserts, puts a shackle or 
Teller (v iii. m. s, impfct from ghttlfa \ghcilf\. to 
insert The final Idler lakes faihah because of the 
panicle 'en coming before ihe verb). 

4 i c , justly rewraded or punished, ^y iuwaffS = 

she is hilly paid, repaid, rewarded, recompensed ( v 
iii. f. s impEct passive from waffd. farm II of wqfd 
»rt/i!'|. to fulfil. 10 redeem, lo live up (o. See at 
2:280, p, 146, n. 17). 

5 c-r-f kasabai = she earned, acquired, gained (v. 

iii f. I, pas! from kttsalhi \ktisb\, lo gain. Sec at It: 25, 
p, 164, ft. S} 

6, J_— 3ij yuzlamuna - they am wronged, done 

injustice, oppressed (v. iii m. pi. impfct passive 
from Zfilamn Imlm/zulm], lo do wrong. Sec al 3:25, 
p, 164, n. 101.' 

7. j- -1 ittaba'a = he followed, obeyed, 

pursued.went after, succeeded (v, iii, m. s. post in 
form VIM n f iiil't'u [laba'/labd'ttk], lo follow. See 
ittaba'a ar 3:20, p. 162. n. 8). 
ft .'„ Ad'd = he reiumed, came hack, incurred (v. 

iii m. s.pasi rrom fao> '. io come back, to return See 
Mi? al 2:90, p. AX n. 5; 2:61. p. 29. n.8). 
9 L**~ sakht a wralh. indignation, rcsenrmcnl, 
extreme anger 

10. _>;-■ ma'wa/i is., pi. ma'awm) = habitation, 

abode, dwelling, place of refuge, shelter. Adverb of 
place from «n-4 1 '«»(>], to seek shelier. refugej, 

11, .-^" masSr - destination, place al which one 

arrives, destiny, outcome. See at 3:28. p. 166. n. 31. 

1 7. i.e., ihe one who seeks Allah's pleasure and the 
cine who incurs His indignation have different ranks 
in His sight. ol»jj darajat (sing —j-- darajah) = 

rank, position, grades, degrees, stairs, flight of steps 
See at 2:253, p. I29.n.4). 



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220 



Surah 3: Al Imran [Part i/i/z) 4) 



jrwuiLi^ And Allah is All-Seeing 



*rA' 



of what they do. 



^O^J^J 164. Allah indeed graced 1 
^Jiftje- the believers 
^jcj 1\ when he raised 2 among them 
^fjij a Messenger 
£t*'^ from among themselves 
i»ifeffi: reciting 11 unto them 



;££ His revelations. 4 






^^-^ j and purifying 5 them 
^K!i|t44^j and baching 6 them the Book 
il^=i?iJ1j and the Wisdom;' 
J-*0? [ ?*ol_) and they had before been 
Sp cv J^J" indeed in manifest error. 

ITDjl 1 65. Or is it when there hits 10 

*~l^ you a disaster - indeed you 

( ^- ol -w had inflicted its double - 

l^P^S' that you say: "How 13 is this?" 

fK-iifji&^yijsSay: "It is from yourselves." 

iifoj, Verily Allah is 
tjji J^ over everything 

'to %£ A11 - powerful - 



l. pi maa/ia - he graced, favoured, conferred a 
benefit [v. ill. m. s. past from munri. til be kind), 

2. ^*i *a'arA» ■ he sent, dispatched, raised. 

raised up {v. iii. m s. past from bei'th, to send. 10 
raise See al 2:259. p. 134. n. 9). 

3. ijk< yaltu - he recilcs, reads (v. iii. m (. 

impfft. from lata \ii\awah\. to recite, read, See it 
2:151. p. 72, n. 3). 

A. ^v* 'iyit (sing. ujuA) ■ sips, miracles, 
revelations, evidence*, See at J: 108. p. 198. n. 4. 

5. _^"> yusdttt m he purifies, clears, declares 

just, increases (v. iii, m s impfct. from rnklui. 
form U of said [.-.ji.j |. lo grow, be pure. jus!. See 
at 2:174, p 82.0.4). 

6. f4*t yv'aUimu = he teaches, instructs, trains, 
educates, in Tonus imparts knowledge, makes 
aware, earmarks (v. iii. m. j. impfcl. from 

'tilUima, form II of 'atimu [ Hail, to know, Set at 
3:4a. p. I74.il. S; 2:282, p, 150, n It 

7. tS*- hikmah (p| _£- litkam) = wisdom. 

sagacity. Here u means sunmih and (he 
understanding of ihe Qui- 'an and its injunctions 
and prohibitions See at 2:269, p, Ml, n. 5). 
8- ok- ntufrfti = pawnl, manifest, obvious, 
evident, clear Sec at 2:208, p. 100. n 10). 

9. JiU daldl = error, straying frcun Ihe right 
path. Sec ddJ/iin at 3:90, p. 191. n. 4. 

10. c<M WAnf = she struck, hit. afflicted, 
befell (v. in. f s, past from 'tadba. form [V of 
sQba [sawbfsayb£buh\> io hit ihe mark See al 

3:117. p. 202.n._V. 2: 1 56. p. 73, n, 13). 

It. i_^. muxibah (pi yJU< nuisS'ib) - calamity, 
disastcr.misforiune. See at 2: 1 56, p. 73, rt. 14. 

12, pi-il 'asablum = you inflicted, afflicted, hit, 
struck (v, ii. m, pi. past from 'a$8ba. See n. 10 
above). The 'iiyah asks the Muslims nol to be 
disheartened by I tie setback al Uhud for they had 
indeed inflicted upon Ihe Makkan unbelievers a 

defeat al Badr double in intensity and en lent. 

)3. Jfi 'anna a whence, how. when. See at 

3:40, p. 171, rt. 7; 3:37, p 170. n, 5). After the 
batde of 'Uhud some Muslims began id ask 
themselves how could ihe defeat happen, lo Ihem. 
The 'ayah tells Ihem that whai had happened was 
due to their fauli in not abiding by the irvs [ructions 
they were given. 



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SUttili 3: 'At Imran [Pan tfuO 4| 



221 



»iUj 166. What befell you 
^Ci-i jd» r ^ the day the two hosts 1 met 2 
*^jiu was by Allah's leave, 
pSjj and that He might know 1 
fl di^ijiiT the believers. 



fiZl'y 167. And that He might know 
tjiiii^jii those who dissembled. 
IV £ <^ Jj> It was said to them: "Come, 
*h)$-^j.\J&* fight 4 in the way of Allah 
i^jjTji or defend 5 [yourselves]". 
p-jJJ iyu They said: "If we knew there 

TfUi would be a fighting, we 
}S^~^ would have followed* you." 
jaSs^U pp* They were to unbelief 
£Sj& aJ£ closer 7 that day 
^■^j^L than they were to belief, 

rH^yV— 'A>* sa y m g w ' tn lne ' r mouths 9 
^rfi^ Jjl5 what was not in their hearts. 
ibUifJ But Allah is Best Aware 
of what they conceal.' 






ijlfiiil 168. Those who said 
^r£y about their brethren, 10 



1. ^^rjum'itt (dual of w- jam) = two hosts, 

two gatherings. The reference is to the encounter 
or the two aim] Ft of the Muslims and the Makkan 
unbeliever at the field of 'Uhud- S« at 3:155, p. 
216. n. 8). 

2. jfcl itiaqa n he met, encountered, confronted 

(v. til. m s. pas[ in form VII] of luqiyu ltiq&' 
/Impin fluqy ttuqyah ftuqtin\, to meet. See at 
3:155, p. 216. n. 9). 

3. ) e . Allah might make known; for He knows 
everything, open or secret, ^ ya'ktmaiui = he 

knows, is aware of, is cognizant of (v, iii m. s. 
impfcl. from tilinm [ 'ilia], to know. The final 
letter lakes fttlhak because of an implied sin in 
the tilm tfi in the sense of Joiy) coming before the 
verb. Sec at 2:275. p. 141, n. 14. >. 

4. 'jiw nafaqit - they dissembled, dissimulated, 

played the hypocrite (v. iii. m. pi. past from 
.'i.jr.j.y.i form III of ntifutfti \nufaif\, to be used 
up). The 'tiytiit refer:, to [he role of the hypocrites, 
especially to that of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Ubay who 
with his followers withdrew from near the 
battlefield and subsequently advanced the plea 
that if he knew that the Muslims would really 
offer a battle lo ihe Makkan host he would have 
joined Ihe Muslims in the fighting. 

5. i -j tdfa'U - you defend, push back, drive 

away, resist, repel, remove (v ii. m. pi, 
imperative from dafa'a |du/'], io push, push 
away Sec dttf" at 2:251 . p. 1 28. n. 6). 
o. \*>fl iSaba'ni - we followed, obeyed, heeded, 
pursued, succeeded (v. i. pi. post from Ufaba'u, 

form Vltl of tait*a \ttibti'/tob6'oh\, to follow. See 
at 3:53. p, 176. a. ID 
7; vjh 'aqmb = closer, nearer, nearest. 

morc/masf likely (dative of qarib. See ijarib at 
2:186, p. 88. n. 10). 

8. i'j/ 'afw&h (pi., sing, iv fStrnit) m mouths, 

vents Sec at 3:11 8, p, 202, n. 14. 

9. jjh^S, yaiaum&na U they conceal, hide, 

secrete (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from katttmu 
[kaim/kirman], to conceal. See at 2:146. p 10, n 
3,Seeat2:l74.p.8],n. 14). 

ID, i.e., about those who fell in the battle 'Uhud. 



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222 



Surah 3: Al Imrtin |Part {Jul) 4 J 



* -J* 






and they sat back: ' 
"Had they obeyed 2 us, they 
would not have been killed." 
Say; "Then keep at bay 3 
from yourselves 
death 

if you are truthful." 4 
169. And do not reckon' 
those who are killed 
in the way of Allah 
£r*t as dead; 6 
iC^-lj* rather they are alive 7 
(*f^j-t«y in the sight of Allah, 
^oy^ being given provision 9 - 



i > f * it 



*s* 



■utl ^-jll L-j 



■» ^ ^ .*.,,. 

* • V- ' - 



170. Being delighted* 

at what Allah has given them 

of His grace, 

and rejoicing 10 at those who 

have not yet joined 11 them 

of those behind L ' them, 

that no fear 1 'shall be on them 

nor shall they grieve. 14 



1. Ijj«j qaaM - ihey sat, remained sealed. 

stayed, held themselves back (v ill m. pi. post 
from tffi txiu IqU '6d\, to sil dawn. See nmqA'id al 
3:121, p. 204. n, 4). 

2 ij»u.! 'afS'O = ihey obeyed, followed, complied 
with, acceded lo (*", iii m. pi. pasl from 'ald'a. 
form IV of td'a [ttlw'\, lo obey See 'aft'G al 
3:132. p, 207, n. 6).' 

3. Ij.jjl iJrfl'fi = you ward Off, avert, reject, keep 

al bay (v, ii. m. pi. imperative from dara'a \dar'\, 
to avert. See iddSm'wm at 2:72, p 34, n <>i 

4. jj^^-» sadiqin (accJgcn of ftidiquit, pi. of 

*«[%) = truthful [active participle from sadnqa 
[sadqf sidq]. lo speak (he truth Sec al 3:17. p. 
1*61. IL I). 

5. J?-*-* "!( U rahinAa/ina a do not reckon, 

count, think, suppose, assume (v. ii, m. i, 
imperaiive ( prohibition | from hasiba [hiah, 
Inxdh /hishart /busbttn].. to reckon, lo count See 

»4mMm:3:78,'p, 186. n 4). 

6. oi^t 'amw&t (sing, mayyir) = dead, lifeless. 
See al 2: 154. p. 73, n. 3;2:2S, p. 1 5, n. 6, 

7. **x— t "ahyS ' (pi.; s. hayy) b living, live. alive. 

*■ ^J*J> yrzaqilita = ibey are given provision, 
provided <v. iii. m. pi. impfct, passive from 
Tuzuqa [rivj], to give the means of subsistence. 
Sec yanuqu at 3:37. p. 170, n 6). 

9- ij^-j* farihfn (ace/ gen, of farih&n.. sing. 
farih) = cheerful, happy, glad, delighted. 
10. jjji-f-t yastabihtritna - ihey rejoice, 

welcome (v, iii. m. pi. impfcl. from htohshara. 
form X of bashara/baikira Ibishr/bsishrj, lo be 
happy. See Yubadishiru at 3:45, p. 173, n, 5). 

] L. iji>J, ya!haqu\iiu[ = they join, catch up with, 

adhere, cling, unite (V, iii, m. pi. impfct. from 
lahiqu [lafaq/luhaq], to catch up with, to join. The 
terminal nun is dropped because of Ihe particle 
tarn coming before the verb. This panicle also 
gives ihe imperfect verb the sense of past lertse, 

12. jl»* khalf ■ successors, those behind, rear 
part. See iifilalafl at 3: 105, p. 1 97. n. 1 0. 

13. J/ khawf - fear, dread. See at 2:177. p. 
145, n O; 2:274, p. 144. n.l. 2262. p. 137. n. 7 

14. byyiyshzanuna = they grieve, become sad 

(v. iii- m. pi. impfct rtom haanu [Ustzn/tmutn], lo 
grieve, See ai 2:276. p. 145. n. 10. 



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S&rak i: 'M tmrUn [Put (Juz') 4| 



223 



-~ 2 j • * 



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*H>Cj£ >**?t 



171. They rejoice 
at the mercy from Allah 
and grace; and that Allah 
does not frustrate 1 

;§},>i-jtft j3 the reward of the believers. 
Section (Huka *)18 
\^cS\lfji\ 1 72. Those who responded 2 
Jjl^llj^i to Allah and the Messenger 
after there had afflicted' them 
the wound 4 — 
for those of them who 
did good 5 and feared* Ailah - 
there will be a great reward. 



tad 







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173. Those 

to whom the people' said: 
"Verily (he men have 
gathered against you, 
so be afraid 6 of them"; 
but it increased' them 
in the faith, and they said: 
"Sufficient 10 for us is Allah, 
and how best is the Trustee!" 



1 £~a yudi'u ■ he ruins, lets perish, lets go in 
vain, frustrates (v, iii. m, s. impfct from ,;il,i ,i 
fomUV of tltl'ti [ rfKV"/*y<J'J lo get lost See ai 
2:143. p. 68, ti. 4). ' 

2 The Viwi»i continues the description of those 
whom Allah will grace with His mercy and favour 
because of their unflinching faith and obedience 
to Allah and His Messenger. ij,lw-i istaj&bi = 

they responded, answered, complied with, acceded 
to. listened lo (v, iii, m. pi past from imj&im. 
from X of jdhti l/avb], to travel, to explore See 
yastqjlhu a! 2:186, p. 89, a. 2). 

3 LyL>t 'ttf&bet = he or il hit, reached, affected. 

befell, afflicted (v, lit. m. 5. past in form IV or 
.tdfrfj [satxb /sayb&bah ]. to hie. to be right See at 
3. 1 53. "p. 21 5, n. 5). 

4. i. e . the setback at 'Uhud. The reference is lo 
the expedition led by the Prophet in pursuit of the 
retreating Makkan army in The morning fallowing 
the battle of 'Uhud. slums as Tar as Hamrfj' 
al-Asad, some eight miles front Madina r/<farh 

(pi. tjiiruii) - wound, ulcer, sore. See at 3:140. p. 
im, n. IS. 

5 I e , those who sincerely obey Allah and His 
Messenger, particularly in righting in the way of 
Allah and performing their duties against all odds, 
ij^j-l 'ahiana - they did good, performed well 

(v. iii. m pi. past from 'tihstma. form IV of 
hu.sunu yhu.in\. to be good, handsome. See at 
2:195, p. 93, n, IS), 
6„ ijii ittaqav = they feared, were on their 

e.Lard, feared Allah (v. iii m pi. past from wayiX 
form VIII or veai/d [mufy/wlqAyah], to guard, to 
preserve, See at 3:15, p. 160. n. 4; 2:212, p, 102, 
ii.1). 

7. i.e., the hypocrites who discouraged the 
Muslims lo confront or pursue the Makkan army, 

8. ijJ^i ikhshaw = you (all) fear, be afraid of, be 

in dread of (v. li m, pi, imperative from klmshtyn 
[kluifhyAhajihyah]. lo fear, See khasliwft at 2:74. 
p, 35. n, Si. 

9. ilj zada - he or it increased, grew, became 

more, augmented, added, enlarged, extended (v, 
iii. m. s, past from zayd/tiyaduh, to be more. See 
at 2:247. p, 125. h. 4), 

10. s— ^ httsb - reckoning, sufficiency, enough 

hiubunti - enough or sufficient Tor us See at 
2:206. p. 99. n 14). 



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224 



SHrah 3: 'At Imnm [Pan l/u.-'i 4] 



i^iiU 174. So they returned 
«ji'5*^w with a boon from Allah 

jj*5 and grace; 
' U'""': ^ there did not touch 2 them 
tjL any evil; 3 
i^j(j and they pursued 4 
*$S\S>j ^e pleasure of Allah, 
/j^jij And Allah is the Owner 
(§J.>_ttj w ii of Immense Grace. 

£$£ttf&*Cij 175, It is but that Satan 
wijji who holds out the threat 
/.{Q$ of his friends.* 
rUyiiiSli So do not fear 7 them 
i»j»£j but fear 8 Me 
^| 4i*i* jSc^i if you are believers. 

•&>*Xj 176. And let there not grieve* 
jj^j^jji you those that rush 10 

^ixJ*4 into unbelief. 

iv^y^) Surely they will never harm" 
P*< -\\ Allah whatsoever. 
iMI/ Allah wills 
„j.« «+<*/** not to set for them 
j»+|J-^> ajiy portion 12 i n the hereafter; 



I, IjJj-i mqalafiii = [hey (all) returned, turned 
round, lurried, retreated (v. iii. m. pi past renin 
inqalubti, form VII cf quluba Iqafb}. to tarn, to 
lum about. Sec irqtiltihmm lit .1:144. p. 2 1 1 . n 1\ 

2 j— -h yamsas {yamitta from yamsasu)- he 

touches, feels (v. iii. m, S. impfct. from tmiiw 
insuis/musis\, to feel, to touch. The final letter is 
vowelkss because of the particle lam corning 
before ihe verb, Sec at 3: 140. p. 2». n 13). 

3, ■>* tA' (pi. ,ijj 'ujnua') = evil, ill. offence. 

injury, calamity, misfortune, bad deed See at 
3:3 0. p 167, n. 4}. 

4, >yj ittat'a'H = they pursued, went after, 
followed, obeyed [v. iii. m pi. past from iltaba'a. 
form VIII of jobi'Vu [taba'ttab6'ak\, la follow See 
dl3:68.p. 182.rt.2). 

5, vJj*( tutAj.m/i/ = he holds out threat 

threatens frightens, wares (v. iii. ril. s, impfct 
from khimwafii. form It of khtifa [khawf 
/mtikluijiih fkhtfah], to be alraidj 

6, i.e.. the unbelievers and rnfiiin-s nf Islam, «t,fjT 

'awtiya' (pi . sing, trahyy) - helpers, friends, 
patrons, legal guardians. .See at .1:2$, p, 166, II. 3. 
7 lj*rt V 14 ta&h&fu = you (all) do not fear, be 

afraid of. be frightened of (v. ii, m, pi, imperative 
| prohibition | from mthiif&na, See it. 5 above). 
S. Jy*> khSfSai (originally khafu + nj) = you all 

fear me. be in dread of me (v ii m. pi imperative 

from i/riiji.1 Sec :i 5 ,iln>wi 

9 j^yahiun - he made s-ad. grieved (v. iii. m. 

simpfctfrom haztw [hMlA\, to make sad.J. The 

final letter is vowelless because of the particle Iff 

of prohibition coming before ihe verb, Note that 

with kasrtih under ihe middle letter 

{hazma/yahumti) the vetb gives an intransitive 

sense, meaning he became sad, he grieves 

10. J}* j*— i y*tf4H'lIiKi = they rush, make haste, 

dash, hurry lv, iii m pi. impfct. from tdrtt'a, 

form 111 of sam'a [ lira'ftam'/twr'tlh), ID be 

quick. Sec .it 3:114, p. 200, n. IS). 

1 1 lj^ yadurriilntO = ibey harm, injure. 

damage (v. iii. m. pi impfct. fromdlurra |darr), to 
harm See at 3:120. p. 203. a. 14. The terminal 
ntin is dropped because of the particle tan coming 
before the verb. See yadttrra at 3: 144. p. 21 1. II. S. 
12. Jb" hau.it,.: pi, huz&i) = portion, share, lot, 
good luck, good thing. 



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Stirati 1: At Imrdn [Pen {Jul') 4) 



225 



'JXj and they will have 
p *&- ,_j!ie a grave punishment. 
Xti$Gt$& 177. Verily those who buy 1 
iiLtii 'iiJi unbelief for belief 
*»\ fjj— ^J tnev will never harm 2 Allah 
$j&1 anything, and they will have 
fejl jLljvjije an agonizing 3 punishment. 

uPi% 178. There must not think 



iijjf^jjf those who disbelieve 

"JL J^CSi that the respite* We give them 

j^-jjV j^p. is good for themselves; 
^Ij^jUI We but give them respite 

li_iUjjb>J that they increase 5 in sin; 
<i-ij and they will have 

* i»<" ... ■ A 

gvg^vVj*. a humiliating punishment. 



5tt& 179. Allah is not 
O^jiit jjJ to leave 7 the believers 
^l^i t£J« in the state you are in 
£^$%S&- till He marks out* the bad 9 

* '£\ \j* from the good; 10 
j^^U^iifcbCj nor is Allah to apprise" you 



1. 'j/-^' iihlaratv = [hey boughl, purchased <v 

iii, m. pi. post ishtara, form VIII oft/tarti [skimn 
tihirSl io buy. See at 2:174, p. 82, n. T). 

2. ijj^t <ftt4unH(nti) = they harm, injure 

damage, hurl, adversely affect (v. iii, rn. pi 
impfcl. from darra [darr]. to harm. See ytidurru 
M 3 120. p, 203. n. 14. The terminal nfin is 
dropped for the panicle Urn coming before the 
verb. See at 3: 1 76. p. 224. n. 11). 

3. f-A 'ditto = agonizing, anguishing, very painful. 
See al 3:91. p. 192, n. 1.3:21, p. 163. n. 6. 

4. jU, numli = we give respite, defer, adjourn (v, 

i. pi. irnpftt from 'amla , form IV of moW 

[mulu'l, to walk briskly, to race). 

J, ljjijjj ytadadHimi I = they increase, glow. 

compound (v. lit. m. pi impfcl. from ndadti. 
Porrn VIJI of idrfu \mHduh]. lo increase. The 
terminal n&n is dropped: because of an implied "on 
in the tSm i U in the sense of toy) coming before 
the verb. See tdSdu at 3:89, p. 191, n. 2), 

'• .-t+' muliin m humiliating, disgraceful, 

debasing, ignominious, (active participle from 
ahdna. form IV of liana [hawn\, to be easy, to be 
of htlle importance See at 2:90, p 43, n. 7>. 

7. jit yadhara(u) = he leaves, lets alone IV, iii m. 

s, impfet. from wadhr. The final letter takes 
faihah because of a hidden "tin in (he lam of 
denial [lam ul-jutiud, preceded by ma kiinti) 
coming before the verb Sccyaihanina at 2:240, 
p. IJI.n4;»nddiiiwriiPi2:276.p I45.it, 11) 

5. j^h vamiielu) = he isolates, distinguishes. 

marks out \v iii. m. s. impfet. from ma;a | muyz], 
10 separate, to distinguish The final letter lakes 
faihah because of an implied 'an in buna coming 
before the verb). 

9. i.e.. the hypocrites and unbelievers. £■*• 

khabith (pi khuhuth) - bad, evil, vicious, 
noxious, malignant 

10. i.e., by Iheir respective performances in the 
hour of trill. s-> (eyyib = good, pleasant (hem 
sincere believers). See at 2: 168, p. 79, n. 7. 

11. ^Lb, yutli'aia'i = he apprises, acquaints. 

notifies, informs, break? forth (v, iii. rn. s. impfet 
from ailti'u, form IV of lula'tt [tul6Vmittta% to 
rise). The final letter lakes faihah because of an 
implied 'an in the particle lam of denial before the 
verb { pseceded by ma kana). 



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226 



Sarah 3: Al fmrikl [Pul</«tt') 4] 



^d£ of the unseen;' 
j^i^i^J but Allah chooses 2 



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±£-*j& from among His Messengers 
ilia^ whom He will. 3 



±A i J. *j* 



^AAyJa So believe in Allah 
*$■>% and His Messengers; 



1 ^^T r'jr* * «J 



LHipuij and if you believe and fear 

fW* you will have 
* i- ' M an immense 5 reward. 



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1 80. And let there not think 

those that be miserly* 

with what Allah gives 7 them 

of His grace 

that it is good for them. 

Nay, it is bad 8 for them. 

Tied round 9 their necks will 

be what they are stingy with 

on the Day of Resurrection. 

And to Allah belongs 

the heritage 9 of the heavens 

and the earth; 

and Allah is of what you do 

All-Aware. 11 



I i.e., Allah does not let man to know the minds 
of believer, hypocrites and unbelievers but brings 
[o light their characters tlirouph [rials in practical 
situations. tAt-Tsbftri. pt, IV. L88). 
2- <j*-* yajtabS he selects, picks, chooses (v. iii. 

m, s, impfct, from ijiaba, form V||| of jaba 
UiMytih], to collect). 

3. i. e.. Allah may, if He wills, select some of His 
Messengers to know, by means of wahy to them, 
something of ihe minds of some people 
FA1-Tnbarf.pt. IV. I SB). 

4. ijis tattaqfamii = you all fear, be afraid of, be 

on your guard {v. ii. m. pi impfct from ittaqa. 
form VIII of ivu^d [wtiqy/wiqdyah], (a guard, lo 
protect. The terminal nun is dropped, for the verb 
is pari of a conditional clause (preceded by in). 
See at 3:2 125. p. 52, n. &). 

5. (nL* 'affm = great, big, gland, huge. 

stupendous, immense, enormous, tremendous, 
magnificent. Sec at 3:74, p. 184, n. 4). 

6. After a description of the hypocrites die 
present 'dyaA re Ten io those who arc niggardly 
and do not pay itikiih nor spend in ihe way of 
Allah. .ijUi yaikhaWita = they be miserly, 
stingy, niggardly (v iii. m pi, impfct. from 
btikhila [ba&haVbukht]. to be niggardly) 

7. Jk '61a = he gave, bestowed, granted (v. iii. m. 

s. past in form (V of 'md [ilyan/aty/mat£ih\. to 
come See a! 2:25 I . p I 28. n 3). 

8. ji iharr (pi, nrhrar) = bad, evil, wicked, 

mischievous. As elative ii menus worse, worst. 
See at 2:216. p 104. all. 

9. ^j"^=- sa+yutawwoqune = they Will be bed 
round their necks, surrounded, encircled, (v. iii. 
m. pi. impfct. passive from tawveaqa, farm II of 
ia H u [ittvkif], to be able, to endure). With reference 
to this 'ayah the Prophet, peace and blessings of 
Allah be on him, said that those who do not pay 
.<.'*-. i.'r on iheir wealth will have iheir wealth on 
Ihe Day of Resumselion put round (heir necks as 
poisonous serpents biting ihem. See Bukharf, no. 
456S. 

10. Gij? mir&sh (s.i pi. nwwdrithi ■ heritage. 
inheritance, legacy. 

LI. j«>- khoMr = All-Aware. All-Conversant. 

All- Acquainted. Active participle in the Kale of 
ftl'U from khatmra [ khubr /khibruh\ to be 
acquainted. See al 2:234, p. IIS, n. 4, 



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$&rah J. Al Imrdn [Part (/u? r j 4] 



227 






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Section (fiu*fi') 19 
181. Allah has indeed heard 1 
the saying of the those who 
said: "Verily Allah is poor 2 
and we are rich". 3 
We shall write down" 1 
what they said and 
their killing of the Prophets 
without any right; 
and We shall say:* 
"Taste 5 the punishment 
of the burning fire". 6 



£*<4$£ 182. That is because of 

&iJi}dS% what your hands forwarded; 7 

J"^"-ui'jfj and that Allah is not 

■i-z^jXJL unjust 8 to the servants. 






i^lj^Ji 183. Those who said: 

"EjJ^jL^c-Sal 61 "Allah has committed 9 to us 

v^sj^l' that we believe not 

&-4j^'J. in a Messenger unless 
jCjXCljt he brings us a sacrifice 10 
jl^i '4 £-s fc that fire consumes. 11 



1. In the early stage of Islam The Muslims 
someiimes borrowed money from the Jews of 
Madina One day * Ahu Bake (r.a.) went la the 
usual gathering place of the Jews and called upon 
ihem to accept Islam At this one of their leaders 
anil learned men. Finhas. said thai Lhcy had no 
need for Allah, for ihcy wen: rich and Allah was. 
pom His remarks so enraged 'Abu Bakr (r.a.) thai 
he gave Finhas a blow. When the matter was 
brought before the Pttiphei Finhis denied having 
mndc the remark about Allah. This 'ayah belies 
Finhas and the subsequent few 'liuihx speak aboul 
the altitude of the Jews in general. (Sec Al-Tabari, 
pt. IV. 194-195; Ibn Kallm. II, 153. At-Tafsir 
,i!-KtibTT> pt. IX, 122; Ai-Bahr, 111. 454). £*- 

iami'a = he heard, listened (v. iii. m. s. past from 
mm 7 innsa 7 samli'uW tftOSMtl '- See al 2:181. p. 
86, n. 1). 

2. j^ifoijirli., pl./uqarS') ■ poof, indigent 

y t i_*l "aghniyS" (pi.; s. g Auniyy) = rich, wealthy. 

affluent, opulent, well-to-do. above Want 

4. i.e., on the Day of Judgement, 

5. Ijiji dh&qU = you (all) laste (v. ii. m. pi. 

imperative from dhaqa [dtiawq/madhiiq], to tasle, 
See al 3: 106, p. 1*7, n. 14}. 

6. Jty kariq (s.; p\.j>s- kara'iq)= fire, 
conflagration Active participle on the scale of 
fii'il from harm/a Iftarq], lo bum. See ihtaraqat at 
2:266. p 1*39, n. 17;. 

7. c-JJ qaddamat = she sent ahead, advanced (v. 

iti f. s. past from qaddama, form II of 
• ni:i,nKti/^ulim,i \ qadm /qudum. /tfidmSn 
/maifdunt\ 10 precede, to arrive, See al 2:95, p. 45, 
n 7). 
6 ri± zalidm = unjust, oppressor, wrong -doer 

(intensive fotm in the scale of fa"al of ailim, 
aclivc participle of ziiliinut [futm]. (o transgress, 
da wrong). 
9, J+e 'ahida('ila) - he assigned, committed lo, 

entrusted to (v. iii. rn. s. post from 'akd. lo 

delegate, lo entrust, to commit. See 'aflidnll al 

2:125. p. 59, n 13). 

If) CAtj qurban (s.; pi, ,y> qarui>m\ * sacrifice. 

Offering, 

11. Jstr ta'kultt she eats, consumes, devours (v 

iii. f. s, impfct from akala [ 'akhl/ma kul), to eat. 
Sec tti'kulunu 31 3:49. p. 175, it. S). 



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228 



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Surah 3 ; 'At 'Imraa [ Port (Jttz ') 4 ] 



r^ifcJui jj Say: "There had come to you 
(ij: j_ij Messengers before me 






2*1. with clear evidences 1 



ifjilj and with that which you say, 1 
!< »j. 'l-'i^^j Then why did you kill them, 
ilAi-iijjJLjiol if you are truthful?" 



1 &4.So if they disbelieve 5 you, 

then disbelieved 6 indeed were 

Messengers before you. 

They came 

with clear evidences 

and the scriptures, 7 

and the enlightening 8 Book. 

185. Every living being* 

shall taste 10 death; 

And you will but be given in 
full 11 your recompenses 12 
on the Day of Resurrection. 

Then whoever is removed 13 

from the fire and 

admitted 14 into paradise 
will have attained success. 



j. --V" — 
***** 



•"■Si 






1. oUi bapyia&r (p!,; sing, fcovvjnali) = clear 
signs, indisputable evidences sec at 1:86. p. 190, 
n2). 

2. i.e, b Tire from the sky to consume the sacrifice 
(Al-Tatmri, pi. IV. 197; Ibn KathSr, tl. 154). 

3. i.e„ some of them like Zakanyya and Yahya 
ifjj ootaltum a you (all) killed, murdered. 

assassinated (v. ti. in. pi, pasi from qaista [fori], 
to kill. See at 2:72. p. 34, n. 5). 

4- ,>JJl-» sSdtgtn [acc/gen. of hM/^wt, pi. of 

f-HAiq) a Iculhltil < active participle from sodaqa 
[soda/ lida], to speak ihe Inith. See at 3:I6S. p 
222. n. 4). 

5. !>if kadkdhabi. m they called lies, thought 

untrue, disbelieved (v. iii. in. pi. past from 
kadltdhaba, form II of kadhaba \kidhh Andhib 
ikadhbah / ku!hbtih\, lo lie. See al 3: 1 1 , p, 1 58, n 
3)- 

6. v*f kudhdhiba = he was disbelieved, was 

thought untrue (v, iii. tu. s, past passive from 
kadhjhtibti. See rt. S above), 

7. jtj ci'ftnr (pi,: s, JfJ zabur) = scriptures. 

S. jt-" mfcfffr = enlightening, radiant, illuminating, 

brilliant, shirting (active participle from undra, 
lorm IV of nam [nur] k to give light) 

9. j-*> nofs (t,; pi. nufui/'an/us^ living being, 

person, irulivnln.il, nature, sell See .i.ifu< al 
2: 155. p. 73. n. 10. 

10. USb dhd'iqah ((,) a one who tastes (active 

participle from <Ajij^u [t/Smw^nuuffiaql. to taste. 
See dnusjii al 3:181. p. 227, n. 5). 

1 1. ij>y tuwaffdna ■ you ale given in full, fully 

paid, rewarded ( v. ii. m. pi. impfct. passive from 
waffd. fonri 11 of wafft \wafA '}, to fulfil, to redeem, 

to live up to. Sec mwaffd al 3: 161, p, 219. n 4). 

12- jyJ 'ujHr (sing, j-' >y>) = remuneration. 

rewards, emoluments. See at 3:57. p. 173, n. 7, 

1 3. r J*"j iuAztto = he was removed, taken away. 

moved [v, iii m. s past passive from ifthzaha 
[yii\ztiijgh\, lo move, See muwhah M 297. p. 46, 
n. I). 

14. J*j1 "adkhila - he was admitted, put in, 

given entrance (v. iii. in *. past passive from 
'nilkhalu. form IV of dakhti la [dakhCt]. to enter. 
See fadkhulii at 3:142. p. 210. n 6). 



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Siirah 3; Al Imr&n (part Um."iA\ 



"•ti-'.-'vi 













I X Ss 



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And this worldly life is nought 
but a delight' of delusion. 1 

186. You will surely be tried' 
in your properties and selves; 
and you will certainly hear 4 
from those who had been 
given the Book before you 
and from those who 

set partners* [with Allah] 
many a painful* thing; 
but if you bear calmly 7 
and be on your guard, 8 
that certainly shall be of 
firm will' in f he affairs. 10 

1 87. And when Allah took 
the covenant of those who 
were given the Book: 
"You shall make it clear 11 to 
men and shall not hide 12 it." 

But they flung 11 it 

behind their backs 14 
and bought therewith 



1. ^u* imtfd' (pi. , «mji'aft)= enjoyment, pleasure, 

delight, object of delight See at 3:14. p. 159, II 
18; 2:240. p. 121, n 6. 

2. jj> ghur&r - deception, conceit, delusion, 
illusion. Sec ghana at 3:24, p. 164. n. 5 

3. j^i fa+tubtnwumta - you are surely tried, 

put to test (v. ii m. pi impfci, in the emphatic 
form from bala \batwfbala"\ to lest, to try. See 
ifubiuwQrtriu at 2:154. p. 73, n. 6), 

4. v ,. - - I latfasma'unna = you Surely hear (v. ii. 

m pi, impfci. in the emphatic form from lanti'a 
| .ram'/ sami'/ soma ahf masmtf'], 10 hear. See 
stnni'a at 3: 161, p. 227, n. 1) 

5. ijf ^f 'ashtokA = they set partners, (v. rii, in, 

pi. past from 'iishrakti, form IV of .tharika [ ihirk/ 
iHmikah], io share. See at 3: 151. p. 213, n 10} 

6. jil 'adhaa = insult, offence, harm, injury, hurt, 

painful thing. See at 3: 1 1 1 . p ! 99, n. 6. 

7. Ijj^»; taibiriUna) = you have patience, 

persevere, bear calmly (V. ii, m. pi. impfct from 
saburti [fabr). io be patien. The terminal nin is 
dropped, for the verb is part or a conditional 
clause (preceded by 'in). See at 3:125, p,20S, n. 
5) 
B. Ijii laltaquimi i = you all fear, be afraid of, be 

on your guard (v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from ittaqa. 
form VIII of wa<j& \witayfwiqAya\H\, to guard, in 
protect The nun is dropped for the reason staled 
in n, 7 above.. See nl 3:179, p. 226. n, 4.}. 

9, rjt- 'ajm = determination, resolution, decision, 
firm will. See 'ajtmtla at 3: 1 59, p, 2 1 8, n. 1 1 . 

10 jj-T 'umir (pi.. s.J amr) = affairs, matters, 
issues, concerns. See at 3:108. p. 198, n, 10. 

1 1 . (j^J laMitbayyinunnu - you indeed make 
olear, elucidate (v. n. m. s. impfci. in rite- einphatu: 
form from buyyantk. fonn II of frilnu [ bayun], to 
be clear. Sec yuhdvyinu at 3:103, p. 196, n. 13]. 

12. Ojni£> taktumSna = you (all) conceal, hide. 

secrete (v. ii. m, pi. impfct from ktaama 
;;. (i ms, i.i main], to conceal. See yaitum&nu at 
3:167, p 211, n. 9). 

13. IjJ^ nabadhH = llsey hurled or llung away, 

rejected, forswore (v. iii. m. pi, past from nulnih, 
to hurl, See tmbadha at 2: 100, p. 47. n, 5}. 

14. i.e.. they repudiated it. 



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230 



SHrufi 1: At Vmrdn [Part (Jul') 4] 



■yui '.^J a little value. 1 



*. :*,' *>*t 



So bad is what they buy. 



oCjIv 188. You must not suppose 3 
Jfiyuj'Sil those who rejoice 4 at what 
\yluj they have come up with 
u'jj^jand love to be praised 
IjUij^U for w h a t they have not done 
fr"'< y* — you must not suppose 

•5lH. them to have run away' 
*jC£$lj* from the punishment; 
^j and they shall have 
3 XJ\1,\%. an agonizing* punishment. 

hi 189. And to Allah belongs 

- J/^S \ J£ the dominion of the heavens 

^jVj and the earth; 

•^ jt^&^ifj and Allah is over everything 

$kjj* All-Powerful. 

Section (Ruku') 20 

$- 4o4 190- Verily in the creation of 



Jfj>l lj o£~ 11 the heavens and the earth 
.-jd^-fj and the alternation 10 



1. c>" Ihaman <pl <J/iWn/fifWi™A) = price, 
value. Sec at 2:274, p. 82, n. 2, 

2. Ojji±*yaslilar4aa = they buy. purchase (v. iii. 

m pi. irnpfel, from ishlurd. form VI 1 1 of rAord 
(j/jreuB/iftini'l. to buy, to all, Sec al 3:77. p, IftS, 
n. 9). This and the next (lyah speak about those 
scholars of the People of the Book who concealed 
important aspects of whit their scriptures contain, 
particularly the prophecy and description of the 
final Prophet to come. Muhammad, peace and 
blessings of Allah be on him, and thereby 
obtained some worldly advantages and praises for 
themselves as men having knowledge and 
understanding of the scriptures, (Sec Al-Tabarf. 
pt. IV. 20S -208) 

3- ,>-*"' V IS tuhiahanna - do no! reckon, 

count, think, suppose, assume (v. ii. m. s. 
imperative | prohibition ] from hoiiba (hurt". 
hii&b /fusbdn /ttusban). to reckon, to count. See at 
3:169, p. 222. n. 5). 

* ^y~A yafrahuna - they rejoice, become 
happy, delighted (v. tit. ni, pi, nnpfcl. from farihu 
\farah]. to be glad See yaffitha it 3: J 20, p. 203, 
a. 12). 

5. jj!»m yuhiibStat ■ they love, adore fv. iii, m. 
pi. irnpfel. from 'uhnbbu. form IV of habba 
[hubb\, to love, to like. See at 2: I6S, p. 77, n. 1 2), 

6. J-U--4 yuhmeduina) = they are praised, 

extolled, lauded, commended (v.. iii. m. pi impfct 
passive bWB iwniida [hamil]. to praise). 

7. ijU. maf&tah - success, escape, to fun away, 
to slip away. 

9. fji 'Alfm = agonizing, very painful See at 
3:177. p 225. n J, 3:91. p. 192, n I. 

10. jL* tttalq e creation, origination, making. 

something which is created, physical constitution. 
See 'akhluqa at 3:49. p. 174. n, 6, As at the start 
of the firuii. so in this final section or it. 
emphasis is laid on monotheism (raiWricf) and 
attention is drawn lo the wonderful creation of 
Allah, particular} the heavens and the earth and 
the rotation of day and night and to the need for 
redd. u rug on them and remembering Allah. 

11. _>"A>i ikh'Udf = alternation, succession, 

variation, disagreement (verbal noun in form VIII 
of khtilafa [kfmlf\. to come after, to follow. Sec at 
2: 164. p. 76, n. 7; and ikhtttlufu al 3:19, p. 161, n 
10) 



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SflwA 3; 'Al Imr&n |Part (7m 1 ) 4] 













fV.'rm- 






of the night 1 and the day 2 

are sure signs' 

for men of understanding 4 — 

19 ] . Who remember 5 Allah 
standing 6 and sitting, 7 
and lying on their sides; 8 
and reflect'about the creation 
of the heavens and the earth 
[saying]: "Our Lord, 
You have not created 10 
this in vain! 11 
Sacrosanct 12 are You; 
so save 1-1 us from 
the punishment of the fire." 



rfSjjC$ 1 92. "Our Lord, verily he 
JUlf J^o^ w hom You put into 14 the fire, 

*£j%jju You indeed disgrace' s him; 

ouHilltlj and the transgressors shall 
(gljC^f i" not have anyone to help." 

"£; 193. "Our Lord, 
£. ^,'t. we have indeed heard 



1 . JJ iajt (s.; pi. Ji layoJD = night 

2. ■+ nahiir is : pi. 'anhunfrumtr) o day. 

I. <sAfc 'Syit (siruj. ayah) - signs, miracles, 
revelations, evidences . See al 3: 164. p, 220. A. 4. 

4. <_rUT 'albAb (sing. — fubfr) - heart, mind, 
acumen, understanding. See at 3:7. p. 1ST, n. 2). 

5. cijjf h yatthkwHiw = they remember, call to 

mind, recall, recollect (V, iii. m pi impfci from 
iMwtuiVi [tihikr fhidhktir]. to remember. Sec 
dhakarQ at 3: 1 35. p. 203, n. 4) 
(i. . v ijif im - standing, getting up, rising, 

7. ifi qa 'M = sitting, lo sit down, la slay. See 
ifa'ailu al 3:168, p. 222. n. I. 
8 — ^ yunufr {pi,; s. — /<rn&) ■ sides. This 

pan of the "dyan means thai the daily prayers 
must be performed standing, silling or lying down 
according as ih* physical conditions of the person 
allow. (Sec AI-TiifsiralKiibir, V, 141-142). 

9. i> } /^L, yaJajikartitia = they reflect, meditate. 

ponder, muse, speculate (v, iii, m. pi, impfct, from 
itilakkara. form V of tukara \fakr\. lo reflect Sec 
tnmfakkariw at 2:266. p 140, n. 3). 

10. - *'-* khataqta = you created, originaled, 

made (v, ii m. s. past from khaluqa [khalq\ lo 
create- Sstirfml<i at 3:190, p 230, n. 10). 

I I. JW< WW/ ■ vain, futile, untruth, false, 

falsehood, void, See at 3:71. p. 182. n, 13)12, 

12, The word j'-^— utbhdn is derived From 

saifbahtt. form It of sabaha [iiibh/iibShah], to 
swim, In ik form II the verb means to praise, to 
sing the glory Suhtyanaka means ' You are Free 
from and High above all kinds of associativity and 
undivine attribute", i. e.. "Sacrosanct are You'. 
See at 2:1 16. p. 55, n 6 

13, J qi = (you) save, protect, guard (v. ii. m, s. 

imperative form waqu [wetfy/witidyuh). to 
protect. See at 3: 1 5, p. 160. n. 9). 

14. Ji*i" tudkhihu) - you mate ewer, enter, 

admit, bring in. insert, put into (v. it. m. S. impfct, 
from titlkhtila, form IV of dakhala [dukhui], to 
enter. See tidkhil at 3: 185. p 228. n. 14). 

15. «^>l 'akhzajia = you disgraced. 

humiliated, degraded, (v. ii m, s. past from 
'aibzS. form IV of kftatiyu [khiiy/khiaan], to be 
despicable Sec khizy at 2: 1 14, p, S4, n, 13). 



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232 



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SHrahl. Al Imran [Pari {Jig ') 4] 



i^L-iCui a summoned calling 3 
iij^jW to the faith, thai you believe 3 
'S^»j. in your Lord — 
££i so we have believed. 4 
U^liLilj Our Lord, hence forgive us 
l^l^ojCji j our sins and efface 5 from us 
oJllLi our misdeeds, 6 
\Jtyj and make us die 1 
iSSUj^C* w ilh the righteous." 8 






f^£f&5 194. "Our Lord, give us 
GijijU what you had promised* us 
i^jJF on Your Messengers, 

tji^i and do not disgrace 10 us 
j£«y"lj! on the Day of Resurrection, 
/^ y.'-iJi Verily You do not go back" 
tfjj Stlif on the promise." 12 



195, So there will respond 11 
I^J^jJ to them their Lord [saying]: 
L^JhfAi " I do not let go in vain 14 



the deed of any doer of you, 

^IjiJ i Of of male or female, 
-■"f -*f^" the one of you is of the other. 15 



1. (j)al> niundJ'jr a summarwr, caller Active 

participle from nddu. (onn HI of «iiJii. (mi J"-], lo 
call See niitlai at J:J9. p 170, n II 

2. ji, yunadi * he calls, mi nun. his. announces 

[v. in m. s iinpfci from natfu, Ut\» III or nrofti) 

.1. l_j-A Timmu - you all believe, have failh (v 

1 1 m- pi, imperative from 'dntunu, form IV of 
timmil \'umn/'anuin/'umdruih\, to he sa.fr. feel 

safe. See al 3:72, p. 1 83. n. 4). 

4. LA 'imaand a we believed (v. i pi, past from 

omana | "Fnnln). twin IV of tminit. to be safe, feel 
safe Sec at 2; 136, p, 64, n. 4>. 

5. ^BT kaffir - (you) efface, obliterate, cover, 

forgive |v ii. m- S- imperative ftpm tiiffara. form 
t! of Jta/cim [luifr/hifr/kufran/kufur], lo hide, to 
dis&elicve See yuknjftta at 1:271 . p. 142, n. 4). 

6. ofv sayyi'it (pi.; s. nayyi'ufr) = misdeeds, 
offences, sins. See suyyi'tth at 2:81. p. 38, n, 3. 

7. Jy tawaffa = (you) lake in full, cause toat*. 

let die (v. ii nt, s. imperative from rawM/fti, form 
v of M.uf& [witft'faafjtl to be perfect, to fulfil 
Sec masawaffin al 3:52, p. 177, n. 3). 
S. jlj(l "aftrdr (pi.: s., barr/^ bSn) = pious, 

righlcous. upn.elil. dutiful, kind, benevolent See 
W>rat2:l89 K p.91, n 4. 

9, iij*j wu'mtai = you promised, pledged (v, ii, 

m. i. put from wa'adu |w«'<fj, lo make a. 
promise. See wi'ufo a! 2tdi, p. 140, n. 1 J). 

10. ^*J "J I* WtAri = (Jo not disgrace, humiliate 

(v. ii. m. s. imperative (prohibition) from khatiyu 
[khizv/khman\, to be despicable. See '<j£A;urrn at 
3:192. p. 231, n. 15). 
1 1 jUJ V fi tukklifu - you do noi break, foil 

io keep, go back an (v. ii. m. s impfct. (run; 
ukhtitfu, form IV of khutafa [kkalf[ to come after, 
io lag behind. See 3:9, p. IS?, n. 9). 

12. JUri mt'Sd [pi -m-v muwil'ffl") = promise, 
time agreed on, See al 3:9. p. 157. n. 9. 

1 3. iA^J tslafSba m he responded, answeted (v. 

iii, m s. past in from X of jitba \jutvb]. to travel, 
lo explore. Sec tshijiiliu 31 3:172. p. 223, n, 2). 

14. *-v'< 'inff'u - 1 ruin, let perish, let go in vain, 

fruilrate (v. i, s. impfcl. from 'ada'u. form IV of 
du'd I duy'/4iyd'\, lo gel lost. See yiidtu ai 3:171. 
p. 223 ,*n. I)'. 

15. i.e.. bom of one another, 



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Suruh 3: M \mran [Pari Uuz ) 4] 



233 



!»** 



L-*^Ji« 



■■i. 



\Af3 

i - 1' 









So those who migrated 1 

and were ousted 2 

from their homes, 

and were persecuted 1 

in My cause, 

and fought 4 and were killed, 3 

I will certainly efface 6 

from them their misdeeds 

and will make them enter 7 

gardens flowing* 

below them the rivers - 

as a reward* from Allah. 

And with Allah lies 

the most handsome reward. 



^j£]V 196. Let there not decieve lu you 
iliif the moving about 11 
ijj-iS^ji of those who disbelieve 
{^.siLfij in the land. 



■f-r* 







•* *. 



i 3^^ 197.Alittleenjoyment; 12 then 
yiL -fry- their abode" will be hell; 
jp ji^fjiijj a "d bad is the place of rest. 






I 'jj»l» hdjaru = they migrated, emigrated (v. 

in m pi. past from k&jara. form It) of hajara 
[hijr Mjr&n), to emigrate, See at 2:218. p,106, n. 
4). 
J. '■y*j^- 'uifiriju m they were ousted, driven out. 

expelled. dislodged (v. iii, m pi. past passive from 
akhrciju, form IV of kharaja [khuriij], in go out 
Sec ukhnjna at 1:246. p. 1 124. n. S). 

3, ijiji 'Mh& = they were persecute^ made to 

suffer, hurt, molested, (v. tii. m pi, past passive 
from 'adhiya, farm IV of 'adhiya \'adhan\, to be 
harmed. Sec 'adhan at 3: 1 86, p. 229. n. 6), 

4. ijifti tjSialu - ihey fought, battled, waged war 

(v. iii. m pt. past in form 111 a( tfaltila [ifal!\. 10 
kill See i/alitu at 3: 146, p. 212. n. I). 

5. ijiii ijh/i7h = they were killed {v. iii. m pi. 

post passive from aalaki [aal\\, 10 till. See fit 
3: 1 56. p. 317. n .4). 

6, ^)j»iS~S/ la+'ukaffiraiMB - I certainty efface. 

obliterate, cover, pardon (v. i. s. emphatic impfct. 
in form II of kafara \kafr Atu/r MufranAufur], to 
hide, to disbelieve See kaffit at 3:193. p. 232, n. 
7), 

7. ^j^I (n+'BdJtftt/flnflB = I certainly make 

enter, admit, put in (v. i. s. emphatic impfct, ifl 
faint IV of diikhiilti [dukhu!]. to enter, Sec ludkhit 
at 3:192, p, 231. n. 14). 

8, tjjfZ tajri = she or it runs, flaws, streams (v. 

iii. f, s. impfct, from jttni [jury], to flow. See at 
3:136, p. 208. n. II). 

9. tyiy thawSb - reward, recompense, requital. 
Steal 3:145, a 21 1, n. II. 

ID. J/s M lit yaghunanrta - let he or it not 

deceive, he or it should nol deceive, beguile , 
delude (v. iii. m. s. emphatic prohibition from 
ghamt IjfAurwV]. to deceive See gharra at 3:185. 
p. 229, it. 2), 

It, i.e., the moving about in ease and affluence 
in the land (Al-Tabarf pi IV, 217). JW taqaltub 

- moving about, fluctuation, variation, turning 
and tossing j verbal noun in form V of qatabti 
Iqatb). to l urn round. See ai 2: 144, p 68. n, 8 ). 

12. ■ ■-• mala' <r> ■■■-■ : nir.tt ,jJ-i= enjoyment, 
delight, object of delight. Sec at 3;185.p.22°. n I. 

13. j/- ma'wan (s.: pi nsa'awm) - abode, 
dwelling, shelter See at 3:162. p. 219, n. 10). 



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234 



SHrah 3: At Imrtin [Pm{Jui)4] 







198, But those who 

fear 1 their Lord, 

they will have gardens 

flowing" below them 

the rivers; 

living for ever 1 therein 

as of hospitality * from Allah; 

and what lies with Allah 

is the best 5 for the virtuous. 6 






199. And there indeed are 
> > .':5— iIJJlaI among the People of the Book 
those who believe in Allah 
and what has been sent down 
to you and what has been 
sent down to them, 
being submissive 7 to Allah. 
They do not buy* 
with Allah's revelatiions 
a little value.* 









t*Jk 



I 



They will have their reward 

with their Lord. 
Verily Allah is 

Prompt 10 in taking account. 



I . While in the previous 'dysrfi the believers are 
asked not 10 be deceived and discouraged by Ihe 
affluence and prosperity of the unbelievers, which 
ore only temporary and which will not save ihem 
from due punishment. Ihe present 'ayah assures 
ihe believers that if they fear Allah, i_e . abide ty 
His commanments and prohibitions, they will 
have rewards lo enjoy Eternally in the hereafter 
ijfil itsaaaw = they feared, were on their guard, 

feared Allah (v. hi. m. pi. past from maaei. form 
VIII of watjd [waqyAeiqtiyah], lo guard, lo 
preserve. Sec at 3: 172. p 221. n. 6). 
1. j>wr tqjti = shot runs, flows, streams (v. iii. f. 

s, itnpfcl, from },ini \jtny]. Id flow. See at 3.195. 
p. 233. ft. 8). 

3, j,juW khJtlidtit (aec/gen, or khalittun. pi. of 

kJiSlid) = living for ever, everlasting, eternal 
(active paniciple from khaladti \khutud\. to live 
for ever See at 3: 1 36. p. 1208, n 1 3). 

4, JjJ numl = hospitality, food ancl lodge 
prepared for guest 

5 j&- khvyr - good, better, best. This word 

retains the same form in all degrees of 
comparison, See- at .3: 1 5, p. 16U n. 3). 

6. jljjt 'abrSr (pi; s. barr/hdrr) = virtuous, 

pious, righteous, upright, dutiful, kind, 
benevolent. See birr at 2: 189. p. 9 1 . n 4. 

7. This ayah refers lo 'Abd Allah ibn SaJatn and 
iuch others of the People of the Book who 
embraced Islitn j^-il* kk&thi'Sn (accJ gen. of 

kMthi'&n. sing- khuthi) = the submissive ones, 
humble (active participle from khasha'a 
[thufhi'], to be submissive, humble. See at 2:45, 
p. 22, n, !3), 

8- it, such of them do not tamper with the text 
of their scriptures and thus conceal what Allah has 
revealed, particularly about the prophecy and 
description of Prophet Muhammad, peace and 

blessings of Allah be on him. jj/Ai yaihlarHna 

m they buy, purchase (v iii. m. pi, impfct from 
ishmrti, form VIII of thura {thittin/shira'\, to buy, 
to sell. Sec at 3:177, p. 230. n. 2). 

9. ^ thaman tpl. Mi tithnuin/i—iiihminah) a 
price, value. Scent 3:187. p. 230, n. I. 

10, £,- taif m prompt, expeditious, quick, 
speedy, rapid, swift. See at 3:19; p 162. n. 4. 



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Stirah 3: At 7mrdn |Pan (Juz> 4] 



235 



<^,- JiL^ls. 200. you who believe, 

U^ [>*£ be patient 1 

U/H»j and vie in endurance, 2 
'yuij'j and take up positions 1 
liiijii^ and fear 4 Allah, 

•y*Xki pJjj so that you may succeed.' 


















i. This las i '«!>■« Jt contains four pieces of 
valuable instructions by following which the 
Muslims may jtuin success and happiness in this 
lift and id the herenhcr These are: (a) lo bear 
patiently all hardships and sufferings for the sake 
of the faith; (b) its vie in endurance in the struggle 
with the enemies of Islam; (c) to line up and be 
always ready to face the enemies and td) io fear 
Allah, i.e., lo abide .scrupulously by His 
commandment* and prohibitions (AVTabari. pL 
IV , 220-22 3 ; A I- Tafslr tiLKabir. V . ' 1 6 1 - 1 63). 
Ij^i isbiri = (you nils In-- puni-m. hear calmly, 

persevere, [v. ii, m. pi. Imperative from fabam 
[mbr], lo be patient, w bind See itifitiru at 3: 1 SO. 
p, 229. n. 7. 

2. ijyrUp s&birti = (you all) vie in endmance. bear 

stoutly (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from Subaru, form 
tit of subara. See n 1 above). 

3. ijJtnij rSbisA = (you. alll take up positions. 

move into Tightmg positions, be lined up (v. ii. m. 
pt. imperative from rubala, form IK of rohtila 
[rabt]. to bind. 10 lie Up) 

4. \jiS ittaqu = you (all) beware, be on your 

guard, fear, be afraid (v. ii. m pi. imperative from 
utaijit, form Vltl of wauH ( wacjy/witfthtth), io 
guard, safeguard. See at 3: 130. p. 207, n. 3). 

5. ityMi tnfhhuitti - you (all) succeed, be 

successful, prcspci fy, ii. m. pi, impfct- from 
'afialiu. form IV offttlahu [filth), to cleave, split- 
See at 3; 130, p. 207, n. 4j. 
























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4, SOrat Al-Nisa ' (The Women) 
(Madman: 176 'ayahs) 

Like most Madinan surahs this surah lays down important rules, particularly for the regulation and 
conduct of domestic and family affairs as well for stale and society as a whole. A good deal of it, 
however, contains rules regarding women and family. Hence it is called Suras al-Nisa", i.e., surah 
concerning women. 

It delineates the rights of women and female orphans under the care of their guardians, and specifies 
(heir rights regarding inheritance, income and marriage, thereby rescuing them from their despicable 
position under the social system of the jahitiyytrh (the system of ignorance). As family is the basic unit of 
society and the primary organization for man's happy living, rules regarding marriage and conjugal 
relationships, the question of di voice, the status of women within the family and society, the 
permissibility or otherwise of marriage between a man and a woman because of affinity, consanguinity, 
uterine or foster relationship are clearly laid down, 

[rt addition to such matters the surah deals with other aspects of society and state, emphasizing the 
need for tolerance, trust and cooperation between the individuals composing the society and cautions 
them against the conduct and attitude of hypocrites and overt and covert enemies. 

I the surah starts by addressing mankind as a whole, reminding them or their common origin and common Creator 
arid asks them to beware of Him. i.e.. (a) 10 worship Him Alone; i h i io abide by His injunctions; and (c) to remember 
the inevitable re mm and a^minuibiiny io Him. 

2. ' j-i? illaqu = you (all) beware, be on your 
guard, fear, be afraid (v. ii. m pi imperative 
from maqo, foim VIM of waqd ( waqy/ 
wiqdyah), to guard, safeguard. See at 3:100, p 
235, a. 4}. 

3. jj- khalaqa m he created, made, originated 
[v. iji- m s. past from kittiltj. to create. See at 
3:59. p. 178. it, 14). 

4. i.e.. From 'Adam, j-i- nafs is... pi. 

nafus/'tm/us)- living being, person, individual, 
nature, self Sec 'anfui at 3:185. p. 228. n. 9. 

5. i.e., Hawwo", pjj t<r»j (pi. -<jj 'axwaj) = 

wife, husband, spouse, partner, one of a pair, 
mate See at 2 102, p, it, n 10 

6. Ch bathlha a he spread, scattered abroad, 

disseminated (v. iii. m s. post from Imttith. to 
scatter See dl 2; 164, p. 77. n. 6). 

7. i.e., on one another. Ujkl— ; tasd'aluna 

(originally lalnstl'alSnui- you (all) ask. ask one 
another, make claims, demand {v. ii. m. pi. 
imprct. front iniiud'ala. from VI of sa'aia [ 
uiVj, r | to ask). 

8. r'^J "arhdm (pi.; sing, ^-j rahimfrihm) a 

wombs, uteres, kinship, blood relationships. See 
at 2:228. p. 112. n. 3. 




ijJXufJil 

' - -< . 

'A fi 

•*i Ojiii— i 

Jess 



1. O mankind, 
beware 2 of your Lord 
Who created* you 
from one individual 4 , 
and from it created its mate, 5 
and spread 6 from the two 
men in numbers and women, 
Beware of Allah by Whom 
you make claims, 7 
and of kinship.' 



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Surah 4 ; Al-Nisa- [Put (Jan') 4] 



237 












^Hfri&ii'ol Verily Allah is over you 
?j Ever- Watchful. 1 

2, And give the orphans 
their properties; 
and do not give in exchange 2 
the bad for the good 
nor eat up 5 their property 
with yourperoperty. 
Verily it is a major sin. 11 

3. But if you apprehend 5 
that you cannot do justice 6 
about the orphans 
then marry what pleases 7 you 
of the women, 8 
two or three or four; 
but if you fear 
that you cannot treat justly,* 
then one, or what 
your right hands own. 10 
That is the more appropriate" 
that you may not oppress. 12 



* * '£ 



ii*i ft 



1. i.e.. Allah watches you as well as takes care of 

you constantly, v^j raqib m Ever-Watchful, 

vigilant, overseer, supervisor, Active participle in 
the scale Of /a 71 from raqaba [ruqib/raqtibah), 
lo watch, to control, 

2. ijJ-M "i Id (atabaddali = do not change, be 

exchanged, give or take in exchange (v. ii. m, p). 
imperative (prohibition) front tabaddata, form 
V of budaht [badi). to replace See yalabuddtii 
at2:l()S,p Sl.n. 5}. 

3. \JS\s "i M Ut'kttl& m you (all) do not eat, 

consume, devour (v ii m pi inoperative 
(prohibition) from 'okala \'akh!/ma'kaF\, to eat. 
Set at 3:130. p. 206, n. 9). 

4. <-jy- hub = sin, offence, misdeed, outrage 

5. f^r- khiftum = you (all) feared, apprehended, 

were afraid of fv. ii. m. pi, past from khdfa 
[kkawf /makhdfak/khifahj. to rear. See Id 
takhafti at 3 ; 175, p 224, n. 7) 

6. Ijk-j; luijiif£l(na) - you (all) do justice, treat 

equally {v. ii. m. pi. impfcl. from 'oqsgfa, fonn 
IV of aasam [««,({], to be fair, to act justly. See 
f;jl at 3:21, p 163, n. 4). The terminal nun is 
dropped because of the particle 'an (on+Zdj 
coming before the verb). 

7. v^J» ffffco = he or it became good, agreeable it 

pleased {v. iii. at, s. past from ubfiibah, to be 
good. Seetoyyibah at 3:38, p. 170, n. 10). 

8. I.e., women other than the orphans under care. 
The pre- Islamic Arabs, like many other people, 
used to take a multiplicity of wives without any 
fixed limit and often took female orphans under 
their care as wives in order to appropriate their 
properties. The 'ayah prohibits such practices 
and asks lo lake other women as wives, selling 
the maximum limit to four if one can treat them 
impartially, or else to have only one 

9. IjU*: ta'diUHna) = you (all) treat equally, deal 

with equity, be impartial (v, ii, m. pi. impfct. 
from 'ada!a['adi/"ad&lah\. to act justly), 

10. i.e., many the slave maids that you own. 

1 1 . yijt 'sdna = more appropriate, closer, nearer. 

12. 'jJjk ta'utu{na) = you (ail) deviate from the 

right course, oppress (v, ii. m. pi. impfcl. from 
'dia [ oh'/], to oppress, distress). 



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238 



,Vjj™Ji 4 : AiNisd 1 |Piui U<a.'\ 4] 



,J, 


4. And give women (wives) 




their dowries' 


3*v 


as a compulsory gift; 1 


i^iio^ 


but if they be good 1 in your 




favour about anything of it 




on their own accord, 4 




then consume it 


J^f- -.-;- ,' 


with ease 5 and relish. 6 




5. And do not give 


ftfii 


to the incompetent ones 1 


$#$ 


your properties that 


$&$£ 


Allah has set for you 


t£ 


as subsistence;* 




and feed' them out of these 


#£B 


and clothe 10 them 


' . > * , 


and speak to them 


$&>& 


words of kindness. 11 






^1^:5 


6. And try 1 " the orphans 




until they attain 


C&!i 


the age of marrying. 


4"V "r 


Then if you perceive" 



1 C1UX4 saduqet (pi.; sing IU* fitduqaJi) = 
dowries, bridal money 

2 Uni nihtah - compulsory gift, present, 

donauon- 

3. ji litmn a they (females) become good, were 

pleased (v. jii. f. pi. past from tuba [tibtlibah], to 

be good See (<3f™ at 4 3. p. 237. n S). 

A. jJii nofs [t . pi. nufSn/'ati}u!!)= living being. 

person, individual, nature, self. Sec at 4:1, p. 
236. n. 9 Here i! a distinctive description of Ihc 
act meaning "u of themselves', "on (heir own 
accord". {AS -Tafsir at Kiiblr. V.p 1 89) 

5. ■ j> hmt' n caiy, thai which docs not entail 
any hardship ordiffiLulcv 

6. «ify mat!' = pleasing, palatable, acceptable 10 
[he nature, relishing. 

7. il+i- sufaha' (pi.; sing. v- xafth) = fools, 

stupid, impudent, incompetent. See at 2:142, p. 
67. ft- 1 Here it means minor children and 
women at immature understanding (Al-Tabart, 
pi. IV, 245) who are 1101 be put in charge of the 
properties, 

8. f Li qiyam - subsistence, means of support, 
standing, existence. See at 3:191, p. 231, n, 6, 

9. 'jijji urzuqii = you (all) feed, provide wilh 

the means of subsistence (v, ii rn pi. imperative 
front raluuu \ritif], to bestow See yutviquini at 
3:169. p. 222. n. 8). 

10. ij^i" 1 uAsii = you (all) clothe, dress, cover, 

drape (v. Li. m. pi. imperative from kiifS 
[kasw/kasy], to clot he I . See nukxu at 2:259, p. 
135. n. 7. 

U. *>jj»* ma'rSf = known, well-known, 

generally recognized, conventional, appropriate, 
fairness, kindness, beneficence, approved by 
sburi'uh (passive participle front "tiro/a/ 'ariftt 
[ma'riftth / 'iifSn], to know. See 01 3: 1 14. p. 200. 
n. 12 
12 tjiii ibtali = you (all) put to lest, put on 

probation, try (v. ii tit pi, imperative from 
iblnla. farm VIII of bald [baiw f bold'], to lest, 
to try. See ibtatd at 2: 124. p SB. n. II) 
13. fiJk ancslum = you (all) perceived. 

discerned, sensed (v. ii. m. pi. past I nun 'dnaia, 
form IV of amsa v'omuu [ imi |. to be intimate, 
sociable), 



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Surah 4 ; Al-Nba' [Part (Jus) 4) 



2M 






«*«" .T.r 



>>j 






on their part maturity 1 
then make over 3 to them 
their properties; 
and do not consume these 
extravagantly 1 and hastily 4 
fearing that they grow up; 5 
and he that is affluent 
shall be abstemious, 6 
and he that is indigent 
shall consume with equity; 7 
and when you make over B 
to them their properties 
take witnesses* on them. 
And Sufficient is Allah 
as Account Taker. 1 " 



iiyU 



ZL-rjCji 7. Men have a share 11 

of what there leave behind 1 2 
the parents and next of kin; 11 
and women have a share 
of what there leave behind 



J, , — u . 



f At* 



g>t^Si4 



the parents and next of kin - 

of Utile or much of it - 

as a share made obligatory. 14 



1 . .L* j tsahi ■ right and proper conduct, good 

sense, maturity of the mind, guidance. See at 
2:256, p. 132, n. 4. 

2. ijnbi idfa'ii = you defend, push back, drive 

away; also (when followed by the particle 'thin 
you pay, deliver, make over (v. it. in. pi. 
imperative from dafa'a \daf], to push, push 
away See at J: 167, p. 221, n. S). 

3. iMjA 'isr&f = intemperance, extravagance, 
waste, transgression. See at 3:147, p. 212, n. 10. 

4. J-it biddr - basic, hurry, speed, expedition. 

5. bjA yakbaruUm) = they grow up, become 

big, attain age (v iii. m pi impfct from kubitrtt 
\kabr], to be big. The ferrmiru) nun is dropped 
because of ihe particle '«n coming before the 
verb See hoar at 2:266, p. 139. a. 13). 

6. i.e., Ihe affluent guardian should nol lake any 
remuneration out of the prnpenks of an orphan 
ward under his care. , > ■» ■ .1 ft jaiUs'Jif = he 
Should be abstemious, should refrain (v. iii. m. t. 
imperative from itta'affa, form X of 'tiffa 
I'ijfah/afijf], 10 refrain, 10 abstain. Sec In affuj at 
2:273. p. 143, n. 6>. 

7. ije.. should take Ihe tost of looking after with 

equity Jj^mflVii/, see at 4:5, p. 238, nil. 
9 f^*i dafa'tum - you made over, delivered, 
paid, defended, pushed back (v, h, m. pi pasl 
from dufit'a , See at n 2 above) 
9 ijj^j.1 'ash-hidu = you (all) bear witness, call 

someone as a witness (v, ii. m. pi. imperative 
from 'iah-hattu, form IV of thahidti [shuhud\. to 
witness, See at 3:64, p. 180, n. 8). 

10. vr->- tta.tfb = accounmt laker, account 
keeper, comptroller, fluble. respected, esteemed. 

1 1. i. .,«> nasib (s , pi. nusubftmsiba' (tmsibtih) - 
share, portion, dividend. See at 3:22, p. 1 63, n.4. 

12. is Tiirtiia = he left, abandoned, 

relinquished, bequeathed (v. iii. m. s, pasl from 
lark. io leave. See at 2:264, p. 138. n. 7). 

13. Cijjjtf oqrabun (pi; sing. (lyrab) = near 
relations, rclaiivcs, next of kin. 

14. j>jj*» mefrfid = obligatory, made 

Incumbent, ordained (passive participle from 
titrwiu ifwl]. to make incumbent, to ordain, to 
decree. See faridah at 2:237, p, 120, n. 2), 



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Ml) 



Sumlt A : M-Nisti [Part {Jut') 4 J 



-% 8. And if there attend 1 
at the division^ 

ti^iJifjJjl the near relatives -1 

■I 

L&-, Jij^yigij and the orphans and the poor. 



!«(**j»^S give them 4 out of it 

iilWAj and speak, to them 

6j£-^T£ words of kindliness. 



9. And let those fear* who. 
^f^-ji'^Ks? ' f tr| ey leave behind them 
U^Z^ji offspring 6 all weak 7 
(H^fyk about whom they worry - 
let ihem fear 8 Allah 
and let ihem say 
»V^ words of justice.' 



~J 






Dl 






tic 



10. Verily those who eat up 

the properties of orphans 

unjustly, 

they only consume 

in their stomachs 10 a fire;" 

and they shall enter 

a burning blaze. 12 



'• /"*■ badtra = he attended, was present (v iii. 
m, s past from hudiir Sec al 2; 180, p, 85, n f>>, 

2. wi qismak = division, allotment, 
apportionment 

3. i.e.. those not entitled to inherit 

4. i.e., give them something as a matter of 
consolation before apportionment to the 
inheritors, ijijji urzuqu = you (all! feed, provide 
willl the means of subsistence, give (v, ii. ru. pi. 
imperative front ratai/ti Iriyj], to give the means 
of subsistence Sec at 4;S. p. 138, n. 9), 

5. J**J tlyaktuha - tel him fear, he should fear 
(v. iii. m. s. imperative from yukhihu, impfct 
from khitshiyu [kfiashy AJutsnyab], to fear. See 
khtuhyah at 2:74. p. 35. a 8). This instruction a 
directed to* (a) those who attend a dying person 
and suggest jo him m bequeath his properties to 
relatives and charities and asks them to think 
how they would feel if they were to leave behind 
them minor and weak children, (b) to the dying 
person himself and asks him not to bequeath his 
whole or most of his properties to other persons 
or objects disregarding his own progeny; and (c) 
to the guardians of minor orphans and asks them 
to think how they would feel if they themselves 
died leaving behind such minor offspring. (See 
AJ-TabarJ. pi. IV. 269-273- AI-Tti/slr ut-Kablr 
V, 206-207), 

6. itji dhurriyah (p|. dhurriySl/dharariyy) = 

offspring, progeny, children, descendant. Sec at 
3:33. p. 16g. n. 7) 

7 JUi tfi&f (p|. ; S1 „g. ,^_» fa'if) - wea |t, 

feeble. 

8. Ijfei! U-jmtaqS = let them fear, beware of (v. 
iii m. pi. imperative from xnunifUmi, impfct 
from titeupl form VIH of waqa [waqyfwiifdyab], 
to guard. See illai/U at 4: I, p 236, n, 1). 

9. J<J- lotlid - just, right, pertinent, apposite. 

10. ^jk batUn (pi ; sing, bain ) m stomachs, 
beliies, abdomens, wombs, inner parts. The 
expressions "eating up" and "stomachs"' are used 
here figuratively to mean alJ kinds of arrogalton 
and misappropriation (Al-Tafsir ul-KvMr. V 
208-209) 

11 ie,. such raking of die orphans' properties 
will entail punishment in hell Uhid.j 

12 jj- jo'fr (s.: pl.jw ju'ur) = burning bttae, 
hell, inferno. 



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S&mti 4 : Al-ftaS- (Part Vui"> 4| 



241 















Section \Kukif) 2 

11. Allah directs 1 you 

regarding your children: 

the male shall have the like 1 

of the share' of two females;" 

but if they are (all) females, 

two and above, 1 

they shall have two -thirds 6 

of what he 7 left; 

and if she is one 

she shall have the half; 

and for his 8 parents, 

each one of the two shall get 

one-sixth of what he* left if 

he has a child; 10 

hut if he has no child 

and there inherit from him 

his two parents," 

then the mother shall have 

one-third; 11 but if he has 

brothers and sisters 13 

then his mother shall have 

one-sixth 14 after [paying] 



1, tf^jiydlf = he directs, bids, enjoins, nukes 

incumbent, decrees by will, bequeaths (v. iii. m. 
s- impfeL from 'uw*$. from IV of wttsd [wetfyj. 
In reach, to be joined. See musH at 2: 112, n 62. 

n .8). 

2. Ji* milht (:,; pl.juJ um/frdf) = like, similar, 
equivalent. 

Ji Jij- hozz Is .; pi. *jfc» Imziiz) - portion, share, 
lot, good tuck, good thing. See at 3:176. p. 224, 
n 12. 

4. i.e.. when the deceased leaves male and female 
children, e.g., one son and one daughic* or mote 
or either sex. 

5. The apparent meaning al fitwif Utmmuyit is 
"above two"; but the sense here is two and 
above: for the next clause says "if she is one". 
which nukes it clear that ihe present clause 
means 'two and above". See also the last \i\-tih 
ofthejjJmA (4:176}. 

6. liL* ifiuluth&in) a two thirds (dual of thutuih, 

one third. The lenninni nun is dropped because 
nl tire genitive construction). 

7. i.e ., the deceased. 

8. i.e. the deceased's pnrents. 

9. i.e.. the deceased. 

10. i.e , either a son or a daughter The term 
walad is used to denote both male and female 
child. 

1 1 . i.e., if the deceased is survived by his parents 
only, along with etihet the wife or husband . 

12. i.e.. the mother shall have a third of the 
properly after paying the obligatory snare of the 
husband Or the wife or the deceased, if any. and 
the remainder will go to the father of the 
dc censed. 

13. ij»4 'ikhwah (p|,; sing, 'Akk) = brothers and 

dttBIS. (See At-Mafradat. p, 13; also see 4:176 
where ikliwuh has been used clearly to mean 
brothers and sisters). 

14. i.e.. if the deceased is survived by his parents 
and brothers and sisters bill no children of him, 
then the nwlher shall get one-sixth of the 
property and the remainder shall go to the father, 
both after the payment of the deceased's debt and 

bequests made by him, if any, j-j- sudiah (s.; 

pi. 'aiutath) - one sixth 



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242 



Surah 4 : Al-NW (Part (Jul) 4) 






r»-J*-!'J 



06 ill' j' 



*■ *. -h, -r- 



-> > - .1 















- ".i 



any bequest he has made 1 

or a debt. 2 

Your parents 

and your children — 

you do not know ? 

who of them are 

nearer" to you in benefit. 5 

[This is] An Ordinance* from 

Allah; 

Verily Allah is 

All-Knowing, All-Wise. 7 

12. And you shall have a half 

of what your wives leave 

if they do not have 

any child; 8 

but if they have 

a child 

then you shall have a fourth* 

of what they leave 

after [payment] of a bequest 

they might have made" 1 

or a debt. 



'- ^"J" jrflrf ■ he direcls, bids, enjoins, makes 

incumbent, decrees by will, bequeaths (v. iii. m. 
s. impfct from 'uwsa, from IV of waia (nufyj. 
10 reach, to be joined. Sec alp. 241. n. I 

2 j*j dayn [s . pi j„> liirmn) = debt, pecuniary 
obligation See ladavuntum at 2:282, p. 147, n. 

3). 

I. OjjX uiJruni! = you (all) know, understand, 

comprehend, are aware of (v. ii, mi pi. impfct, 
from darA [dituyah], 10 know, to comprehend). 

4. v>l 'afrflfr = closer/, nearer, nearest. 

mure/most likely (dative of aartb. See at 3:167, 
p. 221. n. 7>. 

5. £u iiaf m benefit, gain profit, use. advantage. 
welfare. 

6. «J*> faridah (s.. pi, jJ>j farci'id) = 

Ordinance of Allah, obligatory, incumbent. See 
at 2:237. p. 120. n. 2. 

7. i.e., Allah has ordained these distributive 
shares of inhen lance for I he deceased's near 
relations out of His Supreme Wisdom and 
Awareness of the welfare or mankind. 

8. i.e. any child, male or female, by you or by 
other husbands. 






9. £tj rtibu* (s., pi, (\J 'arbd') = one fourth, 

quarter. 



10. jt*x jSstrta = ihcy (fern.) moke » bequest, 

direct by will, enjoin (v. iii. f. pi. impel, from 
'fiwiti, form IV of t™_«3 See yJirf at i above). 



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S&fuh 4 ; Al-NiiS' [Pan (Jm') 4] 



243 



jit ^ _i + *'** i* 




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Cj-jI j-i ,*)j 

I. .j ntj^jj*-* 

l7"J ll 

Hi* l' 



4'^ 



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And ihey (wives) shall have 

one fourth of what you teave 

if you do not have any child; 1 

but if you have a child then 

they shall have one-eighth 2 

of what you leave 3 

after [paying] any bequest 4 

you might have made s 

or a debt. 

And if a man is inherited 4 

having no parent or child, 7 

and a woman (of same state), 

but has a brother or sister, s 

then each of the two shall get 

one- sixth;* 

but if they were 

more than that 

then they will be sharers 10 

in one-third 11 

after (paying) any bequest 

that might have been made 12 

or a debt, 

not being malevolent" — 



I. i.e.. any child, male el Female, one or mute of 

either sex, by the inheriting wife/wives or other 

wife/wives, 

2 i.e., the wife or wives will gel a total or 

one-eighth of the deceased husband's estate if he 

leaves any Child, mate or female, one or more of 

either sex, by the inheriting wife Of other 

wife/wives j*J Ihumun (S.; pi. 'alhmtbt) = 

one-eighth 

y. r&ftaraktsm = you (all) left, relinquished (v. 

ii. m. pi. past from larato [itirkl, to leave. See 
iunika at 4:7, p, 239, n 12). 

4. l-»j vasiyy«k (S., pi. nvf&ya) - bequest, will, 
testament, directive, command, injunction, order. 

5. Jtnry lusiUna - you (all) make a bequest, 

bequeath, make a testament, will (v. ii. to. pi 
implct. from 'dvvfd, farm IV of wait} [wtisy\, to 
reach, to be joined. See yiMito at p, 242. n. 10). 

6. ijj, yurolhu = he is inherited (v. in m. s, 
past passive from ivum/m | 'irih/ 'irthahJ 
mruthahf nlkMurath], to be heir, to inherit) 

7. tlHf kai&lah = a person leaving no son nor 

falhei Son includes here son's son or the latler's 
son howsoever downwards; and father includes 
here father's father and (he tatter's father 
howsoever upwards . 

8. i.e., brother or sister hy the same rnother as the 
deceased's [Sec Al-Tobarf. pi. IV, p, 287). 

9. i.e., if there is a brother or a sister by the same 
mother, he or she will gel one-sixth of the 
deceased's estate. ^Jj sudus (s.; pi. Yudd» = 
one -smth. See at 4: 1 1, p 242, n 14. 

10. •Vf J A ihuraka' (pi . s. shank) partners. 

sharers 

11. i.e., if there are two or more brothers and 
sisters, they will share equally, whether male or 
female, one-third of the deceased's estate. 

12. l p*n yHtS = he or it is willed, bequeathed. 

given by testament, directed, ordered (¥- lii- TO- s. 
impfct passive from 'atvid, form IV of Mfujfl. 
See tuiuna at n. f> above). 

13. i.e., if the bequest is not made to damage or 
harm the lawful heirs, sucfl as the deceased's 
having given away by will more than the 
permissible one -third of the total estate. JJ~> 
mudarr = malevolent, detrimental, damaging, 
harmful, prejudicial. 



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M4 



SSrah 4 ; Al -NW [Fart (VaO 4] 



.** 



^^,*~—^3 a commandment 1 of Allah. 
i~&iilj Allah is All -Knowing, 2 
J^p JLjX Most Forbearing. 3 

j 1 3.These are Allah's rulings;" 1 
*^^?-i^iJ*j and whoever obeys 5 Allah 
xJj^jj and His Messenger, He 



j wil! admit* him into gardens 
\~-fd ^iS j-^, flowing beneath them 

jljJiVf the rivers, 
1^4-i ^O-^Jii *o abide 1 for ever therein; 

s^ffl j and that is 



jl_-ii]ljyj^ the magnificent* success. 5 



•j 14, And whoever disobeys 1 



j ^„: 



p-Jj—jjiui Allah and His Messenger 



)<~> 



and transgresses 1 'His rulings, 
4^ He will insert him into a fire, 



L-fc-^UJ^-j" to remain for ever therein, 
I j and he will have a 
h* very debasing. 11 



JLiIJi ,jJ j and he will have a punishment 



Section {Rttk&') 3 

^jfc^tj 15. And those who commit 



1 . i.e.. these rales are Allah's commandment. 

2. i.e.. particularly whether you abide by his 
commandments. 

3. fjf Iwlim = Most Forbearing, Most Clement 
See at 2235, pi 19. n. 21. 

4 J>to- Aurf&f (pi.; sing, tuuld} = edges, 

boundaries, limits, Allah's rulings/ injunctions/ 
orders, See at 2:230, p 1 J4. n. 6. 
5. fk yuri' (originally jiqfjt) = he obeys, 
follows, complies with (v hi, uv s irapfcl. from 
'atii's. form IV of Ida (tuw '), Co obey. The last 
letter is vowelless and M the medial ya' is 
dropped because the verb is in a conditional 
clause (preceded by muit ). See 'am al 3:132. 
p. 20?.n 6) 

6- J**i jiiB*fti/(«) b he admits, enters (in the 

transitive sense), puts in, inserls.(V. lii. m. s. 
impfct from 'adthola. form IV of daktmlu 
[dukhAt\, io enier The last letler is vowelless 
because the verb is [be conclusion of a 
conditional clause. Sec tudkhil al 1:192, p, 231, 
n. 14). 

7. &*** Maffiiut (acc/gen. of mtidtot. pi. of 

kMtid) = living for ever, abiding for ever, 
everlasting, eternal (active participle from 
khuluda \ttiutadl. la live for ever. See at 3:191!. 
p. 234, ii. 3) 

3, f^li* 'ajifli = great, magnificent, splendid. 

stupendous, big. huge, immense, criminous, 
tremendous. See at 3; !?<!, p 226, n_5). 
9 jji fawt ■ success, triumph, victory, 
achievement. See mufuzuh at 3: 1 88, p. 230. n. 7. 
10. j»t jw'fj{ji) = he disobeys, defies (v. iii. m. 

s. impfct. from "ayd Vafy/mitjiytih /'tpun). to 
disobey. The last letter yd' is vowelless and 
hence dropped for the reason staled al n 5 above 
See usttytum tit 3:152. p. 214, n, 4). 
1 1 -w* yata'addrtii) = he transgresses, 
oversteps, crosses me limits, acts nuiragcnuKlj 
(v.. iii, m, s. impfct. from la'adda, form V of 
add [Wn], to run, to Speed The final yd' is 
vowelless and hence dropped for the reason 
staled at , n. 5 above. See al 2:229. p 113, n ft). 
12. j^f ntithin - humiliating, disgraceful. 

debasing, ignominious, (active participle from 
ahdna, form IV of Wkrtf [Atth/iiJ, io be easy, to 
be of little importance. Sec al 3:178. p. 225, n. 
tV). 



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Surah A : Ai-NinS' [Parr(Jui') 4| 



245 




adultery 1 
*y- from among your women, 
\^& 1 jjl£J& call to testify 2 against them 
=^J *^Z';i four from amongst you.' 

>jlfl^ So if they testify* 
^L^^—iU then retain them 
Oji^f 4 in the houses 
&&\y$£.j£* till death takes them* fully 
jA<uiJ^Jl or Allah sets for them 
® ^M- a way. 7 

u ' Jij 16- Arid" the two 8 who 

"rj commit it from amongst you, 
Lijilij punish 9 them (the two); 
i U; j^i if they repent and reform, 
l""?t~ [■.■> Ji|j then turn away 12 from them. 









£l^»'*at ji Verily Allah is 
l£yl Most Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 



■s^ULii 17. Verily forgiveness 1 ? 
*^ "= on Allah's part 
—-jAJ is for those who do 14 












I IMi fdkishah {$,; pi ^J^i} fawMlfh) a vile 

deed, grave sin. monslrosiry. adultery, 
fornication See at 3: US, p. 208, n. 2. 

2. Ij>4 * • -i iilash-kidS - you (all) call lo witness. 

lo testify, id attest (v. li. m. pi. imperative from 
ittushhada, form X of skuhidu [shahud\ t lo 
witness. See at 2:282. p. 148, n 5>. 

3. i.e., four Muslim men 

4. i.e., lo the guilt and it is proved. jJ+i 

shahldS = they bore witness, witnessed, attested, 
testified [v. iii. m. pi. past from tbahida, 
[thuhud], to witness. See at 3:86. p. 190. n I) 

5. ijS> — ^ 'amsiki = you (all) hold, keep, retain 

(v. ii. m. pi. imperative from itmsaka, form IV 
of manuka {mask], io grasp. See at 2:23 1 . p. 132. 
n. 12}. 
6 - jy* yfawaffS = he takes, fully, receives in 

full (v iii. in. s. imprcl from umaffil, from V of 

w/a [iivi/ii'/nri/vj, to be perfect, to fulfil. See 

Ittmiffa al 3:193. p. 232. n. 7). 

7. The way is specified in 24:2 which overrides 

this dyaA (See Ion Kathir. II, 204-205). 

B i.e.. [be adulterer and the adulteress 

9. ijA 'ddKd = you (all) punish (v. ii. m pi. 
imperative from ~Hdhii. form IV of 'adhiyti 
[Whan], to suffer harm. See 'idhi at J: 1 95. p. 
213. n.3). 

10, IfU (dM n they (two) returned, turned to (v. 

iii. hi dual past from tabu [ tawb/iawbah / 
malub]. Technically it means, in respect of man, 
to turn to Allah in penitence and with resolve lo 
reform, and in respect of Allah, 10 turn in 
forgiveness Sec taba at 2: 1 87, p. 89. n. 8}. 
J l. inUl 'atlalfd - the two reformed, mended 

(v. iii. m. dual past from 'ttslahu, form IV of 
nahba \sat8h/su(6h/\tilShiyah\. lo be good, 
nghl See 'aslaha at 2:1&2, p. 86, n, 7). 
12, The rale in this '6ytih has been superseded 
by 24:2, >j>jM 'a'ridH = you (all) turn nway. 

abandon, avoid (v. li, m. pi. imperative from 
'a 'rada, form IV of 'aruda /'arada [ ard\ lo be 
wide, visible, See rmt'rlfSn at 3:23. p. 164, n. 3). 
13 Seen 10 above 

14. Ci>*^ ya'nteMna = they do. perform, act. 

work (v. iii. in. pi. irnpfct. from 'amitti | amul), 
to do. See 'amitai at 3:30, p. 167, n 2). 



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246 



Strah 4 : Al-Nisd' [Put (to) 4] 



^j^i^l the evil 1 in ignorance 2 
ii£/ji>*ijL! and then turn in repenatance' 
^-i^j* shortly afterwards; 4 
iLdjti such ones 
• "r '$^jjC Allah turns in forgiveness to; 



^'if-ijjf -i^ an ^ Allah is All-Knowing, 
£p li^=a All-Wise. 



^p'v — Jj 18. Forgiveness is not 



./j&l for those who 



:-^r r fr -t' - 



I _'-■-» * ' 



MS: 



do the evil deeds* 

till when there appears* 



-^j^'^-^i death to anyone of them 
^Iti-u^Ji he says: " I repent now"; 
oyjr^U^^'i nor for those who die 8 
jli^Bo^ij while they are unbelievers. 
rijajjl Such people, 
-iillHii We have got ready 9 for them 
t^\LS)\l\j*. an agonizing 10 punishment. 

;.*-,- 19. O you who believe, 
pj jjC'V it is not lawful" for you 
*OiiyjJ that you inherit ll the women 



I ij-> Hi' (p >v' ti"vu') = evil, ill. offence, 
injury, calamity, misfortune, bad deed. Sec at 
3:174, p. 224, n. 3). The ayah points oul thai 
forgiveness may be expected only if one commit; 
a sin in ignorance and turns lo Allah in 
repentance as soon as one realizes it. 

2. iH#» jahdlah = ignorance, unawareness, 
folly. Scejdhilln at 2:67, p. 32, n. 6. 

3. tijijrt yatUbSna = they turn in repentance (v, 

iii. m pi. mipfci from (aba \tawbjtawbah / 
rruiuih], to turn. Sec labii at 4: 1 6, p. 243, n. 10). 

4. — , ) t/artb - near, close by. not far away. See 

al 2: IS6. p. 88. n. 10, It applies to both lime and 
space, mm qarib means, in respect of time, 
shortly afterwards, quickly. 

5 ol^. sayyi'Sl (pi., s.i^ jtiyyi'tth) = ervil 
deeds, misdeeds, bad Sides, offences, sins. Sec 
™yji'ahal2:8l.p. 38. n. 3, 

6 j-"" kedarv - he appeared, al [ended, was 
present (v. iii. m s. pasi from haJGr See al 4;6, 
p. 240, n, 1). 

7, iiJ tubiu = I turned in repentance (v. i. s. 

past from t&ba. See n. 3 above See also at 
2:160, p. 75. n, 12). 

8. tiyy* yamOrSna = they die (v, iii. m. pi. 
iinpfcl. from miiui [muni], la die. 

9 tan 'a'tadna = we prepared, got ready (v. i. 

|i] ]sjm in fnriii IV hi 'attttla \'uiHti], ta be 
ready) 

10, (Ji 'altm a agonizing, anguishing, very 
painful. Sec al 3: 1 86, p. 230, n °. 

I I ■ J"< yahillu s= it is lawful, petmitled. aJlowed 

(v. iii m. s impfct. ftom hallu [hill], lo be 
allowed. See m 2:229. p. 1 12. n J 2), 

12. ijj terithu[na) = you fall) inherit be heir to 
(v. li. m. pi, impfct from waritha {winh/ ink/ 

irthahAvirSthalt/rMmitfturish}, [o inherit The 
lerminal n&n is dropped because of Itie particle 

an coming before the verb. See yurathu at 4J2. 
p. 243, n, 6). Jn pre- Islamic Arabia ihc deceased's 
successors inherited his wives as chattels and 
cither they ihcmselves mamed ihose women or 
gave (hem in marriage and appropriated the 
bridal money. Even sans married Ineir fathers' 
ei-wivcs (not tnolbers). The 'ayah prohibits 
Ihcse practices and gives women a respectable 

Stilus. 



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Surah 4 : M-Nisil - [Pail f>; ') 4 J 



247 



'J 



ij.^ against their will;' 
rij and you shall not bar their 
:>|jjd marrying that you may take 
G jaZ, away* part of what 
j-*j*^li you have given them 
^"it^l except that they commit 
jij <i*«i a monstrocity* utterly clear. 5 

oi-j/^j And live * with lhem 
oj^Ull with fairness and kindness; 7 

tS*>^^^ for even if you dislike 8 them, 

ijA>Sol Zff— * it may be that you dislike 

lLL£ a thing 

^i^'J^j while Allah sets in it 

^ ; — A j*. immense good. 

P-u'ij 20. And if you intend 
^l.lil'- 7 to substitute' a wife 
gjj^Ls=aJ for another wife 
ipj<l] ^iy^*j a|1 d you have given the one 
IjLlaJ of them a great deal, 10 
^ij-ta-liSij do not take from it 



anything. 
Will you t 
i: ;^ ' * by false accusation 11 



.i^iL'61 Will you take it 



1. *fi \tarh - againsi will, dislike, rejection, 
aversion, antipathy. See si 3:83. p. 188. n. 10, 

2. <jl~«i M U la'duta = you (all) do not hinder, 

prevent, constrict, bar (v. ii. m. pi imperative 
{prohibition] from 'aiaia i'adl). to prevent!. 
See at 2:232. p. 1 15. n. 9). 

3. Ij^J) tadh-habS{na) = you (all) go (v. ii. m. 

pi, impfcl. from dtiakaba [dhihSbfmadHtudf], 10 
go, When followed by the particle bi il means lo 
lake away The terminal nun is dropped because 
of a hidden 'an in the panicle li {in the sense of 
ktiy \ coming before the verb. 
4 J-L»-ti Jik'ahah s,; (pi. j--? fw»&hifh) = wile 

deed, grave sin, monstrosity, alrocily. adultery, 
formication. Here it means both adultery and 
stark disobedience (See Al-Buhr, til. 568-569; 
Ibn Kaihlr, 11, 21 l». See at 4:15, p. 24S. n. I. 

5. *v mubayyiadh = manliest, thai which 

make* clew. Utterly clear (active participle, f . 
from bayyana, form II of banu [ bayiin], to be 
clear See ombln at 3:164. p. 220, n. 8). If the 
women are guilty of adultery or open 
disobedience they may be forced to give back 
pan in bill of the dowry given to them, See also 
2:239, 

6. 'j^l* '&shirQ - you (all) live with , give 

company, live conjugally (v, ii, m. pi, imperative 
from 'asharti, form [II of 'uthura { 'ashr/'ushr], 

10 divide into tenths, to collect the lithe). 

1, t-*j>«» ma'r&j = known, well -known, 

generally recognized, conventional, appropriate, 
fairness, equity, kindness, approved by shari'tih 
(passive participle from 'arafa/'ahfa [ma 'rifah / 
irfan]. to know. See at 3:1 14, p. 200, n. 11. 

8. ^*.f karihtum = you tall) disliked, detested, 
abhorred, hated (v. ii m. pi. past from kuriha 
Ikurli/lmrtiAtittihiyah], to dislike, to detest. 

9. Ju^i ulihdial = to substitute, lo exchange 

(verba! noun in form X Of bmlata [budl\, 10 
replace See la latubaddalu al 4:2, p 237, n, 2). 

10. ,.U-i qinfar (t; pi. ?undfir)= a Varying 

weigh! of measure, a hoard, an accumulated 
wealth, a great deal. See at 3:75. p. 1 84. n. 6. 

1 1 i.e., by falsely accusing the wife of ftihishah 
(At-Btdxr, HI, 573). iiu* buhlaa = slander, 
calumny. 



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248 



SSnth 4 : Al-Niia- [Fan </«iT 41 



t^ II^lJi j and as a manifest sin? 

■Aijj^L; k_iJ3 2 1 . And how can you take it 

^aiij^j while there has attained 
j^JiX-aiC each of you to the other 2 
^h-^j^j and they have taken from 
you a tough ? covenant? 4 




'j>4^^ 22. And do not marry 3 
3L_< i* *x;U whom your fathers married 
of women, 
jj^^I save what is over. 7 
i^±^&=>£j\lt indeed is a grave sin 8 
liiij and an abomination,* 

\^lj and evil 10 is it as a way. 
rgj Section (RhAu') 4 

Zk^oJ&J^'J- 23. Prohibited" to you are 
•J il ~^ £1 your mothers, 11 
^j'i'j and your daughters," 
S'^mj and your sisters, 14 

li.} and your paternal aunts, 15 
' \i£j and your maternal aunts, 18 
gi\ iCj and brother's daughters, 17 
srWfocTj and sister's daughters, 18 



1. ,j^ 'afdi = he reached, arrived, came, 

aitained (v. in in s. past in from IV of fadii 
\JudutvlfiidiY], id be wide, lo be cm pi v.). 

2. i.e., each of the (wo has enjoyed ihe other 

3. j^ ghatiz = sacred, inviolable, solid, lough, 
harsh, thick. See at 3:159, p 2 IS, n 6 

4. JtV nri&dtj (i.-, pi. j^V maivdrtffl) = 

covenant, pact, solemn agreement. See at 3:81, 
p. 1 87, n. 8. 

5. Ijnfc; V ti tunkihu i (you all) do not many 

(v. ti. m. pi. imperative [prohibition} from 

nakiiha \ntkaS]\, lo marry, See al 2:211. p 108, n 

2) Although Ihe prohibitum is formulated in Ihe 

form of an address to men, il invariably applies 

10 women loo. Htuliilii muhmdis. 

f> The word mi here bears the sense of man 

(whom! 

7. ji- latafa = he or il was ovet. past, bygone 

l.v in tii. s, past from suiaf. to be over. See al 
2:275. p. 144.0 12. 

8. 1^j-Li fahisbah. sec al n. 4. p. 247. 

9. c-u "letfl - abomination, hateful, aversion, 
detestation, odious. 

10. *L, f&'a a he or it became fou). bad, evil (.v. 
ill. m, s, past from i&'ftow'. to be bid, 

1 1 . o^j*- kurrimol = she was forbidden, 

prohibited, made unlawful, made inviolable (v. 
in f. s. post passive from tiarramu, form II of 
Imrunui/ tymmu, to be prohibited. See al 3:50. p. 
175, n. 12). 

12. Molhcrs include both paternal and maternal 
grandmothers, however upwards. 

13. Daughters include grand-daughters, however 
downwards, through sons and daughters. 

14 Sisters include both full and half-sisters. 

15 o'i^. 'ammSt [pi ; s —> timmtih) - paternal 
aunls. including sislcrs of grandfathers. 

16. (SfTIv* khilSt (p!.; s. *»- khaluh) - maternal 

aunls. These include sisters of maternal 
grandmothers as well. 

17. Hrolher's daughters include brother's 
grand -daughters howsoever downwards. 

IS. Sister's daughters include sister's 
grand- daughters howsoever downwards These 
(i.e.. nos. 12 to 18) are the seven categories or 
prohibited degrees in respect of blood 
relationship 



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Surah 4 : AlNi*a' [Part (/«.'"] 4] 



249 



jj^\ ^^iijand your mothers who 

pA**j1 breast-fed you, 1 

ft -*"^ 
^-^auy-lj and your sisters 

£*-—»/ , ,^2 by virtue of breastfeeding, 2 

>jLjo^-iij and your wives' mothers," 

r==wjjj and your step- daughters" 

ij«-4^ wno are under your care* 

^Cl^j ,ji born of your wives 

^.."•fc't jjf you have cohabited with; 6 

'jijXJ^ j^ but if you have not had 

l^+>j*^L'i cohabited with them 

Jilt -v^-L <\\ then no sin will be on you; 7 

Ij^JuIJl^Lj and the wives 8 of your sons 

^^iLLt^ £jr;JjC who are born of your loins;' 

i JLIjO'^j and that you conjoin 10 

between two sisters 

JjU'J] except what has gone by, 

^t'^\^£j[ Verily Allah is 

ij^ix. Most Forgiving, 

■j Most Merciful. 




j* * ,* « * > ^ 



I jmj' 'arda'na s ihey breastfed, gave suck. 

suckled (v lii. f, pi past from 'urda'a, from IV 
of rada'a irad'/rudci'uh/rtdu'}. 10 brea'it-fccd 
Sec yurds'mA at 2:233. p. 1 16, n. 4). This part of 
the Th-uri mentions the prohibited degrees 
because of fosterage or breastfeeding. 

2. i. e_, daughters of mothers who breastfed a 
person - foster sisters, They are prohibited 
degrees far that person. It is to be noted Umt 
though only foster- mothers and foster sisters are 
mentioned here, they also resolve into the same 
categories 3S mentioned in respect of blood 
relations (see Bukhurt, no S0^9l Muslim, no. 
1444). 

3. Wives' mothers become prohibited by the very 
fact of marriage with their daughters, whether the 
marriage is consummated by cohabitation or not 
(See the next clause of the ayah. Also see Ibn 
Kathfr. II. 217) 

4 — \j rubd'ih (p|.; s i-,, rublbah) = wife's 

daughter! by other husband/husbands, 
step-daughters (passive participle from mbhti 
[rubb/ribubah.], to bnng up, to be lord. They are 
so called because they are usually brought up by 
their mothers' subsequent husbands 

5 jf°- bajur (pi., s.^— hijr/hujr) = lap, 
guardianship, care, prohibited, understanding. 
The expression "under your care" Is descriptive: 
it is not sttpulaiLvc of the condition of the girl's 
being of a prohibited degree. The prohibitory 
condition is cohabitation Hence a man may 
marry a wife's daughter by another husband if he 

divorces that wife before consummation. 

u «JUj dakhaltum = you (all) entered, went in 

(v. ii in pi. past from dukhtila [dukhul], to enter. 

Sec yatMita it 4 II p. 244. n 6, When 

followed by the particle bi and the object is 

a woman the verb gives (he sense of 

cohabitation, 

T. i.e.. there will be no sin in marrying the 

daughter of thai wife. 

8. JT**- hala'il (pi. ; s. iU- haltluh) = wives. 

9. i.e., sons of your own procreation. Hence 
wives of adopted sons are not of a prohibited 

degree v*-»T *fff'4* [pi : s.^l- lulb) = spina] 

columns, backbones, loins, solid, rigid. 

10. i.e., joining together of two sisters at the 
sonic lime is prohibited. Hence marrying one 
sister after the death or divorce of another is not 
prohibited. 



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250 



SUrnh 4 ■ 41 nW [ Pan < Jui') 5| 



PartC/(;z')V 



> ^ s •>;',' 



j 24. And those in wedlock 






tE^S* of the women, 3 

- ■; 

^-V^ save those 

l ^ = 3. ". -4'*^U whom your right hands own' 
it^A -a writ* of Allah upon you - 
J3 JJj and lawful* is made for you 
j'UTJJl; what is beyond 6 that 
'■j3JZj\ provided you seek 7 [them] 
,>4yu with your money 
0\-jj; for being in wedlock, 8 
■ ; •'■'?<■ not for being fornicators. 9 
.*Ju£*Ait£3 So whoever you enjoyed 10 

^^iiy.^t °f them, give them 
■jjji^^aj^-' tne ' r dowries' 1 as a due; 12 
^x^M-o^ but no sin lies on you in 
.*.*i^5tlj wnat y° u mutually agree 1 ' to 
l^bij&^L'.j. after the fixing of the due. 
L*-^jfciJilijl Verily Allah is All-Knowing, 
^C^- All-Wise. 

jV^^j-S 25. But he who is not able 1 * 
^ jisj^w; of you in material means 15 



1. ^l-u^ m«A,ja/i<?f <f pi,, s, mufcivnuA, m 

mu/i^in) - I unified, rendered inaccessible, i.e., 
the women whose chastity is fortified by their 
being mimed, also free and chaste women, 
maidens [passive participle from 'tihfana, form 
]V of husurm [ ttatdtwh], to be fortified) 

2. i.e., such women also are prohibited 

3. s.e , captive women, if they are unnamed of 
their husbands remain in the enemy icmiury 
{Stifwar, p. 1 12). cSl- matokaS = she owned, 

possessed, seized, held (v. iii. f, s. past from 
multiku [malk A'ltilk/ milk], 10 possess). 

4. i.e.. these directives are Allah's writ 

5. J>-l 'uhilla = he or it is made lawful, made 

permissible (v. iii. m. s. past passive from 
'vhtillu, from IVortdUo [hall/hitt], to unbind, to 
solve, to be lawful, See a! 2: I B7, p. 89, n. 4). 

6. i'jj warn" = beyond, behind, over and above. 
See at 2:9 1, p 43, n 10 

7. i>ii tabiagM£i[ii<i\ - you {all) seek, desire 
Scea[2:l°7, p. 96. n. B), 

8. j**** muhsintit (aceJgen. of muhunun, s 

muhun) = chaste men, men who fortify their 
chastity by being in wedlock. See it I above). 

9. ^'-j miiiii/iAifl (acc/gen. of mu.tdfihun, s, 

mustifth) ■= fornicators (act. participle from 
S&fuha, form III Of iiifuhd [Stlfilfsufelt:}. to Shed 1. 

10. puJ Mfomla'l'um - you (all) enjoyed. 

relished (v ii. in pt. paSI from tslamlu'a, form X 
of miiia'a [mul'/mul'ah], to take away. See 
lamtifla'a at 2 196. p. 94, n, 1 4). 

11. jj»' 'ujSr {pi. I. s.j»' '(!//■) - remunerations, 
dowries, bridal sums. See at .1:1 ii. p. 228, n. 13 

12. L«/ faridah (s.; pi. furd'id) b Ordinance 
or Allah, obligatory. See at 4: 1 1, p. 242. n. 6 

1 5. i.e., agree to give or lake more or less. f^>V 
larddaytum - you (all) mutually agreed, came to 
terms (v, ii. m. pi past from lan'tdii, form V! of 
rudiyu {ridan/ridwan/maritiih]. to be satisfied. 
See fufdaW at 2:232. p. 1 15. r>. II ). 

14. ,»V— i ^1 lam yastafi' (originally ymiafl'ui = 

he was not able (v. lit. m. s. inmpfcl, from 
ulKKi'ii, fonn X of la'a [taw'], to obey. See 
isiatau at 2:217, p. 105, n. 1 1). 

15, jj* («»■/ = material means, affluence, 
financial case, power, might 



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SArtik 4 : At-Nist ' [Pan Uttz) 5 J 



251 




£-==*-^ljI to marry 

" -*' free believing maidens, 1 
:f i* then of those 
J whom your right hands own^ 
-^ of your believing lasses 1 
, !,?*■, - and Allah is Best Aware 

pit I 4J)I j 

^^ L of your faith - 

<j j^j : J^JZJLZ y° u are °f ° ne another; 4 

f-V^j'uY &0 marr y tnem 
&*&1tjSL with their guardians* consent 

Si^^L^y 1 *^ and pay them their dowries 

J*,j^JL> with equity and fairness, 

V^*-^ they being chaste 

^^— *j?- not being fornicators 

i^lo'ii^^j nor taking" paramours. 9 

^£*.\%& So when they are wedded,' 

Oioji tner if they commit adultery 

JLl; Lii tnen on m em shall be a half 

iiii" U£ of what is on the free women 



^UlJl^^r* of the punishment. 
C*&^4$£k This" is for him who fears 11 

o~Ji committing fornication 11 

r>-~» from among you; 



J. ^jki^*^ muhasanat [f pi,. * inuhsunuh. m 

mufijrtn) = forti Tied, rendered inaccessible, i.e., 
Ihe women Whose chastity 15 fortified by iheir 
being married, also free and chaslc women, 
maidens See al 4:24. p, 250. n. 1 ). 

2. i.e. slave maids o£i- malaiaJ = she owned. 

possessed, seized, heJd (v. iii. f. s past from 
miilukit \nuilk fntutk/ milk], lo possess, Sec al 
4:24,p.JS0.n M 

3. oLi falayat ( f pi.; s /uldfr, m. fattin) a 

young girls, young women, lasses. 

4. i.e.. you arc of one another in ultimate on pin . 

5. J*f 'flM (s.l pl-jji" 1 '(lAMfl/JbiVtidfin) = 

family, kinsfolk, inhabitants, belonging to a 
particular trade, profession or special] Mlion. the 
one e Mil led to or having die possession of, hence 
guardian. 

6. jj^ ma'ruf = known, well-known, 

generally recognized, conventional, appropriate. 
fairness, equity, good, kindness, beneficence, 
approved by shuri'uh (passive participle from 
'timftrf'urifa [ma'rijah t 'itfun], 10 know, lo 
recognize- See at 4:19, p. 247. n. 7>_ 

7. £it»M — i musSfihdt (f. pi. s. musd}V}uh, rn. 

masHfiisl women fornicator^ (.act. participle from 
fa/aha. form HI of tafuha \.tajh/tttfih). to shed, 
lo pour out. See mu.mjihm ;ii 4:24, p. 25th. n. 9), 
g. ctU*Oi multakhidhal (f, pi.; s. multnitudiuih, 

no. muittikhMh) - those who lake on, hake for 
themselves, lakers, adopters (act participle from 
ithikiuidlut, fortn V||| of 'vkiiy&w [ 'tfkhiih). lo 
take See Id taltiiklntllm at 3:1 IB. p. 202. n. 6), 

9 ju^l akhdan (pi , s, a*> khidn) = intimate 

friends. Companions, secrcl friends (fur either 
boy or girl), illicit partners (for man or woman), 
paramours 

10 _-*-' 'uhsinnu - Ihcy (f.l are fortified, 

rendered inaccessible, i.e., taken in wedlock, 
wedded (v, iii. f. pi. pusl passive from ahfuna. 
form IV ni Iwtunn [husunuh\, to be fortified, io 
be inaccessible. See irnth$antit al h. I above). 

1 1 . i.e.. this provision for marrying slave maids. 

12. pJ -i^ khashiya - he feared, was afraid of, 

apprehended [v. iii. in. s. past from khiuky 
/khiahyuh, lo fear. See ti-yakhsha at 4:9, p. 240. 
n 5) 

13. 'anal = mistake, adultery, fornication. 



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Surah 4 AINitu' [Part (Jar) 5) 



■jj^ju j'j and that you be patient 1 
?>Jj>^- is the belter for you. 
«y And Aliah is 
j>^ Most Forgiving, 



~TJ 



Most Merciful. 



Section (fluftfi') S 
^Ijoj 26. Allah intends 3 
p^Z*^ to make clear* 1 to you 
^=6 j^-'} and to guide you to 
Sr'JJijii, ^e ways 5 of those 
before you 6 
: Qy$ and to forgive 7 you; 
f^-^h and Allah is All-Knowing, 8 
: ^ 2& all-Wise. 9 

juy/rttj 27. And Allah intends 
iCit-Spoi to forgive you 




( ^jl'-Ajyj but there intend those who 

fj>--~ follow 10 the desires 

ij,u; J that you deflect 

i^Jj,r. y", in an enormous tilt. 

«»&£ 28. Allah intends 
|jCi -ji^J to make light 12 on you; 



1. 'jjf— " iffifAirti(no) = you be patient, persevere 

(v. ii. m. pi impfct. front Sahara \mhr\, lo be 
pattern, to bind, The terminal nun ii dropped 
because of the particle 'tut coming before (he 
verb See at 3: 1 86. p, 129, n. 7), 

2. jJ- khcyr - good, belter, bell, Sec at 3:198, p. 
234, n 5. 

3. -V> jurirfu = be intend:, desires, has in mind 

(v, iii. m- s, impfct. form 'tirSda, for IV from r&da 
[rimd], 10 walk about. Sec at 3:108. p. 198. ft. 6). 

4. it., His directives and rales of guidance, j^ 

yubayyinainai - be makes clear, elucidates. 
explains (v. iii. m. s. impfct. frum bayytuui, form 
It of bdaa | bay6n\, to be clear. The terminal 
letter geis faihah because of a hidden 'an ihc 
particle t&m {li, of molivnlion] Coming before the 
verb. See ai 3:1 03. p. I96.n 13). 

5. j*- sunan (pi.; stng •— .tuimahi * ways of 

dealing, usages, practices, customary procedures 
□faction, norms. See al 3:137, p. 209, n. I. 

6. is, lb: Prophets and Messengers who have 
gone before, [t is an emphasis on the completion 
of I tie some religion through the Prophet 
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on 
him, 

7. --■,.* yaiuhaiu) = he fonjives, he turns to. he 

returns (v. iii, m, s. imperative [ from tabu [tawb, 

tawhtih / malab}. lo luff) The final letter takes 

juthiih for the reason stated al n 4 above. Sec n 4 

above. .See at: 128, p. 206, n, 6). 

3. i.e., of the Situations and weaknesses of His 

servants so that He is Most Forgiving |o ihem 

9. i.e., in the rales He lays down for man. 

JO. jj«* yaiiahi'iina = they follow, obey, pursue 

(v. iii. m pi. jrnpfvl from iltab'a, form VIII of 

labi'a Itabu'/fabU'tih). to follow. See itlaba'6 at 

.1:174, p. 234. n. 4) 

11. IjL-~ lamttuina) = you (all) delicti, lilt, 

incline, bend (v ii. m. pi. impfct, from mdlu 
\mnyi /maytan\. to incline The terminal niin is 
dropped because of the particle an before the 
verb), 

12. i.e.. the rales of shtirl'ah- J"** yukhaffifaitt r 

a he tnokes light, lightens, cases, softens (v. iii. m. 
s, impfct from khaffatu, form 11 of khaffu 
[khiffah]. lo be light. The last Seller lakes faihah 
for the particle 'an be Ton! the verb. See yukhaffufu 
at 3:88, p. 190, ft. 6). 



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SwruhA ;M-NW\VanUui"iS\ 



253 






jiljri^ Jj*-j for man has been created 1 
i^«^> weak. 2 



-'.'j j 



;**,' 29. O you who believe, 



Sj£-I £fc"l r V do not eat up 1 your properties 
r^=^_ as between yourselves 
jiij't illegitimately,* 
<-^f^ j'iVi except that it is 
i^jjyftlj^ a trading by mutual consent 5 
p^| of yours; 
'J^iiijuji'^j' nor kill yourselves.* 

P^joE iii jji Verily Allah is towards you 



*^y^— rf- Most Merciful. 






<, i ^ ■ *" *^ 



ii^ijii^j 30. And whoever does that 
Llij lijii, aggressively' and wrongly 8 



S^-s We shall set him on* 
[>t fire; 
i^'jiil^=3 ^d mat i s 0n Allah's part 



Wi 



^ijc easy. 



hi 






:j! 31. If you avoid" 
C^L£s3 the major sins 12 of what 



1. jU- khuliqu - he is created, brought into 

being (v, iii, m. s past passive from khalaqa 
\kahiq\. to create. See khalaqtu al 3:1&I, p. 231, 
n. I0>. 

2. i.e.. weak against desires and temptations. 

Jl*a rfa'tf (pi. dutifi'/drdf/fa'fah} = weak. 

frail, feeble, debilitated, deficient (passive 
participle in form fit 'it of dti'ufa [du'ftdu'f\. to 
be weak. See w 2:282, p. 148, n. 2. ' 

3. ijisli if ta m'kuiA = you (all) do not est. 

consume, devour (v. ii m pi imperative 
(prohibition] from 'akala I'ukhl/rtsu'kttl], lo eat 
See at 4:2. p. 237, n. 3). 

4. i.e., in ways not sanctioned by the shuri'ak. 
such as theft, robbing, cheating, usury, gambling 
and the like. This 'Uyak enjoins making financial 
and property transactions sirialy in accordance 
With the rales laid down by the thari'ah and 
prohibits the taking; of other's, property by 

illegitimate means Jj»l, bSfil - vain, futile. 

untruth, that which is untrue, false, falsehood, 
vain, baseless, void. jIaji. bi ai-bMl = in vain, 
falsely, illegitimately See at 3:191. p. 231. n 
It. 

5. Jt\j larddin - mutual consent. See 
tttr&taytum at 4:24, p. 2S0, n, 13. 

6, 1, e . do not kill One another of yourselves , 
7. CjtjJt 'ueVdtt = hostility, hostile action, 
aggression, enmity. Sec at 2: 1 93, p. 93. n. 2. 
S, fiir zulm = wrong, injustice, iniquity, 
oppression. See at 3: HIS, p. 198. n. 7. 

9. 1 _ f L*i nufli - we fry. broil, mast, sol on fire (v. 

i. pi, impfct, from Wd. form IV of $at& \uiian/ 
sulty/ silS'). to toast, 

10. ^ yasir = easy, simple, insgnificanl. 

1 1 IjjfflpJ tajtaaibS{na\ = you (all) avoid, keep 

away, steer clear {v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 
ijlaimba, form VIII Of janaba [ jaab], to avert, 
lo turn aside The terminal n£n is dropped 
because [he verb is in a conditional clause 
Preceded by 'in). 
12. Ji£ kabS'tr ipl . s. kiibtmh) major sins. 

atrocious crimes, enormities'- Note mat the sins 
mentioned in the two previous 'Ayahs arc among 
the major sins. 



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254 



Sutnh 4 : At-Ntsa- [Part U«z") 5] 



^_,f<&.'jj. a noble place of admittance.* 






aJ^o^ you are prohibited 1 from, 
^-s- JjXJ We shall efface" from you 



poii^- your sins 






■j- 



li^-lij and shall admit 4 you into 



T> -■-■ '■ 






h-*j JwJJJ 



£2 









32, And do not hanker after* 

what Allah has preferred 7 

some of you with 

to the others. 

For men is a dividend 9 

of what they acquire;* 

and for women is a dividend 

of what they acquire; 10 

and you all ask Allah 

of His grace. 

Verily Allah is 

of everything All-Knowing. 



\^L^.i^=dj 33. For everyone We set" 
heirs 12 to what there leave 
the parents and the relatives; 
and as to those whom 






j-Jlj 



1. <ij& tunhawna = you tail) art prohibited, 
forbidden (v. ii. m. pi impfct passive from ntihS 
[nuhy/niihto], to forbid. Sec lanhawnti at 3: 1 10, 
p. 199. a, 4>. 

2. j£i mtkaffirUt) = we efface, obliterate, cover, 

hide, pardon ( v. i. pi. impfcl. from kaffurtt, form 
II of kafiira [tufr], lo cover The last letter ii 
vowel less because the verb is conclusion of a 
conditional clause. See Irt+'ufeiffrra/inu at 3:195. 
p 233, n, 6). 

3. i.e., the minor sins. t>lv sayyi'&i (pi.; s, 

sayyi'ah) = cvtl deeds, misdeeds, bad sides, 
offences, sins. See at 4: Hi. p. 246, n. 5. 

4. J*^ nudkhUiu) - we admit, put in. enter. 

make enter (v. t. pi. impfct. from ttdkhutii, form 
IV of dtikhutti \tiukha\, to enter The last letter is 
rendered vowelless because the veib is 
conclusion of a conditional clause See ludkhii at 
3:192. p. 231, n 14). 

5 JatA. mudkhat = place of admittance, place 

when.' uriL' is iisluri'i! ill. Iilti - paradise (adverb of 

place from 'adkhnta, Sec n 4 above). 

ft. \f-*i V Ii lalamaanaw = you (all) da not 

hanker after, ycam, aspire for (v. ii. lb. pi. 

imperative [prohibition) from tamimnd, farm V 

of nuinU [j- Ffunv). to put to test, to try See 

yalumannawna at 2:95.p, 45, It, 5). 

7. J>i faddala = he preferred, gave precedence 

(v. hi. m. s. past in form II of fmkttu \Jadi 
/fudiil\, to excel, lo be in excess. See faddaina at 
2253, p. 129, n. I j, 

5. i , i*i nasib i.pl nusub/aiiiibS'/tmsibtth) - 
share, portion.dividend. See at 4:7, p, 219, n 1 1 
9 Ij—ifi iktastihu = they acquired, earned (v. 

iii. rri. pi. past, from iktasaba, from VIII of 
koitiba \knfb], to gain. See at 2:61, p 138. n. 
10). 

10. ^r-^' Uktaiabna = they (females) acquired, 
earned, gained (v. iii. f. pi. past from ikumihu 
See n 9 above Men Of woinen. whoever does a 
good deed shall have it* due reward. 
I). u** ja'alna ■ we set, made, put. placed, 

appointed (v i, pi past from ja'ctln \ja't\. lo 
make, lo put, Sec naj'al at 3: 61. p. 179, n.7>. 

I2 - J 1 J* """fSiS (pi ; s. mawli) = inheritors, 

heirs, patrons, friends 



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S&ruhA : Al-Nirt' IPan (Jut) 5] 



255 




j-iir-your right hands' pledged, 2 
> vi- ?f ^J>y& give them their portion. ' 

fAZ-e.'Afy Verily Allah is 
^^ j^i-^ fe. over everything 
igj il/i, AH- Witnessing. 4 



SfCticill tKuk !!')(> 

i^jiy jQi 34. Men are custodians* 

tt^jijt over women, 
■g» v J— iw-»2 for Allah gives precedence 6 
-f" j 6 -*■<■" to some of them over others 



l^jiii U«j j and because they expend 
fLjJyf^ of their wealth. 
^I— i*,Li^jij Hence the righteous women 8 
■ - ■ y_j are constant in obedience,* 
^' '•'iii'v guarding the unseen, 



ili^Ljil^. for Allah protects." 
jy*,£!l> And as to the women you 
^jijjii fear 12 the recalcitrance 11 of, 

^jljjLjS admonish 14 them, 

C^jjLitA'j keep away from them 

g^jltl in the beds; 1 ' 
^iliJj and beat them.'* 



I OU/ 'aymdn (p|. ^ s^^-p ywmffi) = right hands, 
oaths. See at 3:76. p. 185. n. 10 

2. oJit 'aqadat = she contracted, concluded. 

convened, fastened with a knot [v. iii. f. s. past 
from atfuda ['aqd]. to tie, to contract. See 
'ui/rfu/j at 2:237. p 120, fl. 6) 

3. *-r«. iti«F(>. see at n. 8, p. 254. The directive 

hen:, however, is superseded by 8:75 (lbn Kalhlr. 
H. 252-255: Al-Suhr, 111. 620622) 

4. -i^i jlrdMir fs.; «£.u+i jAuJWri) = 
All-Witnessing. *itiKis. marlyr.See shuhuda at 
3:140, 210,n. 2),5. dj<4jl qawwdmtiit (pi.; s.,i,j 
ijtiwwiim ) = custodians, guardians, managers. 

6. JJu faddala e he preferred, gave precedence 

(v, iii. m 5 past in fortn II of fiidala \fu<it 
/fudiil]. to excel. See at p 254, n. 7) 

7, ijjif anfaqu = ihey spent, expended, 
disbursed, laid out {v. in. m. pi. pas! Tram 
'attfaqa, form (V of nafaqei [nafaq\, lo be used 
up Seeal J; 1.34, p. 207, n. 10). 

S oUA_. sSlikSt (f. pi.: s. WL. iMihuti) = 

righteous uruincn. good women; also good deeds, 
right deeds (active participle from sslafyi /stiluhu 
\\u!iih ftaltthiyah Aula/;], to be good, right, 
proper See at 2:25. p. 13, n. 5). 
9. ofcAi qAnitSl (f. pi,; s. qtmiiah. m. qunii) = 
women constant in abedicnece. devoutly duttrul 
(active participle from qwutlu \qanul], lo be 
obcdicnl). See a&ttilln at 3:17. p. 161. n-2). 
10 i.e.. their own chastity and honour and the 
husbands' honour, interests and secrets, 

1 1 . i.e.. the women's rights and interests. 

12. OjiUj talih&f&iw = you (all) fear, are afraid 
of (V, ii nt- pi. ifflpfcL from khiifii [Idtawf 
/makkajtth ?khifah].lv fear. .See kfrifium at 4:3. p. 
237. n. 5) 

13. J>M nuihiiz = recalcitrance, violation of 

marital duties, disobedience, haughtiness. 

arrogance. 

14 Ijk* 'isfi = you (all) admonish, give advice 
(v. ii. in. pi. imperative from waoj/i 
[wu z^isift), to preach, to admonish). 

15. £*L». moMji' (pi,; x <r ^ nrndja) beds, 

couches Advert) of place from daju'u \daj7 
du]8'\, to lie. 

16. i.e., for caring and reforming only. 



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236 



Surah 4 Ai-Nisd' [Pan'Jui) SJ 



"i- T "*"? " if 


Then if they obey 1 y* 
do not seek 2 against 


Ml, 




them 




any way. 3 




*^ if 4*1^,1 


Verily Allah is 




Cu»tfi* 


Exalted, Great. 




$ 






^-j'3 


35. And if you fear" 




discord* between the two, 




depute 6 an arbitrator 7 




form his family 


Qji'^t»>ij 


and an arbitrator from hers. 


U^O-sMj^y Jl 


If the wo desire conciliation" 




Allah will reconcile* 




between the two. 




Verily Allah is All-Knowing, 


$S£ 


All-Aware. 




36. And worship Allah 


'^ -J ^, 


and do not associate 10 




with Him anything; 


(^iflsit; 


and to the parents do good," 




and to the near relations. 


,£2$ 


and the orphans 




[_P^ _ ~ J 1 J 


and the poor 



I j*>f 'ala'na = ihcy (rem.) obeyed, brought 

themselves tuck lo obedience (v. jit. f pi. put 
from 'aiu'a, fgmi IV of id <j fiaw'l lo obey. See 
,VHfi'ai4:13, p. 244. n, 5). 

2. IjifS IS tabghu m you tall) do not seek, look 

for, wish, desire, covet (v, ii, m pi imperative 
{prohibition} from tmnhd [bughd'], to seek, 
desire. Sec tabghurui at 3:99. p. 194, n 10) 

3. i.e.. any way of dealing unkindly wilh Ihem. 

4. ^i*- kJtifium = you (all} feared, apprehended, 

(v. ij. m. pi. past from khdfu [kbtuvf /innkhaftsh 
Mi/ah], lo fear. Sec at 4:3. p. 237, n. S), 

5. JUi thitj&q - discord, dissension, disunity: 
also schism, rift See al 2 : J 76, p. 83, It. 2), 

6. ij!*' ib'alha = you (all) send, depute, delegate 

(v. ii m pi imperative from tm'mhti [ba'ih]. to 
send, to raise. See tb'aih at 2:246, p. 123, n 14). 

7. f£j- hakam (s.; pi. ,i£* hukk&mi = arbitrator. 

arbiter, umpire See hukk&m ftl 2:188. p. 90, n. 
II). 

8- c^ - " 1 ***** - restoration, restitution, repair, 
settlement, conciliation, reconciliation (verbal 
noun in form IV of mliiha/sttlu/fa [saltlh 
/saUUttyoh /suliih], let be food, right, proper. See 
iulahiiafAJb. p 245. n. II). 

9. ^ji yuwaf/tqiu) ~ he reconciles, brings to 

agreement, adjusts, make* fit (V. iii, rn. s. impfct. 
from uaffatfci, form II of wufiqa [waft]], to be 
right, appropriate The last letter is vowelkss 
because the verb IS conclusion of a conditional 
clause). 

10. lj?M V IS (lahriku = you (all) do not 

associate, set partners, give a shore fv, ii m. pi. 
imperative (prohibition) form 'axhraka, form IV 
of shurtka [ shirMtharHlati], lo share. Sec 
'mhrah'i at 3:186. p, 229, n. SJ, 

11. Jl— j.1 'ihsSn = doing good things, chanty, 
benevolence . Hen: it means obedience and 
dutiful non It is noteworthy that obedience and 
dull fulness lo parents are placed second Only lo 
submission to and worship of Allah (Sec also 
2:83; 6:151. 17:23 and 46:15). The essence of 
Iktun is that it is done not in return for an 
obligation or benefit received but in addition 10 
and exclusive of that Hence 'ifiiu/i is distinct 
from 'adl, t e.. justice, equity. 



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Suriik 4 : M-NitA IPnrt tfw'J 5J 



257 



4#-*J.!iJtjyM"5 and the neighbour 1 close by, 1 

vi^jCWj and the neighbour afar, 1 
v_L>Ji.^ ? uii^and the companion' 1 at hand, 5 
&*~^$j and the wayfarer, 6 

j and those whom your 
l£>"i ri gh t h ands o w n . 7 
^y^U Verily Allah does not like 
those that are 



fyUi^li* self-conceited*, arrogant' - 



jfe^' 1 37. Who are stingy' 
^r'3' iSjjJitj and ask people 



jukJ'« to be stingy, 
■ ~y and conceal" 



ffiit i'^ rT- w ^ at Allah has given them 
.j^_li,j^ of His bounty. 
l r -!STlj And We have got ready 12 

Uii' c ~~ =t ^ ^ or l ^ e unbelievers 
£ il^V^i a debasing 1 * punishment. 






^yLjiJj.Jij 38. And those who spend 14 
^vl their wealth 
.jJulfiSij for showing off 15 to people 
«ai ~}r*}k^) ant ' d° no1 believe in Allah 



1. jU- ytfr (s.; pi. jijj- jirdn) = neighbour, 
protege, refugee, 

2. i/j*" 1 cP ***'" al-qurb£ ■ near relations, those 
close by. See at 2:83. p, 38. n. 10. 

3. hpJ*) jUJi fll-/flf at-janub = (he neighbour 
who is not a kinsman, i.e., who is at a distance. 

4. u^-u taiii (s,. pi. 'tuhah/ tohbJ laMbah/ 
iutikoti/suhhah) = companion, comrade, friend. 
See '(MA(J*w3:]15.p 201, n. 8. 

5 ^-jrjantt («.; pl/ii/iirA. 'n/ndi) = side, beside, 

near, ft/ al-;anbi= by (he Side, including travel 
companions, colleagues, fellow Student 

(Al-Tabari.pl. V, 80-81). 

6 i.e.. the wayfarer who is stranded. J^J 1 ^ tfrn 
al-sabti - wayfarer, traveller. Sec at 2:2 1 5. p. 86. 
104, no, 

7. i. e. slaves ^£i> mahtkal a she owned, 

possessed, held (v. Hi. f. I, past from malaka 

[ntulk /mulk/ imtk\, to posse ss See al 4:25, p. 
251. n. 2). 

8. JLpSj mtiftht&l = self-conceited, vainglorious. 

egotistic (act. participle from ikhlSte, form VI 11 
of khaiu [khayl]. to imagine, to suppose). 

4. jj*j fakhCr = arrogant, proud. boastful 

10. i.e., they do nol spend in charity on the 
people mentioned in the previous 'ayah . i>£*~t 

yabkhatuna - ihey be miserly, stingy (v. iii. m. 
pi. impfct. from bukhHu \bakhctl /bukht]. to be 
niggardly- See at 3: 1 SO, p, 226, n. 6). 

11. ^__C yakium&na = they conceal, hide. 

secrete (v. iii, in. pi. impfct. from kuittmu [kt»m/ 
kiintan], to conceal. See at J: 1 67, p. 2 1 1 , n. 9). 

12. Ujj* 1 'a'tadnS = we prepared, got ready {v. i. 

pi past in form IV of 'auida \'atad\, to be ready. 
Seeai4:18.p. 24$, n.9). 

13. j(*» mukia = humiliating, disgraceful. 

debasing, ignominious, (active participle from 
'tihtinii, form IV of hana [hawn\, to be easy, See 
at 4: 14. p. 244. n. 12), 

14. j.jiii yunfiq Una = they spend, expend (v. Lii. 

m, pi, impfct. from 'anfaqa, form IV of nafaaa 
[nafaij]. (o be used up, See at 4:34. p 255. n. 7). 

15. itfj ri'A' = showing off. parading. Sec at 
2264, p HS.n.2. 



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258 



Sarah 4:Ai-NW [Pan Uui) 5} 



^T'-aSV/J nor ' n lne Last Day. 
SJ*^i JC^j And he to whom Satan is 
ilj.*) a companion, 1 
ftp^J iCj evil he tums 2 as a companion. 



(CiaifcijUj 39. And what is against them 
jSUjJuiiJ if they believe in Allah 
>r^\*!'j a °d the Last Day 
LL- ijiiilj and spend" 1 out of what 
ilif^SJ Allah provides'' for them? 

^i\^t) And Allah is about them 

l|pli-^ All-Knowing. 

U£^<u^ 40. Allah does not do wrong 
}% Jllf. even tne weight 5 of an atom; 6 
iiiiet jl j but if it be 7 any good deed 8 



H-*-! 



il he compounds 9 it 



£4&*£>j£j and gives of His Own 
jy tljkt £.1 an immen se ' ° reward . L ' 



i 41. Then how shall it be 
Ei^lSl when We shall bring froward 
ls£ii JT^ from every people a witness; 



I- ijtJ 9"^" (*■: P' * L > 4ura*4) = connected, 
linked, companion, associate, male, fellow, 
comrade, spouse, consort. 

2. .u ji'o - he iir ]| became foul, bad, evil (v. 

iii. m s. pas! from fflVWw', lo be bad. See at 
4:22. p. 248. n 10). 

3. Ijiiil 'anfaqS = ihey spenl. disbursed, 

expended (v, iii, in. pi. past from mjaqu. form 
[V of nufuqa \mtfuq], lo be spent used up, See af 
2:262, p. 137, n. 1: and yunfiif&na at 4:37. p. 
257. n 14). 

4. Jjj razaqa = be provided the means of 
subsistence, provided, gave, bestowed (v iii. m, 
s. pasi from nj^. lo give the means of 
subsistence. See urzaqO a! 4:3, p. 240, n. 4). 

5. J\n* mithqSl (s.: pl.„uu- maihi'iqU)= weight 

6 i.e., Allah does liol do injustice even in Ihe 
smallest degree in the sense lhat He does not 
diminish even lo the extent of an aiom ihe menr 
of any good deed done, nor punishes even to the 
extenl of an atom more than Ihe due. On the 
contrary He multiplies Ihe merit of any good 
deed and awards a far greater reward for it, as 
mentioned in Ihe neni clause of the Hyiih Iji 
dhan-ah (s., pi. «»> dhemSt} - atom, tiny 
panicle, dusi speck, the measure of a small ant. 

7. i.e., if the atom ( smallest measure) is that of 
any good deed on Ihe part of His servant. He 
redoubles it many limes iittJ gives that manifold 
merit lo the performer or that good deed. 

8. *~r hatanah (s,; pL^ti— hasun<it\ = good 
deed, benefaciion. merit, 

9 j*L*j yudti'ifu - he doubles, redoubles. 

compounds, multiplies (v. Hi. m. s. impfef. from 
diftifti, form III of da'afa \daj ! dif\, to 
double, redouble. See at 2:261. p. Ii6, n. L2; 
2:245, p 123.n, 6). 
10. ^Ju. 'edm m greai, magnificcni. splendid. 

big, stupendous, grand, huge, immense, 
enormous, tremendous See at 4:13. p, 244, n. 8; 
3:179. p. 226, n.5). 

] I. j»I 'ajr (pl.j^-t "uj'flrj ■ reward, recompense, 
remuneration, emolument, fee. See at 2:276, p. 
145, n. 7 and 2:262, p. 137. il 6, 



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SiraJi A : MNaH' [Part (Jaz) S] 



259 



iLllU^ and bring you forward 
CJJi^t against these people 
as a witness? 1 



*-*??* 



1 ***«> -" 






42. That day there will wish 3 
'ijjfi' j? jJ' those who disbleived and 
disobeyed 3 the Messenger" 
i^^jjj! if levelled 5 with them 
were the earth! 6 
And they shall not withhold 7 
from Allah any statement. 8 

Secti(io(r7uAu')7 
i^ju jjjiua 43, O you who believe, 
)jl^u^jju"y do not approach* prayer 
^^Ci^Jij while you are intoxicated 1 " 
ijiiu^ until you are awre of 
jy^jiL. what you utter, 
C^Vj nor in a state of impurity 12 - 
Jt^ ^ii^ except as traversing 11 ^ way - 

ijlJjjJi until you take a full bath; 14 
<& Jj&lj and if you are ill 



IC&y or on travel 



1 On the Day of Judgement every Prophet Will 
be brought forward to testify that he had 
delivered Allah's message to his people, 
Similarly the Prophet Muhammad, peace and 
blessings of Allah he on him. will be brought 
forward to testify against his umnuth 
2. *ji yawaddu - he loves, likes, wishes (v. iii. 

in. s. impfcl. from wadda \wadd/wudd/widd\, lo 

love, to like See at 2:2M). p 139, il 8. 

3 '■»— * 'asaw = they rebelled. defied, disobeyed 

(v lit. m. pi. pisl from 'o,i(2 [ 'tiydn/ ma'siyahl, 
to rebel, to oppose, to disobey, to defy. Sec at 
i 1 1 2. p. 2». rw 4. 

4. i .e.. Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah 
be on him. 

5. iSj-i tmawwa - she is levelled, proportioned, 

made equal, adjusted, reclined (v. iii. f. s, iittpfct. 
passive from jh"vh-'£. form II ot samyu [fitrim), 
to be equal. See ijmm&ta 2:29. p. 15, n. 13). 

6. i.e.. Iliey were buried so that they do nut have 
to face the judgement . See 78:*. 

7. tiy^t yakluntiina - they conceal, hide, 

Withhold (v. iii. m pi. tmpfct from tattima 

[kdim/ kiimiin], to conceal. See at 4:37. p. 257, n. 

Hi 

Sic, everyone will tell the truth. See 78: 3B. 

9, » Y 16 taqrahii = (you all) do not go near. 

do not approach (v. ii. m. pi imperative 
{ prohibition | from qarabu \qurh i mnqrabah\. 
to go near. See at 2:222, p. 109, n. 7). 
1 Revealed before the prohibition of drinking, 
ijjiSL. iukSra (pi.; s. sf— mkr&n) m intoxicated, 

ilr.imk 

1 1. i.e., what you recite in the course of prayer. 

12. ^^jmub = MB of ceremonial impurity 

(especially on account of sexual intercourse or 
ejaculation): also one not belonging to the tribe. 
Sec at 4:3o, p. 257, n. 5. 

13. i. e., traversing the place or worship lo the 

place of purification, iSjt^ 'dbiriin) =(pl.; 

accJgcn, of 'dbirUn, i. Sbir, act participle from 
abara [ "abr/'ubur), lo cross) those who cross, 
pass through, traverse, transient. 

14. y-a; taghtasiluiw) = you (all) wash 

yourselves, take a full btUll (v r (j. m pi impfcl, 
from ighlamla, form VIM of ghiaulu \gltiul\. tit 
wash.The terminal nan is dropped because or a 
hidden an in tuata before the verb 



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Kid 



SHruhtiAi'NWVutiJla^S] 



^ujjw-i »L-f-^i 



joiP'j* 




or if any of you comes 

from the call of nature 1 

or has contacted* women 

and do not get water, 3 

then have recourse 4 to 

the ground, 5 good and clean, 6 

and rub 7 your faces 

and your hands. 

Verily Allah is 

Most Excusing,* 

Most Forgiving. 



U^HO^ 44* ^ ave vou not seen tnose 

who were given a portion* 
of the Book 10 
buying 11 misguidance 12 
and desiring 13 that 
«j j_l2JHjL; you stray 1 " from the way? 

,4*1*1^ 45, And Allah knows best 
pvjij-tL about your enemies; ls 
and Sufficient 16 is Allah 
as a Guardian- Protector 







^Ljij 



& 



I Uf gAiS'tf Is.; pi Rhut/sfkiydi'i m low and 
spacious ground, human excrement 

2. p^— -V fdmartuni a you (all) touched, had 

contain wilh (v. ti to. pi, past From lamina, form 
III of btnuud |Lm.i], la much, lo handle) Hem II 
is an indirect expression tor Sexual intercourse. 

3. i.e.. for purification alter reasonable search 

4. 1^ atyammamO - you {all) aim at, intend. 

scl your mind on, resort have recourse to (v. u 
m. pi imperative tayamnunta \luyammum\. to 
inlertci, to aim at See Id layammami at 2:267, p. 
140, n. 8). 

5. ■i^Kiald (s.; pi. nt'wl) = highland, uplaad. 
plateau, ground. 

6. %_J» tayyih - good, pleasant, agreeable, 

salutary, delicious, clean, See at 3; 179. p. 225. a. 
10. 

7. i e . rub wilh the dust on the ground. i^->l 
imscthu = you (all) stroke, rub. wipe off, dean (v. 
ii. m. pi. imperative from mufuhu [maih], to 
stroke. The rule is to wipe the face and the 
hands from the elbow to the tip of the finger, 

8. ji* 'afuvw = Mos.1 Excusing. See 'afm at 
3:S34.p. 207, a 14 

9. i.e . a portion of Ihe knowledge of the Book 
<—^ju aasib (pi. niqub tfMS\b&' /(miibah) = 

share, portion, lot See at 4:12, p. 254, n. 8. 

10. The reference is to Ihe Jews 

1 1. jj^h yashtarvna - they buy, purchase (», 

iii. m. pi, impfci from ishtarH. form VIM of 
ihura [shirun/shitH - ], lo buy, to sell. See at 
3: i98, p, 234. u. 8). 

12. i.e., Ihcy buy misguidance for guidance , 

13. i)j-it> yurid&mt = ihey (all) intend, desire, 

have in mind (v iii in pi. impfci. forni aniilo. 
fonn IV iii rtii/,1 [jjm/|, to walk about. 

14. >jLii toifilM(na} a you (all) stray, go astray 

(v. ii rn pi. impfci front dcllto, \da\aVdatsikih\, 
lo go astray. The terminal nGn is dropped 
because of the particle aw coming before Ihe 
verb, See todlltu at 2:282, p. 148, n 7), 

15. «u*l 'a'di' (pi; s.ja. aduww\ = eeneinies. 
foes. See at 3: 103, p. 1%, n, 7. 

16. ^ kafS = he suffices, is sufficient, is 

enough (v. iii, m, s past from kifSyah. to be 
enough. See yaif! ai 2:137. p. 65. n. 6). 



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SSrah 4 : Ai-Nisd' (Part tfuz'y S\ 



261 






1=31 



Vh^ 






'JJLfcjUji^ 









»-»2;j 






and Sufficient is Allah 
as a Helper. 1 

46. Among the Jews are some 

who alter 2 the words 

from their positions;'' 

and they say: "We hear 4 

and we disobey"; 5 

and "you hear 

but be not made to hear";* 

and "Ra'inr, 7 

twisting 8 their tongues 

and abusing* the din {Islam]. 

But if they had said: 

"We hear and we obey" and 

"hear and bear with us" 10 , 

it would have been better 

for them and more proper. 11 

But Allah has cursed' 2 them 

for their infidelity. 

So they will not believe 

except a few. 



1. If the Muslims have trust in Allah and 
scrupulously follow His guidance He will suffice 
them against their enemies. 

2, ijjV»* yukarrif&ita = they distort, displace. 

divert, pervert, deflect, twist, misconstrue, alter 
(v, iii, m. pi, impfel, from fturrei/u, form II of 
haruja \harf], to deflect, to change. See at 2:75. 
p. 35. n.'l 1 ). 
.1, ^y mawMl' (pi.; %. (-*y muwdi') n 

positions, places, Sites, passages (in a took). The 
reference is to the Jews' altering the text of their 
scripture and mis interpreting iL 

4. b»> ■ sami'ni - we listened, heard, paid 

attention (v. i, pi. past from sami'a \sam' /suma' 
/sama'uii fmasnta'], to hear, See at 2:285. p. 152, 
n.2). 

5. l_** 'aiaynS = we disobeyed, defied. 

opposed fv i pi. past from 'asa [nui mynh/ 
!'.tyd>f|, to disobey, defy See at 2:93. p. 44, n. 8). 
The Jews used to say out of their unbelief and 
defiance: "We hear but we disobey you". 

6. The Jews used to say this as an insult and 
imprecation. ^- musma - = one mode or 

enabled to hear ( passive participle from 'usrrw'u 
(Id make bear, to enable to hear], form IV of 
sami'a. See n. 4 above) 

7. L*i_, rS'i + nS = pay us attention, attend to us 

(v. ii. m. s. imperative from ra'd [ra'y/ ti'dyab/ 
mar'tm]. to tend, to care. See at 2:104, p. 49, n. 
7). With i little I wist in pronouncing this 
expression bears ;i very abusive meaning in 
Hebrew. The Jews of Madina. gave suuh a twist 
to it and thus abused the Prophet 

8. jl layy =■ twist, twisting, bending. 

9. ^ ta'n - slandering, calumniation, abuse, 
defamation, hurting. 

10. Ujliii uniur+na = bear with us. give us a 
little time (v. ii. m. s. imperative from minim 
{nair / manmr], to look. 10 pay attention, See « 
2: 104, p 49. 11.8). 

1 1 f jil aqwam m more sound, more authentic, 

more proper, more upright, sounder. Elativc form 
ai aanim. See at 2:282, p. 149, n. 2. 

12. i.e.. He removed them from His mercy. jJ 
la'ana - he condemned, damned, cursed (v. iii. 
m s. past from Ian See at 2M. p. 42, n. 2). 






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262 



Surah 4;At-Ntsd' [Purl [Jut) S] 



j2\(£d> 47. O you who have been 
\\jj\ given the Book 
LefjLC believe 2 m that which 
Qi-} We have sent down 1 
Jsii Q iil^i confirming 4 what is with you 5 
^£»6 l (J?£« before that We obliterate 4 
Uj>*tfcj£j faces and set them back 
li^Cjl^e on their rears 7 
^ilj\ or curse* them 
^Jl!? as We had cursed 
r- ffi t ffirf the People of the Sabbath." 
jii^-liSSj And Allah's command is 
Rp^^- ever acted upon. 10 

^iJuN^i!)! ^8. Allah does not forgive" 
t*JC-acjt that a partner is set with Him 

'^j and may forgive 
iIU'l ojX what is besides that 

fiiijii for whomsoever He wills. 
Ar*J*s And whoever sets partners 
ZL with Allah 



■I 



does indeed fabricate 11 



iJLj^iii a grave sin 
Kg 



1. The address is uj ihc lews and ihc Christians. 

2. l>>W 'dminfi ■ you all believe, hare fatih (v. 

ii. tn. pi. imperative from 'amunti. form IV nt 
uminit ['a>'vt/'ttm&irf'amunah]. lo be sate, feel 
safe. See al 3 193, p.232. n 3>, 

3. i.e., the Qui' In. U> nazmlnS a We senl 
down (v. |. p|, from wi.-v'.i form II nt namla 
luufljfj. to come down. See al 2:23, p 12, n.T), 

4. <jj-** musaddiq - one who or (hat which 

confirms, verifies, attests (active participle from 
auddaqu, form I! of saduqa \sudq/sidq\, to speak 
the truth. See at 3:B I, p, 187, n.V). 

5. i.e., the Original message delivered Ihrough 
Prophets MusS and 'fsa. peace be on them, not 
the extant Books with Jews ami Christians. 

6. ^ Natmiiaiu) = we obliterate, efface, 

erase, wipe ui: eradicate (v i. pi impfcl. from 
turnaxu [tams/lumui], to be effaced) The final 
letler lakes falhah because of [he particle 'an 
before the verb 

7. jfcil *«4bSr (pi.. sing.^ dubr/duhur) = hacks, 
backsides, rear pans. See at 3:1 1 1, p. 199, it s 

8 ^li nafana(u) - we curse, damn, condemn. 

(v. j. pi impfct from ta'ana [la'n\, to curse. See 
ta'anaan 4:45. p 261. n. 12). 

9. The reference, as clearly mentioned al 7:163, 
is to a Jewish community living on the sea-shore. 
On ihc Sabbath day there used let come up to 
them fish (or wholes) from the sea raising then 
heads; but on other days they did not so Come. 
The Jewish community violated the Sabbath day 
by killing the fish on the .Sabbath day. Sec 
2:65-66. p. 31. n. 6. 

10. Jjni. nui/'iil = that which is done, acted 

upon, object (passive participle from fa'ata 
\fal/ftl]. to do. See yafali at 3:1 1.1. p. 201. n. 
3). 

1 1 . This ayah emphasizes the gravity of the sin 
of selling partners wiih Allah t.*Airrt). Further, il 
indicates thai the Jews' and ihc Christians' 
worshipping of 'lsfi, Mary am or 'Uzuyr 
cons tit tiled shirk or selling partners with Allah, 

12. j /it iflard = he fabricated, made up. 

invented falsely, trumped up. slandered (v. iii. m. 
5 past in form VIM of far<i \fury\, to CHI 
lengthwise, to fabricate. See at 3:94, p. 192, n. 



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Sflwfl a ! At-NisS ' | Port (Jul'} 5| 



263 



iJSJJ* J!j^ 49. Have you not seen those 1 
i*r-^""W' who vindicate 2 themselves. 
S'Ji-^ S. Nay, Allah vindicates 
££±ir whomsoever He will; 
gffifelSk and they 1 will not be wronged 
fjy Sul even a tiny bit. 4 



<&1 50. Look, 
ox-vJu'JJThow they fabricate 5 
•jjSSUi'je. against Allah the lie; 6 

"**^J a "d suffices it 
^£Jli^ as a flagrant 7 sin. 

Section (Ruku')S 
w:# Jl?fiW ^ ' - Have you not seen those* 
'/. ,-v. ij'jl given a portion* 
jt^l of the Book 
'oL$ believing in the 
VjLjifjL^JUdol and the false god 10 
^jJJ S^^jj and saying to those who 

ij£i<f disbelieve: 
^-uUVj3* "These are better guided" 
'r** 1 *^'^ than those who believe 
d&'^LJ. as regards the way. 12 



! . The description continues about the Jews. 

2. Ojf ji yuzakkttia = vindicate, purify, declare 

Mil- honesl) or uprightness of. make grow (v. iii. 
in pi. impfct, frora xtkki'i. form II of lakH 
[iubi"]. to gtovi, to he pure, See yuutkki at 
3:164. p. 220. n. 5) The allusion is to the 
sell ■ ■> indication of the Jews who used to say that 
they were the sons and dear onw of Allah and 
that enly Jews or Christians will enter paradise 
(See2:lll and 5:18). 

3. i.e.. those who vindicate themselves and nil 
others will be duly judged and will not be 
wronged in the least. 

4. J-J/ofil - wick, thread in the fissure of a date 
seed. Figuratively, a liny bit. See 4:40 above. 

5. i*js** yaftaruna = they fabricate, make up. 
invent falsely, trump up. slander, calumniate {v. 
iii. m. pi. impfct. from ifitirH, form VHJ otjari 
\fitry], to cut lengthwise, to fabricate. See at 
3:24, p. 164. n. 6. 

6. i.e., their self- vindication and their saying that 
they ope the sons and dear ones of Allah, etc 

7. jr mubin = flagrant, glaringly obvious, 

manifest, patent See at 3:164. p. 220, n. 8. 
&. The immediate reference of the 'avail is to 
those of the Jewish tenders of Madtna who went 
to MakJfd after the battle of Badr lo incite the 
Quraysh lenders to lake their revenge upon the 
Prophet arid the Muslims and encouraged them 
(Quraysh leaders) by saying that their religion 
and way of worshipping were better than those 
of the Muslims. The description, however, is 
universal and applies to similar situations at all 
limes and places. 

9. i.e., a portion of the knowledge of ■- _ .«i 
nastlr i pi. nusnh funiibii' /ansibuh) m share, 
portion, loi, dividend, Sec at 4:44, p, 260, n. 9. 

10, &• jibt and in j*U» t&gktil both mean idol. 

false god, evil one, Satan and any other objects 
worshipped in lieu of ot as partners of Allah 
iAt-Bahr, m, 675-676). See also tdghuim 2:256, 
p. 132,' n. 7. 

1 1. if j*T "efcrfd = more in the righu better 
aiiideil 

1 2, i.e., in religion. J-- sabfi <pt- iuhut/osbilah) 
- way. road, means. See at 3:97, p, 194, a, 3. 



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264 



Surah 4 : At-Nisd ' (Part (/ui'} 5| 



Z-^ffi 53. Or do they have a share 4 

^tljf^ of the dominion?' 
o/jiviili In that case ihey will not give 
te}§^J-Qi the people an iota. 6 



^JkiLUi' 52. They are those whom 
^\l£2 Allah has cursed; 1 

$$ij&y*j and anyone Allah curses, 2 
•'ijtjjj y° u will not find for him 
J^i^S a helper/ 1 



JJJc-^ >i 



dbil^&i 



54. Or do they envy 7 
the people for 
what Allah gives them 
of His grace?" 
Then We had given 
the progeny of Ibrahim 
the Book and the wisdom 
and We had given them 
a great dominion. 



l^rr-? 55. Then of them are such 
««^X as believe in him* 



I, i.e. He removed them from His mercy. j»J 

to vjftd * he condemned, damned, cursed (v. iii. 
m. s, pasl from la 'n. Sec ul 4:45. p. 261. it. 12). 
2 ydt yat'antu) - curses, banishes from mercy. 

damns, imprecates (V iii. ni s. impfcl. from 

lu'imu \tu'n]. to curse See n. I abcivcl. 

3- ie , anyone lo help against Allah's judgement 

and retribution, j^ nastr = i, s., pi. .' ^.nusiiru') 

- helper, dc lender, .supporter, ally, projector Sec 
al 2:107, p. Si. n. J; 2: 120. p. S7, n. 7). 

4. y> irasf* (pi- nioii* MnpbA' fansibtilt) = 
share, portion, lot, dividend See at 4:51. p. 26:1, 
n- 9; 4:44, p. 260. n,9- 

5. The interrogative it Tor reproach and 
negation; i.e., ihey have no share in Ihc 
dominion. 

6. i.e., ir Ihey had any share in the dominion they 
would no! have given anything to anyone 
because of ibeirenlieinc miserliness, ^i ftaqlr ■ 

liny spot on a dale pit Figuratively, an iota. ft 
lillte bit. 

7. JjJ-jh yahmduna - ihey envy, grudge, are 

jealous {v. iii. m. pi, impfcl, from hasada 

[f Hiatal], lo envy. Sec hasad al 2:109. p 52. n, 

2>. 

S Jju fail (pt. Jj^i fad«H= grace, favour. 

refinement, kindness, amiability, also surplus, 
excess. See al 2:217, p. 120. n. 9. Here il means 
Ihe special grace of Prophethood and withy. The 
Jews were envious lhat ihese were bestowed 
upon the progeny of Isrni'TI. Muhammad, peace 
and blessings of Allah be on him. The 
interrogation is lor reproach, tt ts then pointed 
nut thai such special grace, the Boole and 
wisdom [funnuh), and also a great kingdom, had 
already Been bestowed upon Ihe olher branch of 
the progeny of Ibrahim, ihe descendants of JshSq. 
Therefore ihe Jews should nol envy Muhammad, 
peace and blessings of Allah be on him' and the 
Arabs, for the if being the recipients of such 
special grace. Nole that Ihe mention of "the Book 
and wisdom' is explanatory of the "grace 1 * 
mentioned in Ihe previous clause of Ihc 'tlyah. 

9. i.e.. in Muhammad, peace and blessings of 
Allah be on him, and [he Book and wisdom 

isu'ttiith) given him 



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Suruh 4 : Al-Nisa' |Part (Jmi $\ 



265 



■J>^i and of them are such 
il^ii as turn away 1 from him; 
f+£-$'i an d sufficient will be hell 
(|ft L^juI as a burbung blaze. 1 

ij^J^ii^ 56. Those who disbelieve 1 

Gi^lL in Our revelations, 4 

ij ^t -ajju^ We will set them on fire. 

r* J ^ ^J'Ui' As often as their skins broil 6 

,-H 1J J; We will replace for them 

u^b^u skins other than those 

i J j j, 

ijjj JJ so that they taste 9 
wijjjt the punishment. 
S^ 4$t^iJ Verily Allah is 
$£&£$» All-Mighty, All-Wise. 

\y&l0$ 57. And those who believe 
&-4&flj|ȣj and do 10 good deeds 11 
i*toil We shall put them in 1 * 
<^/FoiuL gardens flowing 13 
j&fi l fy&&» beneath them the rivers, 

m 

^i^£rui£- they abiding therein forever. 
^3 They will have therein 



1 J— jairda = he turned away, diverted. 

deterred, dissuaded, repelled, prevented (v, iii, m 
v [i.isi imiti tudd, \o turn iwa; See tusudd&nu .it 
3:99, p. lM,ri,9), 

2 j,*- jfl'O" = burning blaze, blazing furnace, 
inferno. See at 4: 10. p. 240, ji. 12. 

3, ijjniS" Jftf/flrf = they disbelieved, denied, 
became ungrateful (v. iii. jn. pi. past from ktifara 
[tu/i-1. lo cover. See at 2: 2 12. p. ! 01. II. 1 3). 

4. ^WV '^yfit (sing, jiwjJri = signs, miracles, 
revelations, evidences. See al 3: 190, p 231. n. 3. 
1 J-«i nuffl s we fry, broil, roast, set on file <v. 

i, pJ. impfcl from 'tutu, form IV of sala [salan/ 
suliy/fitit), to coast See at 4:30. p. 253. n. 9). 
6. c^rvki nadijal - she became ripe, matured, 

was welt-cooked, broiled (v, iii. f. t, past from 

n&dijti [ttddj], to ripen) 

7 LDv baddalna = we replaced, substituted, 

changed, exchanged (v i. pi. past from buddalu. 

form II of bndaiti [btidl\, to replace. See la 

lulubatltiiita at 4:2, p. 237, n. 2). 

8. j>» jul&d (pi ; s 4* ji/cfl = skins, 

* 'j** 5 * yadkaq&(,nu) - they taste (v. iii. m. pi. 

itnpfet from diitjqa \dlitiwijJdha^a<iMKidhtiij\. to 
taste. Sec dhuqik at 3:181, p 227. n. 5. Th* 
K-riiLciul nirn \i dropped for a hidden an in ihe 
particle Wm \U in the sense of kay. tSm of 
motivation} coming before the verb) 

10. IjLj. 'atnila = they did, performed, acted, 

worked (v. iii m pi past from 'urmiu \ 'anuil\, ID 
do, to act. Sec ya 'rnuluna al 4: |7, p. 245, n. 14). 

11. oUJU> tdlihal (sing. sMihah) ■ good 

deeds/things ( approved by the Qur'ln and the 
tunnuh) See at 3:57, p. 178, n. 5. 

12. JfcJi nudkhitu a we enter (in the transitive 
sense), put in, insert, admit (V i. pi. impfel. from 
'aJkluila. rorm IV of dakhalu \duLhul\, to enter, 
See mdkhil at 4:32. p. 254. n. 4). 

13. iSynita/rS e she runs, flows, streams (v. iii. f 

s. impfct fnunjurtf [jioO'l, to- flow, See at 3:198, 
p. 234. n 2). 

14. 1> jSl* khSlidtn (ace /gen of khMidun, pi. of 

klttiid) = living for ever, abiding for ever, 
everlasting! active participle from khstuda 
[khulud], lo live for ever. See at 4:13, p, 244, n. 

7). 



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SGfiih 4 : M-Nisr [Part (JuO 5] 












spouses' rendered pure; 2 
and We shall admit them 
^^yLUiSik into a shade' ever shading. 4 



58. Verily Allah bids 5 you 
that you deliver 6 up the trusts 
to their rightful owners 
and, when you adjudicate 7 
between men, 
that you adjudicate 8 
with impartiality.^ 
Excellences what Allah 
exhorts" you with- 
Verily Allah is 
All-Hearing, All-Seeing. 






^4 



59. O you who believe, 
obey 12 Allah 

and obey the Messenger, 
and those in authority' 1 
from among you. 
Then if you dispute 14 
about anything 



1. £'jj' 'W&J tS' n S tJJ w*>$l - husbands, 
wives, spouses, partners Zawj ii used in Arabic 
Tar either husband or wife and ii means one or a 
pair. See al 2:25, p. 13. n. 12, 

2. ij^ matahharnh (mas. ^>- ntttiaWtar) = 

rendered pure, dean ( passive participle from 
taVairu, form II of tahara/tahuru [luhr/ 
laharvh], to be pure. See at 2:25. p. 1 3. n 13). 

3. Jb at! {s.: pi. uiai/iuWuiltil )= shade, 
shadow, shelter. See ailal at 2:210. p, 101, n. I. 

4. i.e.,paradi$e. Jit lattl - shade giving, ever- 
shading f;n- 1 participle from ui'ta). 

5. jJi ya'muru - he commands, orders, bids (v. 

iii in. s impfci. from atnara [ umr), to order, lo 
command. See al 2:169, p. 79, no. 12) 

6. ijjj.- ta'addOfna) - you deliver up, pay up, 

fulfil, carry out fv, ii m. pt. impfct- From 'oddd, 
fonn 11 [tti'diyuh] of 'udu I 'aduwwf'tidy\, to go, 
to proceed. The terminal nun is dropped because 
of the panicle 'an coming before the verb), See 

yaadd!a\ 3:75, p IB4, n. 7, 

7. f±S*~ hakamtum = you (all) adjudicated. 

judged, (v. ii. m. pi. past from kakama [hsikm], 
lo pass judgemem See 'nhkumu at 3:55, p 177. 
II. 10). 

8. ij^aj tohkumQiin) - you (all) adjudicate, 

judge, give decision (V. ii m p], impfci from 
htiluimu. Sec n. 7 above). 

y. Jj> adi = irnparliahly, equity, justice, 

fairness, equivalence See at 2 2&2, p. 237. n. 9). 

10. U*. m'imm<} im'tm +■ md) = how excellent 
is what, now good is what. 

I. Ju< jn'teK = he admonishes, exhorts, advises 

(v. iii m. s. irnpfi.1 from wa'aw iwa'z) = 10 
admonish, to preach. Sec al 2:23 1, p. 115. n. 5). 

11, \yJ,l 'atra m you (all) obey , be o»edierri(v. 

ii. m. pi imperative from 'iiiiV form IV of la'a 
[m-h |. io obey. Sec at 3:132. p. 207, n 6). 

13. >.Vl J/ -fill ai-'amr (acc/gen or 'did 

al-'amr} = persons in [minority, those in 
command. 

14. p£Bjt£ lanSza'ium = you (all) disputed. 

contested (v. ii. to. pi. past from itmdui'a, form 
VI of nam'a [rmt'], to remove. See at j:|S2. p, 
214, n, 3). 



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Saruk 4 : Al-Ninei' (Part (/«') 5] 



267 



*»Jl'JV refer 1 it to Allah 1 
J>-)|J and the Messenger' 
OjLJ ^ if y° u ^ believing 
^'l^yJjlL in Allah and the Last Day. 
j^\jj*-dli This is the best 4 and fairest* 
f§$y>Js as a solution. 6 

Section (Rukti') 9 
^jjl Ji^y' 60. Have you not seen those 
""S\t)£*j who claim' that they 
&(\£2& believe in what 
*iy|J/I has been sent down* to you 
J>il*5 and what was sent down 
sl^j^ before you 
i^iuloijjjyj desiring''ta go for judgement 1 " 
vj^ULtodieevilone" 

u^-iij though they were ordered' 2 
"itlC^u'' t0 disbelieve in it? 
''UA.^> But Satan desires 






' jw jl to delude them 1 * 
'^^■yiUi to straying far away? 



pAiKftV^ 61, And ifit is said to them: 



1. Ijjj ru<fcfu = you (all) seniS back, refer (V, ii. 

m. pi imperative from raMa [rudd], to put back. 

See yaruddu al 3: 149. p. 213, n. 2). 

2 i e., to Allah s Book, Ihe Quran. 

i. i.e., to Muhammad, peace and blessings of 

Allah be on him. during his lifetime, and lo his 

tumttilt after his death. 

4. i.e.. the resort to Ihe Qur'jin arid the snnnah for 

the settlement of disputes. ^ hhayr - good. 
better, nest. See at 4:25. p 252, n 2. 

5. ,j— »"' 'ehian = belter, fairer/fairest, more/ 
most beautiful. EEnlive of luaan, good, beautiful 

6. Jrjk Ta'wfi = solution, interpretation, 
clarification 

7. j^js^ jMn'irmuwit = they claim, maintain. 

presume (v. tii. in pi impfcl. from za'aiw 
[aim], to claim, to pretend). The 'dyufi has in 
view the hypocrites who mike an outward 
profession of belief in the Qur'Sit and the 
Prophet hut seek the judgement of their evil ones 
& Jy 'unzi/a - he or it was sen! down, brought 

down (v. iii. m. s. past passive from tinzfjiti. 
form IV fifljdf] of Hillatu [nuiat\. Co come 
down, get down. See at 2:284, p 151 , n .7) 

9 jjrtji yunduna = they (all) want, intend, 

desire, have in mind (v, iii. m pi impfcl. from 
'arSda, form IV of rtltta \rawd], to walk about. 
Se al 4:44. p. 260. fl. 13) 
10. ijJ'^ niiiiiiiiJiiinuiu.'i - they go for 

judgement, bring one another before the judge (v. 
iii m. pi. impfct from tah&kuma. form VI of 
hukamti [hukm\, lo pass judgement. The terminal 
rtti/r ts dropped for the panicle 'an coming before 
the verb. Sec kukuiMum al 4:58. p. 266, n 7). 
1 1 oy>ii tdghut (s,; pi .j^ iji. lawaghii ) = falve 

god. evil one. Satan anil any other objects 
worshipped in lieu of or as partners of Allah 
{Al-Btthr, 111, 675-676). See at 4:51. p. 263. n. 

10 and 2:256, p 132. n. 7. 

12. ij^r 1 ' 'umiru - they were ordered, 

commanded {v. iii, m r p|. past passive from 
amam [ amr\, to order. See xa'maru a* 4: 5S, p 
266, n. 5). 

13' J**i judiUaia) = he misguides, deludes (v. 

iii. m. s. impfcl, from 'udatta, form IV of dutiu 
{4at3!/ dutuluh], to go astray, Sec tudiUii at 4:44, 
y 260, n, 14), 



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268 



SSmk * : Ai-Nitf [Part (/«') 5] 



^Jlpt2 : "Come 1 to what 
^»t Jjai Allah has sent down 1 

jir^kilS ant * t0 l ^ e Messenger", 
cj^juiloi^ you see* the hypocrites 
-iJU^ OjJL^j turning away 4 from you 

^ 'jj-Uo in rejection. 

oJ£o 62. So how would it be 
(iffiffifli if there befalls* them 
C_j iJL--al a calamity 7 because of what 
(^j-iilc^ j their hands have advanced? 8 
2jj^?3 Then they will come 9 to you 
^to^i^- swearing 10 by Allah: 
UJjIol "We did not intend" 
« — *■; "¥[ but doing good 

^i»j and making reconciliation". 



* 4 



•<% jU.Tt " J ',1 63. Those are the ones, 

^jtilJJ Allah knows 
J-^>*io d what is in their hearts, 
pr^u*^^ So refrain 1 * 1 from them, 
fi+Iitj and admonish 14 them, 
^»-4J J*j and say to them 



1. ijJU fu'iStW ■ you nil come, come on, (v, n 

m pt imperative From la'afa. form VI of 'aid 
[ uluww], lobe high. Sec u 3:61, p. 179, II. 4). 

2. J^1 'anzala = he sent down [v. iii. in i. past 

in fomi IV ['ifizi/j of naiala [naiiji], to come 
down. See 'unziia al 4:60, p, 267.11. B), 

J. ii^Tj ra 'ojrffc = you saw, noticed, observed (v. 

li. m, i. past frem ra'a [ra'y /ru'yafi], to see. 
Sec yarawna at 2; 165, p 78. n 3), 

4. _'.._, vrniiifJiiiin = (hey [urn away, reject 

restrain, dissuade (v. in m. p] impfct. from 
stiddti \sudd/sitdud]. lo turn ftwsy.. See suiMn at 
4:55, p. "265, it. 1) 

5. ajA- mow = turning sway, dejection. 

6. c-rLJ 'ostibot - she struck, hu. afflicted, 

befell (v, iii. f s. pasi from 'asoiiti, form IV of 
n!hu [.«4 ruiV'ji&uA], lo hit the mark, to be 
right. Sec al 3; 165. p. 220, n. I). 

7. Li**- musibah (p!. ^j^- majd'ib) n calamity, 
misfortune, affliction. See ai 3: 165. p. 220, n- 1 1 , 

8. i^--ii qaddamai - she sent ahead, forwarded 

(v, iii. I s. past from qnddama. form It of 
qaduma/ ijadima j jjadm /ifudum /qidman 
/mai/dam] lo precede, lo arrive. Sec at 3 181. p. 
227. n. 1). 

9. ljfk»/l'd a they came (v. iii. m. pi. past from 
}& a {juyVmoil). to come). 

10. djiU, ytihlifuna = they swear, make an 

oalh, adjure (v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from Ma/u 
lhalf/inlfl, to swear). 

1 1. Itojl 'aredati m we desired, intended, aimed 

«l (v i p|. past from tsruda, form IV of t&da 
\ra*/d\. to walk aboui. See yundbmi at 4:60. 
p.267, n. 9). 

!?• J>>y Wmfbt - reconciliation, adjustment, 
success, prosperity. Verbal noun in farm II of 
wafaifu [hvij^I, io be right, proper. 

13, i.e.. refrain from taking them to task.^j*! 

'a'rid = avoid, lum away, re It am (v. ti. m. s. 
imperative from 'a'rada, form IV of 'urada 
tamda [ 'ard\. id be wide, W become Visible, Sec 
rjVi.ru a! 4: 16. p. 245, n. 12) 

14. Ji* 'h = admonish, give advice (v. it. m s. 

imperative from ku'ioj [miViiafr). lo preach, 
lo admonish. Sec 'i.-Ji at 4:34, p, 255, n. 14). 



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Surah 4 : AI-Nisd 1 [Pert Uuz') 5] 



265 



J lr-J- 



about their selves 
£p li_ii^y a saying that impresses. 

iltljiti j 64. And We sent out 1 not 

^j-Jc* ^y Messenger 
^ItiJ ^'l but that he be obeyed 1 
-jil^-jjjL. by Allah's command; 
1 jij and had they, when 
Rjiijl ihey wronged themselves, 4 
3/jk*r come to you 
4)1 <jj^«^_tj and begged Allah's forgiveness 
>— i* ^ — ■'.? and there sought forgiveness 
J_£.JJijL«3 for them the Messenger 
!>J*f.5 t^ey would surely have found 
*a.T Allah 
t-*y Most Forgiving, 7 
i|jli->-5 Most Merciful. 

^jj>j 65. But no, by your Lord, 
iS^jW they believe* not 
i)j->s«jj-*- unless they make you judge 9 
j about whatever crops up 10 
between them 



I- ,-w frs/fch (s„ pi. l>aUtgM'i= effective, 

eloquent, intense, profound, (act. participle in 
the stale of Ju'il from balagha [balugk]. Id 
reach. See balaghu at 4:6, p. 238, n. 13. 

2. Li-jt 'analna = We sent out, despatched (v. i 
pi. past from 'ariala, form IV of rasila [rasal], 
in be long and flowing. See muntaiin ar 2:252, p. 
128,n. 12). 
.1 £ t!«i yufu'at '«) = he is obeyed, fallowed (v. iii. 

m. s. impfct. passive from uid'o, form £V of Id 'a 
[wiv'J. id obey, The final letter takes fiirhah 
became of a hidden 'an in the panicle Mm \li in 
the seme of kay, tarn of motivation) coming 
before the verb. Sec 'aft'i at 4:59. p. 266, n. 12) 
This 'iiyuh emphasizes that obedience to the 
Messenger of Allah and his tunnah is obedience 
W Alltur 

4. i.e.. by disobeying the Cjur'an and the surtnah 
and by resorting to the evil ones for judgement 
and guidance. 

5. 'u^-'- istaghfarti - they asked for 

forgiveness, begged forgiveness (v. iii. m, p| r 
past from istaghfarti, form X of ghufam \ghafr 
/mtigltfirah /ghufr&n], to forgive. See at 3:135, p. 
208. n. 5). 

6. 'j-brj vajadU - they found, got (v. iii. m pi. 

past from wajada Iwujad]. to find, S« wajada at 
3:37, p, 170. n. 3). 

7. Jy ta-ww&b = Most Forgiving, Ever 

Pardoning (act. participle in the intensive form of 
fa "SI from tabu [lawb. iawbah / rnmdb\, to turn. 
Technically tSba means, in respect of man, to 
turn to Allah in penitence and with resolve to 
reform, and in respect of Allah, to turn in 
forgiveness. See at 3:128, p. 206, n. 6) 
%. Oy»jijfii'miiiflnii = they believe, have faith (v, 

iii. m. pi. impfct from 'Umana { fmdn], from IV 
of amina, to be safe. See at 2:3, p. 5, n. I > 

o. ■ ^ij^_ yuhakkimaints] - ihey appoint as 

judge, make judge (v, iii. m. pi. impfct. from 
htikkanui, form II of hnkama [Auimj. to pass 
judgement. The terminal nibi is dropped because 
of "on hidden in hami before the verb. See 
yatahdkamS HI 4:60, p. 267, n. 10). 
10. i.e., of my dispute or differences./^ 

shajara = he or it occurs, happens, develops, 
arises, crops up fv, iii. m. s. past from shajr, to 

happen). 



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2?Q 



SSmk 4 . M-Msa" [Part {Jut) 5] 



C* (*j and then do not find 

M ■ 
ul d; within themselves 

£•?- any distress 1 

because of what you decree 1 

b-r-ij and give themselves up 1 

in submision. 4 

tljij 66. And if We 

ji^itLj^i had decreed^ on them 
i^ClJuilyjji^i that you kill yourselves 6 
f$jl [i ^i^-jLLy or leave 7 your homes 

«jLjL; they would not have done it 



:>•-*■ 



ji^JJa"^^ except a few of them; 
iji-ir»r 1>Ij but if they did 
«* JjJi^j^L what they were advised 6 of 
<jl£I it would have been 
'^j^- better 9 for them 
Hlj and stronger 10 
*_4i in confirmation. 11 
»jjj 67. And in that case 

We would surely have given 
«u3 j* them on Our Part 
JrpilJitip, a magnificent 12 reward; 



1. g_j*- haraj = distress, constriction, anguish, 
difficulty, critical situation, 

2. o^oi qadayta - you decreed, judged, ruled. 

decided judicially, performed (v. ii. in. J past 
from gtrdu [tjudii']. Id finish, lo setlle. Sec 
t/adaylum al 2:200, p. 97, n. 1}. 

3. ijJ— ( juia/A'mii(nu) ■ they give up, 

surrender, submit, pay up. deliver (v. iii. m pi. 
impfel, from sallama, form II of tirfimii 
\!ti{wwh/Hiidm]. to be safe, to be faultless. The 
terminal nun is dropped because the verb is 
conjunctive lo Ihe previous verb yuhakkimu 
which is governed by A hidden mi in haila 
before it. See n. 9 on Ihe previous page 

4. ,j^r losltm a submission, surrender, lo give 

up. lo deliver (verbal noun in form II or talimn. 
See n. 3 above J. 

5. v*i" kalabna a we wroie, made incumbent. 

imposed, ordained, prescribed [v lii. m. I. past 
from kataha [kath/kit&bah], lo write. See kutiba 
ol 2.246. p. 1 24, n 2). 

6. i.e., ihe righteous, should kill ihe guilty ones. 
os was (he order given lo the children of 'IsrA'H. 
See 2:54, p 25. n .ft 

7. l fr^ 'ukhmjS - you (all) go oul, leave, 

depart, gel oul (v ii. in. pi. imperative from 
khartija \khurij\. to go out See "ukhrijat at 
*:li0.p I99.n. I). 

8- i.e., to believe in the Quf'JSn and the Prophet 
and to submil lo his decision and judgement. 

jjjitji y&'az&na = they are advised, counselled, 

admonished, exhorted (v. iii. in. pi. impfct. 
passive from WH '«.*(! [ hvj Vraufc], to admonish. 
to exhort Seeyu'ozu at 2:212. p 1 15. 0, 13). 
9. j^- khmr = good, belter best See al 4:59, p. 
iG7. n. 4 
10 AiJ ashadd = more/most intense, more/most 

intensive, strange [/strongest (clalivc of shadid. 
See at 2:200. jt. 97, n. 6), 

11. i.e., or Ihcir faith, c-^s tathbit = 

confirmation, fastening, strengthening. Verbal 
noun in form II of lhabaia [thatmi / ihubiiil to 
Stand firm, be fixer!. Sec al 2:265. p, 138, a. 13, 

12. fji* 'aztm - great, magnificent, splendid, 
big. stupendous, grand, huge, immense, 
enormous, tremendous. See al 4:40. p. 258, n 1(1. 



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S&ruh 4 : AUNisa ' [Pint {Jut) 5) 



271 



_,,.„„, 68. And would certainly 
have guided 1 them to 
'k>* a way 2 straight and right.' 



AftJt'j 69. And those who obey 4 
Jjl^jfjili Allah and the Messenger, 
Ojif^^jli they will be with those 
,*^ij»U^ on whom Allah has graced 5 
jt^jfe of the Prophets 
ijil^jfj and the strictly veracious 6 
tSj^Jlj and the martyrs 
Cp-lLJIj and the righteous;* 
ujjl 5-^-i-j and good 9 they are 
{Jp 'i-jj ' n companionship! 10 






J-iiil^ii> 70. This is the grace 
^i^-. from Allah; 
^ ^ and it suffices 11 Allah 
as All-Knowing. 

Section (««*«') 10 

ij^Cc/alf (f.\£ 7 1 . O you who believe, 



^sjAjr^j^, take 1 your precautions; 



,13 



1, L*.i» hadaynd = we showed, guided [v. i. pi. 
past from fludu l^urfy/iWnwJjl id guide. See 
jAiadii at 3l20. p. 162. «. 10). 

2. i!j^ ri/^f = way, palh, road. Sec at 3:101. p. 
195. n. 8. 3:51, p. 176, n. 3 and 1:6. p. 2, n, 3. 

3 prt— mmlaqfm = straight, upright, correct, 

nghl, sound, proper, (Active participle from 
alaqamei, form X of qamu \auwwuih/qiyam\. to 
stand up. See at 3:101. p. 195. n. 7}. 

4, ^kf ftiii' (originally ywrfu) = he obeys, 
follows, complies with [v. m m s, lmpfct. from 
'litS'ti, form IV of ta'u (law'), to obey. The last 
teller becomes vowel less and so the medial v«' 
is dropped far the verb is in a conditional clause 
(preceded by mart). See al 4: 1 3, p. 244, n. 5). 

5, jwuT 'an'ama = he graced, bestowed bounty (v. 
iit. m s. past from na'tima [rm'mah/man'timy to 
be in ease, Sec an amtu at 2: 1 22, p. 58. n, 2). 

6, jAj- j tiddsqin (acC/gen. of siddia6n. sing. 

JiA/it/l = strictly veracious. unqucstioniQgly 
believing ones, 

7 .ti«-i shuhada' (p|, ; s. ^s. inan;<fl = 
witnesses, martyrs. Sec at 3:140, p. 2 ID. n, 2. 
S. ,>»JL» StiUhbi (acc/gen, of nJfiAirn, sing. 

sdidih) = righteous, virtuous, good (active 
participle from solatia [stiidhfsuHlh/iruviuhiih]. 
» be good, right, proper. See at 3:114, p*2Ql, n. 
2), This 'ayah explains the expression "those you 
graced upon" occurring in 1:7, 
9 j-r- kaiuita ■ he became good, nice, 
handsome, pretty [v, rii. rfl. s. past from num. 
Sec oAiana a 4:59, p, 267, n 5). 

10. J^j raflq (s.; pi. rufaqti'Mf&i) = 

companion, friend, associate, kind, mild (act. 
participle in [he scale of fa'it from rafaqa \rifq]. 
In be kind, nice, friendly) 

11. jif ksfS m he suffices, is sufficient, is 

enough (v. iii. m, s. pas! from kifaynh, to be 

enough. See yukp at 4:44, p. 260. . n. 16). 

12 tjj* khudhu = yo>u all take, receive, gel. 

tOB (v. ti, m. pi imperative from 'akhatlha 

I okMbl to take. See at 2:63, p. 30. n_ lf». 

13- jj*- f*idhr = caution, precaution, alertness, 

watchfulness, See hadhar at 2:243, p. 122, n. B 
and yuhadhdhiru at 3:30. p. 1W, n. 6). 



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171 



SArati 4 : Al-Niia" [Pan {Jut) 5] 



oUij^l then sally forth 1 in groups 1 
l JU?'y or sally forth alt in a body, 



'J/liU 



^-ji^j 72. And indeed among you 
Jvi^ jJ is he that lags behind/ 
joiltju So if there befalls* you 
j&il-i" a calamity 5 he says: 
^tilii^ilui "Allah has just favoured* me, 
i*+**c£'jJ J! in that I was not with them 



3 ti—J. as an on-looker." T 



(5y^»^j 73. And if there reached you 
*il^ J-ii a grace* from Allah 

r^U he would certainly say - 
IfZp otr as if there had not been 
■il^jpSl. between you and him 
11^1 any friendship 9 - 
< _ s i_di "O how I wish 
rCi*-*^'! had been with them 
5y\* and so attained 10 
{§) tLiit5y a s P' en did success." 



- .-'\- 



74. Hence let there fight 



1 The present and the succeeding five ayahs 
deal with Hie duly of fighting in the way of 
Allah, b>' ui/ird = you (nil; rush, sally Forth. 

flee (v, ii m. pi. imperative from uttftiru 
[nu/ur/ni/Sr], Id rush, to lice), 

2 &C tlmbdl (pi., s. thubalf) - detached 

groups, detachments. 

3. The allusion is to (he hypocrites who lag 
behind al the lime of going out in fighting jjVJ 
la+yubalii'anna = he lags behind, slows down 

(v. iii. m. s, tmpfci. emphatic from bana'e, form 
II of buiu'ii [hta'AtiiaJbata'ah], lobe slow, 

4. inU.1 'fljdftat = he or it afflicted, befell, hn. 
struct, reached I v. iii. f, s past ill form IV of 
<-iihn | (ijn/j / .f./vbuhjft |. ti. hit the mack, Id be 
right, See 'asabal at 4:62, p. 26S. n. 6). 

V i^i- mujifra/p (pi. —t^* muni ii>l = calamity, 
disaster, misfortune, affliction Sec at 4:62, p. 
2W, n, 7. 
ft •»' 'un'ama = he graced, favoured (v. iii. m 

s. past from nu'fima[mi'mtih/man'am]. to be in 
ease. See 'an 'antlu at 4 69. p. 27 1, n. 5), 
7. The Mm h very appropriate here: for had [he 
hypocrite gone out wilh lite believers he would 
have been only an onlooker without sincerely 
taking pan in the fighting, j-*^ thakM ($.: pi. 

ahuhada) = onlooker, witness, martyr (act. 
participle in the scale of fa'ii from shahida 
lihufiiid], to witness. Sec at 4:33. p 255. n. 4).] 
S- i.e.. victory, success in the fighting, booty. 
Victory in baltlc indeed comes only by Allah's 
grace (see J: 1 26; 8:10} and il is therefore refencd 
id hew ve*y appropriately as such, jj>» fadl (pi. 

fudS{\= grace, favour, refinement, kindness, 
bounty, amiability; also surplus, excess. Sec ai 
A: 54, p. 264, n, 8 

9. »f mawaddah = love, affection, friendship. 
The clause is parenthetical and is illustrative of 
the unreasonableness of the hypocrite's feeling: 
in that he was very much in close touch with the 
Muslims and knew Ihc purpose and fact of their 
going oui to fight the enemy. 

10. ;yl 'afuza{u) - 1 attain success, succeed, 

triumph, gain victory, win (v. i I. impfci. from 
faia Ifawi], to be successful. The last letter lakes 
faihah because of a hidden <w in/5 (causal fa 
in conclusion of a wish | coming before the verb. 
See/aw; at 4:13, p. 244, n. 9). 



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S&rah 4 : Al-ffaS' [Port (Jui .') 5] 



273 







A3 



0^« ■ ■ j i. 



U*-j»^ Li j u y *<u 

to; 



uij^i; 



in the way of Allah 
those who sell 1 
the worldly life 
for the hereafter. 
And whoever fights 
in the way of Allah 
and is then killed 2 
or attains victory. 3 
We shall give him 
a magnificent reward. 

75. And what is with you 
that you do not fight 
for the sake of Allah 
and the oppressed ones 4 
of the men and the women 
and the children who 
say: "Our Lord, take us 5 out 
of this habitation* of which 
oppressive 7 are the residents, 
and appoint* for us 
from Your Side a guardian* 
and appoint for us 



1. tij^ij ymhrHna - they sell, baiter, buy, 

purchase, (v. m rn. pi impfct, from sharA [ 
shiran / shiril']. to sell, vend, buy, See ytishri at 
2.207. p. 100, n. 1) This Ayah stresses: (a) that 
the fighting should be undertaken only for !he 
sake of Allah and (b) that tins should be done for 
gaining Allah's pleasure and reward in the 
hereafter and not for gaining any worldly benefit, 
it matters not whether one is killed at gains 
victory, for Allah will give due reward in either 
case, 

2. J* yuqialiu) = he is killed, slain, murdered 
(v. iii m. s. impfct passive from tjalala [ifail\, iu 
kill, See yupalu at 2:IS4. p. 73, ft 2. The last 
leiler is vowclless because of ihe verb is in a 
conditional clause (preceded by man ). 

3. -■- vaghlih\ u i - he attains victory, 

overpoweis, overcomes, triumphs (v. iii, m. s. 
impfct. from gkalabu I ghutb fghaltibah], to 
triumph. See tughtab&w at 3:1 2. p. 1 58. n. 6), 

4. "*"•**'"■ muMttd'afin {pi.: accJgcn. of 
nuiytttii'ujun, s. nutUad'af ) = the incapacitated 
ones, those rendered weak, made helpless, the 
oppressed, Passive participle from isM<f'tifti, 
form X of fa' ufa \du'f/<tu'f), to be weak. See 
tfi'&f at 4:9, p, 240. n. 7>. The immediate 
reference is to the oppressed Muslims of Makka, 
but the lesson of the "Hxtih is general. 

5. £/*■' akhrij = takeout, bring out, dislodge (v. 

ii. m. s imperative from akhfaja, form JV of 
khiimju [khuruj], to go out. Sec 'akhriju at 2: 
2:l°L.p.92,n. I). 

6 \j* qaryah (s ; pl.u,j tfuran) m habitation, 

town, village, hamlet. Bene it infers to Makka 
and the unbelieving Quraysh leaders. 

7 fJiU zStim (&.; pl-OfJi ^aiiatun ) = 

oppressive, wrong-doing, unjust, tyrannical, 
transgressor (act. participle from ziilumu 
\itttm/iutm\, to do wrong. See iiilimun at \. [2ti. 
p. 206, O. Kt 
8. Ju-I ijf'oi - appoint, set, make {v. ii. m, s. 

imperative from ja'ata [ja't ]. to make, put. 

place. Sec at 3:40. p 171. n lit 

9 ^> walify (s.; pi. .^j' "avIiyS") ■ guardian, 

legal guardian, patron friend, sponsor, pmtcL-Mc, 
relative. See at 2382, p. L48, n, 4). 






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274 



Sarah 4 : Ai-tfiid' fPart Uui) 5] 



lA-ii 



~&-&ol from Your Side a helper. 



[£^J[ 76- Those who believe, 

l^ they fight 2 
^fj-^j in the way of Allah; 
ijjSSCi&j a "d those who disbelieve, 
jjWi they fight 
Ojiiir lJI j m the way of the evil one/ 



iyii So fight 









^^Jlitlji the allies- of Satan. 
^!4^ ; -3^1 Verily Satan's stratagem* 

Section (/Ju*w 'HI 
C£JMJ1/£I 77. Have you not seen those 
A>J that were told: 7 
fitm&> "Hold back a your hands and 
a^JJUjljlj properly perform 9 the prayer 

l^li^lij and pay ihezakah"; 
^kL$^ but when ordained 10 on them 

Jtili was fighting, 
j^I* jyiii lo! a section of them 

j-i^^j^t f ear ' ' tne people 

4jiiil£ir like the fearing of Allah 
Cti._u.ijl or a more intensive 11 fearing; 



1. jtm, noitr = (p! ->,--. fltuurii') = helper, 

defender, supporter, ally, protector, patron. Sec 
at 4:52. p, 264, ft 3: 2107, p. 5 1, a 3; 2: 120, p. 
57, a. 7), 

2. jjJCUf yugStilUna - they fight, wage war, 

battle (v. in, in, pi impfel, from t/dtalti, form 111 
of ijHrtr/u [?«!(], to kilt See at 2:217. p. 105. ft. 
9), 

3. c/yAV lighSt (s,; pl.-^V luwujfAiT ) ■ false 

god. evil one. Salan and any other objects 
worshipped in liea of or as partners of Allah 
tAt-Sohr. III. 675-676). See at 4:60. p, 267, n. 
1 1; 4:51, p. 263, n, 10. 
A, pljjl 'a»Uy&' (pi.; iing.J) wotiyy) = helpers, 

friends, allies, patterns, protectors, legal 
guardians Sec al 3:175. p 224, n. 6. 3:23. p. 
166, n, 3. 

5. jS kayo - = machination, plot, ruse, stratagem. 
See al 3:120, p 203. ft. 15 

6. j*i da'i/(pl du'afUVdi'df/da'fak) = weak. 
Trail, feeble, debilitated, deficient (passive 
participle in form /<a'il of da' Ufa \du'ffda'f[. to 
beweak. Seeat4:2B, p. 233, n, 2. 

7 The allusion is to ihose Muslims oi hypocntes 
who had earlier wished lo be allowed Id fight the 
unbelievers but who. when righting was actually 
ordained, were afraid of fighting the enemies 
(Ibn Kalhir. \\.l\S;Al-huhr. Ill, 712-713}. 
£ 'fif kttffu - you (all) hold back, restrain. 

check, prevent (v. ii. m pi. imperative from kaffa 
\kitff\. lo desist, to border) 

9. \y$ *aqtm(l ■ you (all) properly perform, si 

up (v, ii. in. pi imperative from 'aqama, form IV 
of qSmo, [tiawnx)ltftjtydm\, 10 stand Up, See at 
2: 109. p, 52, n 9; 2:83. p, 39, ft, 4), 

10, •—!? kuliba - it was written, decreed, made 

incumbeni, imposed, ordained, prescribed (v. lii. 
m. s. past passive from katsba \kaib /kiiabuh], to 
write, Sec at 2:246, p. 124, n. 2). 

1 1 . is jl*~i yakhs kawna — they Tear, are afraid of, 

apprehend, dread (v in in pi. irnpfct. from 
khashiya \khmhy/khuihyah\. to fear, to dread). 
See khashiya al 4:25, p. 251, n. 12). 

12, -»-i' aihadd - more/mnst intense, more/most 

intensive, stronger/strongest lelauve of shgdid. 
See al 4:66. p. 270. n. 10; 2:200, p. 97. n. 6). 



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SSrah 4 . Ai-Nisd' [Part Uui) 5) 



275 



JUjijilij and they say: "Our Lord, why 
(-.\\k ' : "\ have You imposed 1 on us 

J^" the fighting? 
G>1^'jj Why not put us off 1 
vr^^dl till a term close by ?" 

^pj* Say: "The enjoyment 4 of this 
JJ* Ljf world is insignificant; 6 
*J£XjJ$\j and the hereafter is better 

^IjH for the one who fears Allah. 7 
jj*Ji^j And you will not be wronged 
(§}%!* even a tiny bit.' 8 

\yfc u^l 78. Wherever you be, 
ipi^^ death will catch' you up, 

KM^j^ii even if y° u ^ m towers ' B 

plli lofty and strongly built." 
,^*ojj And if there befalls 12 them 
any good, they say: "This is 
5^i* from Allah's Side"; 

1 * and if there befalls them 
any evil they say: 

.jii "This is from yous side". 
S-J&J* Say: "Everything is from 

4&. 



1 ,' ! A K' 






JL> 



Allah's Side.' 1 

So what is the matter with 



is xf-v these people - 



1, ^-^ kmohts b you wrote, trade obligatory, 
imposed (v. ii. m, s. past from katuhn [katb 
/kitabah], to write See kuliba at 4:77. p. 274, n 
10). 

2, Cj^l nkhkharta — you deferred, delayed. 

postponed, put off (v. ii. m. s. past from 
'ukhMhum, form It from 'akhr See m'uklikhtmi 
al 2:203, p, 98, n. 7) 

3. J~" 'fljo/ [pi. ujuft = appointed lime, term, 
date, deadline See al 2:282. p. 147. rt. 4. 

4. v<j* A'"'''' ■ near, proximate, no! far away, 
close by. See at 4: 1 7, p. 246, n, 4. 

5 »te maid* (pi, *OMif'aA)n enjoyment. 

pleasure, delight, ohjett of delight . Sec al 3: 
196. p. 213, 0- 12; 3:185, p. 229. n, I; J: 14. p. 
159,11 IS. 
6. JJi flui"/ (s.. pi. ttqiM m ftjittait/<)i!Qt\- a 

liuli'. inilini' niLviuidtrahli;, iniignificam 

J. jJ iflagJ = be was on his guard, protected 

himself, feared Allah (v. iii. m S. pail in form 
VIII of weiqd \watfyMitftiyah], to guard. Sec at 
3:76. p. I R5. n. 7; 2: 203, p. 9S, n. 8). 
*- ^M /*" ■ wick, thread in the fissure of a 
date seed. Figuratively, a liny bit, See at 4:49, p. 
263, ft, 4, 

9 4**i ydritiu) - he catches up, overtakes, 
attains, reaches (v. iii. m. s, impfcl. front 
'atSrakti, form IV of daraku \darak/durk\. to 
attain). The lasi Idler is rendered vowellcss 
because ihe verb comes as conclusion of a 
conditional clause. 

10. £ jjt bur&J (pi.: S. zf burj) = towers, casdes. 
signs of zodiac. 

11. ii., '.. mashayyadah (f . m. nuuhavytuti ■ 

lofty, high, strongly built (passive participle 
from sbayyads. form II of .lArjrfu |j/hiiJ1. to 
erect, to construct). 

12. v— •: tttiili (>— -ttfittu) - she or it afflicts. 

affects, befalls, hits (v. iii. f. s. itnpfct. from 
a&fibu, fontt IV of saha [sawbhaybSbah\. to hit 
the inaik, 10 be Rghl- The final letter is vowellcss. 
and hence the medial yd ' is dropped because the 
vera is in a conditional clause (preceded by 'in). 
See at 3: 1 20. p. 203, nil) 



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276 



Sirah 4 : Ai-Nisd ' [Pan <Ju? ' ) 5] 



SjIKjV they are not close to 1 
^lijl.jj^*i understanding 2 any tadkP 



■jLU'VU 






& 












79. Whatever reaches' 1 you 
of any good thing* 

that is from Allah; 

and whatever befalls you 

of an evil, 6 

that is from yourself. 

And We have sent out 7 you 

for mankind as a Messenger. 

And suffices 8 it with Allah 

as an witness. 4 

80. Whoever obeys 10 
the Messenger 

does indeed obey 11 Allah; 
and those who turn away, 12 
We have not sent you 
over them as a guard. IJ 

8 1 . And they say; 
"Obedience"; 14 



1 . j jj^ 1/ la yakaduna = they an: not close to. 
about la <v, Lit in pi. impfel from kdJti [kitwd] 
to be about to - See turfii at 2:71. p. 34, n 4). 

2. ilj4Wi yafqahuna - ihey understand. 

comprehend (v. tii. nv pt impfct. from faqiha 

Ifo/ti]. io understand. 

3 ^Jc- ttadUh (s.; pj.4^^- 1 'ahadliht - speech, 

talk, rmrraiiun. report relating to deeds and 
utterances uf the Prophet and his Companions. 

4, .jL.1 'asaba m he of ft afflicted, befell, hit. 

struck, reached i v lii. m, s. past in form IV of 
.wi/xj Utiwk / sayliSbub], to hit the mark. Id be 
nght See at 4:72. p. 272, n.4). 
5 li_^ hasanah (s ; pi ,. i — hasttntiti = good 

thing, good deed, benefaction. See at 4:40. p. 
258, n. P. 

6, Urr xayyi'ah (pl.^i*~ .«ryvio()= sin, offence. 

misdeed, evil. Sec ui 2:81. p. 38. n 3 and 
limi'al at 4:31, p. 2S4. n. 3. 

7, \Jl-J 'arralita = we sent out. despatched (v. i. 
pi. past from 'oestilu, form IV of rasiln [rasul], 
lo be long and flowing See at 464. p. 269. n, 2). 
$ ^ kef& = he suffices, is sufficient, is 

enough (v iii. m, s. past from kifayah. lo be 
enough Sec at 4 70. p. 271. n. 11). 

9. ±&± shahid (s.: pl.,^ xhnhmM') = 

on looker, spectator, witness, martyr fact 
participle in the scale of ln'il from shahidtt 
UhuhSd], to witness. See at 4:72, p272. n. 7), 
I a (in yuli' {originally yuti'u) - he obeys, 

complies with (v. iii in, s, impfci from atd'a. 
form IV of lu'n (law "J, to obey The lost leller is 
vowel less and hence the medial yS' is dropped 
because Ihc verb is in a conditional clause 
(preceded by man). See al 4:69, p. 271, n 4). 

LI. £lU 'stS'a = he obeyed, followed, complied 

wilh (v. tii. m, s past in form IV of [S'a [law]. 
to obey Sec n. 10 above. 

12. i/r f avalla = turned away, desisted, 

refrained (v. iii. m. s. past in form V of waliyii. to 
be near. See at 3:32. p. 188, n. 4). 

13. Jiji*. hafli - attentive, mindful, persevering, 
guarding, guard. 

14. i.e., "We obey". The reference is lo the 
hypocrites, uiV tS'tth = obedience. See n. 10 
above. 



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S&mh 4 : At-Nuti' [Van Uuz') 5] 



277 






lJ y OJUI 



Dt^S 



but when they emerged' 
from your presence 
a group 1 of them design 1 
other than what they say. 4 
And Allah records 
what they design. 
Hence refrain 5 from them 
and depend 6 on Allah; 
and suffices it with Allah 
as Guardian -Trustee. 7 

82. Do they not reflect 8 over 

the Qur'fln? 

Were it from the side of 

anyone else than Allah 

they would have found* in it 

disagreement 10 

in profusion. 



jUiUisi} 83. If there comes to them 
Cj-Vf^ijll a matter' 2 of security* 
ui>Jlj1 or threat 14 







.4»fysfl( they bruit it abroad; 



.» 



I tjjjl harazu = Ihey emerged, eiMTW tO itie 

view, came out (v. iii, m. pi. past from baruza 
\huruz], lo come into view See at 2:250. p 127, 
n. 8). 

2- USU» l&'ifuh (pl.^if>> tawd'ifl = section of 
people, seei. band See at J: 154, p, 21 5, n. 10). 

3- ^-^ bayyalst = he did by night, put up for the 

night, designed, (v. iii. m. I, past in form II of 
btila \bayt yhayat fmnbit / mabdt Jbaytiltih], Id tie 
in the night, not to finish) 

4. i.e.. whal Ihey express le. you of obedience and 
submission. Nole thai this meaning assumes the 
pronoun in tuif&lu in relate to id ifuli. 

5, Jr^ 'a'rid = avert, avoid, discard, turn away, 

refrain (v. ii. m. s. imperative from 'a'rada, form 
IV of 'arada f'aruda \'ard\, to be wide, lo 
become visible See at 4: 62, p. 26$, n. 14) 
fs. JTj! tawatkal = you depend, put your trust 

in. rely, appoint as agem (v. ii. in s, imperative 
from luwakbitii. form V or wakala [wtikl/ 
wuksil]. to entmsl See al 3:159, p. 21 8, n. 1 1), 
7. JJ"j waktl (s,; pi, -ns » n™t<ikn = authorized 

agent, deputy, care-taker, trustee, guardian (act. 
participle in the scale of fi»'!l from wiWs |wuJU 
/wuiu J], lo entrust See n. 6 above. 

K. jj>-^ yaladabbaruna = they reflect, 

contemplate, ponder, meditate, consider (v. iii, 
m pi, iiupfct. from tadahbaea. form V afdabara 
\dubur]. to turn one's bade, to elapse). 
9. 'jj*, . wajadQ - ihey found, got, obtained, mcl 

with (v. iii. m. pi past from wajeida [ivu}ud\, to 

find. See at 4:64. p. 269. n. 6). 

ID. ,-^t*i ikhiitSf - alternation, coming of one 

after another, variation, disagree mcnl (verbal 
noun in form VI i I of khutafu [khtilf). to come 
after, to follow. See at 3:190. p. 230. n. II). 
It, i.e., if ihere comes lo their knowledge. 

12. jA r amr (s,; p\. it t 'um&r) = mailer, issue, 
affair Sec 'amSr at 3:186, p. 229, it 10. 

13. &A 'amn = security, safely, peace, immunity, 
protection. Sec at 2:125, p. 59, n 9. 

14. vij* khawf = fear, apprehension, dread, 
threat Sec at 2:276, p. 145. n. 9. 

15. 'jitoi 'adha'd a they bruited abroad, spread, 
broadcast, circulated, disseminated ( v. iii. in pi, 
past from 'adhtt'a, form tV of dhS'a 
\dhay tdkuy&'ldhay'&n], to spread, be spread). 



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278 



SHrah A ; Al-Nisd' {Pari <Jm') 5] 
















but if they had referred 1 it 

to the Messenger and to 

those in authority 2 

among them, 

there would have known it 

those who investigate -1 it 

from them; 

and were it not for Allah's 

grace on you and His mercy, 

you would have followed 4 

Satan 

except a few. 

84. So fight 6 
in the way of Allah; 
you are not charged* 
except for yourself; 
and inspire 7 the believers, 
maybe that Allah will stop 6 
the might* of those who 
disbelieve; and 

Allah is Severest in Might 
and Sternest in punishing. 10 



1 ijjj ra4d& = Ihcy referred, relumed, sent back 
(v. iii. m pi. pasi from radda \ru,ni[, [o send 
back. Sec rudtiu at 4:5*, p. 267, n. 1 ). 

2 r^ Jjl 'M> ai-'amr (acc/gen. Of m 
tii-'amri - person; in authority, Ihose in 
command. Sec at 4:59, p 266, n. 13. 

3. Oj^ ,- i yastanbittlaa = they irwestigaie, 

discover, find OUI (v. iii. in pi. impfci, from 
titanbdla. form X of nalmiu [nuhtMub&t\, lo 
gush uul. La stream forth) 

4. pwi ittaba'tum - you followed, pursued (v. 

:i m. pi. past from ittatw'u. farm VIM of luhi a 
\laba' /tab&' ah\, to follow. Sec yaltahiurta at 
4:27. p 252. n. 10). 

5. JSJ qtitit = (you) fight, wage war (v. ii. m. s. 

imperative from qttfula, form III of aalata \ausi], 
lo kill. See qdtiiu at 2: 1 90, p 91, nil) 

6. jli: tukallafu a you are charged, entrusted, 

made w bear, burdened, commissioned, (v. ii. 
m. S. impfci. passive I ram kallafa, form II of 
katija [kalaj], to be fond of, to be keen. See 
yukuiUfu at 2:286, p. 152, n. 6). 

7. jry horrid = incite, instigate, encourage, 

rouse, provoke, inspire (v, ii. m. s. imperative 
from haruda, form It of harada {hard], lo be on 
(be point of death). 

8. ji< yakuffaia) - he stops, desists, terrains, 

checks, prevents, holds back (v. iii. m. s. impfci, 
from kaffa [kaff]. to desist, lo border. See kuffS at 
4:77, p, 274. n. 8). The last letter takes jathtsh 
because of the particle 'an coming before the 
verb. This part of Ihc ayah constitutes an 
assurance by Allah thai [he Ihe Prophet'* struggle 
would be successful. 

9. jrtf ba's = rrughl, strength, courage, 
intrepidity, prowess. Sec at 2:177, p. K4, n 4 

10. j£jl laakll - severe punishment, exemplary 

punishment. Verbal noun in form II of nukulu 
/mtkila \nukut\. 10 Shrink, lo desist See nahU at 
2:66. p 31. n 8. 









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Mrah 4 : Al-NiiA ! [Part Vuz') 5] 



279 



C*if l£ 85. Whoever advocates 1 
■ a good advocacy 2 
^$h will have for him 



^ 



a dividend 1 of it: 



f»—?i>*j and whoever advocates 
'aLXo^. a bad advocacy 4 

■il<£j will have for him 
-+^Jjj a share of it. 
iil'5^ And Allah is 
>ii'>J^i^' over everything 
(A^-^M Omnipotent.* 



^^-iyj 86- And if you are saluted 7 
with a greeting 6 






fet>— *-k 'je^ greet with the better than that 



t*j J j jl or return 1 * it. 

SSSatSi Verilv Allan is 

%£'$& otl everything 

0ll_i. Ever Taking Account. 10 

idVvijti' 87. Allali, there is no deity' 2 

& - 

j*1Il except He. 

He sure will assemble 1 ' you 



I. i.e., between men. j-LLj yash/a'lu) n he 

intercedes, advocates, pleads for (v. iii. m. s. 
impfcl. from ihafa'a [shaf], to subjoin, add. 
The last Idler is voweliess because the verb is in 
a conditional clause (preceded by many See at 
2:255. p. 131.0. 4). 

2 i.e., for a good cause which is in ci'itanancc 
With the ihii'tth. ***** shafS'ak - intercession, 
advocacy, pleading. Sec at 2:254, p. 1 30, n. 7. 

3. i.e.. a shore of goodness and reward, y*^ 
itaiib (pi nusub fansibi' /aruibah) = Share, 
portion, lot. dividend. See at 4:52. p. 264, n. 4. 

4. i.e., for a cause not approved by the shan'ah. 

5. i.e. a share of badness, a demerit and due 

retribution, JJif ktft ■ share, part, equal 
(especially of a bad thing). 

6. t^e*- muqll = Omnipotent. Ever-Powerful, 

Ever-Nourisher (act. particiole from aqhtu. form 
IV q{ iftiiti\t)uwl/qut/qiyufiih\, to feed, to nourish. 
In its form IV. 'aq&la. the verb means to have 
power over, to invest something with power), 
7 f^r- huyyiytum = you are bailed, greeted. 

saluted, hailed (v. it, m. pi. past passive from 
htiyyH, from 11 of ktiyiya/tttxyya [hayHh]. to live. 
See Jtityf at 3 ; 1 56." p. 2 1 7^ n. 6), ' 
g vv; tahiyyak (*,; pi -v^ mhiyydl) m greeting, 

salute, salutation. 

9. i.e., respond with the same greeting, if not 
better. 

10. vr-*" kasfo - one taking account, account 
taker, account keeper, comptroller, noble, 
respected, esteemed. See at 4:6, p. 239, n. 10. 

II, Ji 'UAH (pi Alifuih) = Jelly, god, 

particularly one deserving of worship (sec at .1:2, 

p. 154. n. 2. This is a repeated emphasis on 

monotheism in respect of worship {lawhld 

ui-'ulihiyyahy 

12. j»-.J Ut+yajnt0'amta = he sure will 

assemble, gel together, gather, collect, muster (v, 
iii m. s. impfct. emphatic from jtima'ti Hum '], lo 
gather. The initial Mm and the terminally 
doubled nun arc for emphasis. See lu+yajma una 
aX 3; 157, p, 218. r> 1) It is also a repeated 
emphasis on the fact or Resurrection and the Day 
of Judgement, which is doubly siresscd hy the 
concluding clause ;il the 'ayuh which points out 
that there can be none truer in speech than Allah. 



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iw 



Siiruh 4 Ai-NisA m |Part (Jul) 5] 



^*y_d\ 












r v "tv 

' *. -f 



a 



J» 



to the Day of Resurrection; 

there is no doubt in it. 

And who is more truthful ' 
than Allah in speech? 2 
Section {Ruku') 12 

88. Then why should you be 

about the hypocrites 

two groups? 

Allah has reverted 4 them 

for what they earned. 5 

Do you intend* 

to guide 7 the one whom 

Allah has let go astray? 8 

And whoever Allah lets stray 

you shall not find for him 

a way. 9 






89. They wish 10 
if you disbelieve" 
as they disbelieved 
so you will all be equal. 12 
Hence do not take 11 of them 
Jj^ls^ 'Qy friends unless they emigrate 14 
-mi Jtf4 m me wav °^ Allah; 






I Jx*' 'asdaq - more veracious, more truthful 

(claiivc or siidnt, acl, participle from wufagu 
l.iij./jy/virfi/l. to speak the trulh. to be sincere ), 
2. i.e. (hi- re is nunc more truthful than Allah. 
i, The reference is lo (he Muslims' attitude about 
the hypocrites on the eve- of the battle of 'Muni. 
one group advocating harsh measures against 
them and the other group advocating moderation 
(See nakMrJ, no. 4589). ,-i fi'alayn (dual. 

utxJgcn. o( fi'tudit, s. fi'tih) - two groups, iwo 
parties. See,/! <th at 2:249. p. 127. n. 5, 
4 i c , He has n-vened them to unbelief ^j£y 
'arkasa ■ he reverted, ihrew hack (v, tit. m. t. 

posl in form IV of rtikasa \raMntksY 10 relurnt 
5. i.e.. of sin. ij/fJF kasttbu = they earned, 

acquired, gmncdiv. iii- m pi. past from ktaalm 
\kiahl lo gain Sec at J:fS5, p. 2tS, a II). 
*■ ^J^iJ nuffflaa - you (all) intend, wish 
desire, want, have in mind (v . ii. m . p| impfct, 
from it'dfla. form IV of rada | ™W|. lo walk 
about. See yariduiut al 4:60, p. 267, n, 9). 

7. Ijj^i lahdSinn) - you (all) guide, show the 
way (v. ii. in pi. impfct (torn Imdi [hatiy/ 
kiiikn/ hidawft], to guide. The terminal nun is 
dropped because of the particle 'an before the 
verb. Sec fiudiya al 3; 101, p. 195, n. 61. 

8. J-r' 'adalla = he led astray, let go astray (v. 

hi. m, J. past in from IV of dultti [dtitdt dtitiUtih], 
to go astray , See yvdillu al 4:60. p, 267. n. 13). 

9. i.e., a way to Ihe right course. 

10 ijjj wadda = they wished, desired, loved. 
liked (v iii. m. pi. past from vadda [■wadd/wudd 
/widd\, lo love. like. See al 3: 1 1 8, p, 202. n. 10). 

1 1. j.i>Sj taiifuruna - you (all) disbelieve, deny 

(v. ii m. pi. impfct from kef am. [kitfr], to 
disbelieve, See at 3 106. p I98.n 1) 

12. i.e., equal in disbelief and altitude. 

13. IjJwtf V IS Wta*hiith& = yuu (all) do no! 

lake for yourselves, take, adopt (v ii. m pi. 
imperative [prohibition] from uttikhtidhu. form 
VIII or aifiadhii I'akhdh]. lo lake. See al 3:1 18. 
p. 202.il 6) 

14- ' jyht yxh&jiriHitti) ~ they migrate , emigrate 

(v. iii. m. pi, impfct from hajara, form III of 
hujims \hi}r /hijriln], to e migrate. The lemurial 
aim is dropped far a hidden tin in hand coming 
before Ihe verb. See hdjaru at 3:195. p 233, n. 1 1, 



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SiJraA 4 ; AINisa ' [Port Uuz) 5] 



2BI 



U)j£y'tyj, c ^ then if ihey turn away 1 seize 2 

^'jfLjiij ihcm and kill them 
^^■^jOj- wherever you find 4 them 
*% and do not take of them 
t^*V jijjj a f r i e nd 5 nor a helper. 6 

ojiWt 90. Except those who 
^yJljjjLJ joined 7 a people 

'£y,$<Z_ between, whom and you 

there is a treaty; 8 
p>y*l^.ji or they come to you, 
Ujj-^sij^i their hearts closed* against 
1 their fighting you 
n^HpijhiLjt or Hghting their people. 10 
iii aiijjj' And if Allah willed 
p*UO He could have given them 

>du= mastery over you and they 
Pji^Lii would have fought you. 
pjlj^l^ So if they leave you alone'* 
i^J*^^ and do not fight you 
fJSi^itS^ and offer" you peace, 14 
>JiIii Jli-Ci Allah does not set for you 
~c against them any way. 15 



] Ijjji tawaitaw - they turned away, desisted, 
refrained (v. lii. in. pi. past from MwutM, form V 
of waliya. lo be near. See at 3:63, p ISO. nil 
2. Ij-U khudha = you (Ml) take, receive, get. 

seize (v. ii. m pi. imperative from 'akhailha 

I uk Mh\. to lake. See at 4:70, p 371, n. 12). 

V tjES ripuffl = You (all) kill, slay (v ii. m. pi. 

imperative from ifalata [ijul/J . lo kill, slay, See 

ai 2:54, p 25. n. 8) 

4, fJJ*; vajadium - you (all) found, go! [v. u 

m. pi. past from mtjudit [wujUd], to find See 

trcijadu at 4:64. p. 269, n, 6) 

5 J j H.oA>j) (s.; pj. -g,' aw/iyd) - guardian, 

legal guardian, patron friend, sponsor, protectee, 
relative. Sec 31 4:75. p. 273, n. 9) 
&• jr" naslr = (pi, .,— nunini") = helper, 
supporter, ally Sec at 4:75. p. 274. n. J). 

7. ijL^j wasftiu = Ihey joined, united, con nee led. 
attached, contacted (v iii m. pi past from 
HiiMiln [mml/sHah], to conned Sec ySsah ;ii 
2:27, p 15. n. 2). 

8. JUV- mUhaq [p|, jJv mawiiihii/ 1 = covenant, 
pad, treaty. See at 4:2 J, p, 24S. n. 4 

9. iHj*- hmirai = she enclosed, besieged, 
delained. restrained, deterred (v, m f s. pasl 
from huwtfi [ jjra.fr]. to impound, lo besiege See 

utaitf al 2:273, p. 143, n 2 

10. i.e.. they are averse to fighting you and also 
to joining you in fighting iheit people 

[ I .U-. fallatn = he gave mastery, gave power. 

imposed (v, Uj m, s past in from of suluttifsttltiu 
IftiAipiA/taruttiAJ. to be strong, 

12. ijjt* ilazalu t ihey Isolated themselves, 
secluded themselves, kept away(v. iii. m. pi. pasi 
in form VIII. of u.-trfu [ iat], to set aside, to 
isolate. Sec i'tazitu at 2:222. p. 109. n, 6). 

1 3. Ijitf 'aiqaw = they threw, cast, flung, posed, 
offered [v. iii, m. pi. pasl, from 'ulqil , form fV of 
laqiya [litfu" /lag/fa Auqy ftuqwh/luqim]. lo 
meet Scenttlifl at 3:151. p,2]3. n. S). 

14, (J*, salem = peace, submission, surrender. 
See silm al 2:208. p. 1 00. n, 6 

15, i.e., any way of righting and carrying on 
hosti lilies against them. 



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28 2 



SSrak 4 : Al-Naa' [Part (Juz') 5] 



b^j" Jo 

-> jj > ^ 






,1 >^ 









91. You will find 1 
others desiring 2 

to be safe' from you and 
be safe from their people. 4 
Whenever they are returned 5 
to the temptation* 
they become engrossed'' in it. 
So if they do not leave 8 you 
and offer you peace 
and restrain 9 their hands, 
then get hold of them 
and kill them 
wherever you find' them. 
And those people, 
We have set for you 
against them 

an authority" open and clear. 
Section (Rukft * I 13 

92. It is not for 12 a believer 
that he kill a believer 
except by mistake; 1 * 

and whoever kills a believer 
by mistake 



I. OjOj*^ sa+tujid&na = yau will find, gel. 

obtain (v. ii. m. pi. uripfct. from wujtiifti \wujud], 
lo Tind. See wajaihunt ill 4:89. p. 281, n 4). 
2 - ^j^a ymtdfino - they (all) want miend. 
desire, have in mind (v. iii m, pi. impfci from 
ardda. form IV of rOda \rtmd]. to walk about. 
Se at 4:60. p 267. ft. 9; 4:44. p. 260, n. t3). 
1 ijnit y«'man&(,na) - ihcy be salt, feel safe (v. 

iii. m. pi. impfci. from 'amino {'nmn/'aman], to 
be safe). The terminal nun is dropped because of 
the particle 'an mining before the verb 
4. While the previous '3yah speaks aboui those 
who sincerely desire lo remain neuiral. she 
present "Jyn/i refers lo the hypocrites who 
profess faith when the meet the Muslims hut 
secretly cooperate with [heir enemies. 

5 IjJj tuddu = chcy were referred. rcmriK-d, scni 

back (v. iii til. pi past passive from rtsdilu 
[rustd], lo send back. See at 4:83. p 278. n I). 

6. lai JU/iah (pi. fitan) = dissension, discord, 

[rial, temptation, cnli cement. See at 3:7. p. 156. 

t«.9). 

7 lj — S"jt 'urkisH - they were thrown back, 

revetted, engrossed (v. iii. m. pi. post passive 
from 'iirkusa form IV of rakaxa [mht/rukt]. lo 
reiurn. See nrtouu al 4:88. p. 280, n, 4). 
8. ! j)j»>* ya'tazitA{nu1 - they isolate themselves. 

keep away, leave (v. iii. m. pi. impfci. from 
i'luztilu, form VIII, of tiiuiti | ml], to set aside, 
to isolate. The terminal nuit is dropped because 
the Ihe verb is in a conditional clause (preceded 
by 'in). See itiaatQ at 4:90, p. 46, n. 1 2). 
9 iy£i yakuff &t.mi) = ihey Slop, desist restrain 

check, prevent, hold back(v iii m pi impfci 
from kuffu [kaff], lo desist, to border. The 
terminal jtiin is dropped because the verb is in ■ 
conditional clause (preceded by 'if See vukuffa 
ar4:84.p 278. ft. 8). 
10. >j»Ui" ikaqifium = you (all) found, met (v. ji. 

m. pi, past from ihuqija \lhaqf\. to meet, be 
skilful. See al 2: 191, p 91, n. 14). 

II. OuV- iuti&rt ■ aulhority. mandate, 

authorisation, power, might, rule, dominion. See 
at 3:151. p, 213. ft. II 

1 2, i.e., i I is neither lawful nor appropriate. 

1 3. tk* khata' - mistake, error, fauli, offence. 



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SSmk 4 : Ai-Niid \Psat (Jta - ) S| 



233 



jjZs has to manumit 1 
*J**>i 4_ij a believing slave 2 
+tij and pay blood money 



*U' &\<j^2 delivered" to his family, 
lyJiiuol^il, save that they make a gift ; 
^rfw"^)^ hut if he 5 was from a people 
■r&y% hostile 7 to you 
^Ljty^y ^ was a heliever, 

jy^cl then to manumit 
\d^# f^**i a believing slave; 
£**ij', &>fy i and if he was from a people 
between whom and you 
} there is a covenant, 8 
then to pay blood money 
i? kil^^V^ delivered to his family 
j.j-je-j and to manumit 
4^jji^_jj a believing slave; 
L*4 JjiS hut he that does not find' 
J.^+^ P" tf then to fast 10 for two months 









f in succession, 1 ' 



5y seeking Allah's forgiveness, 
pii* CL&'s And Allah is All-Knowing, 



All-Wise. 



l.ji^ taAnV = » sci fret, lo liberate. (0 

manumit (verbal noun in form [1 or harra 
\h<irrfhatijruh\. lo he hoi. See muharrar a! 3:34. 
p 168. n. 10) 

2 Mj raqabak Is.:, pt. rnjSb) - neck, slave 
(figuratively). Sec riijiibal 2:177. p. 83, nil 

3. V> di'vaA (s . pi. dijul) = blood motley, 
indemnity for blood injury 

4. U— • musaltamah (f,; in musalfiiM) a 

flawless, free from defects, unblemished, 
delivered, handed over, surrendered (passive 
participle from sallama, form II of stihma 
\siiliinuih/saliim\, lo be safe and sound. See at 
2:7 1, p. 34.nl). 

5. i.e.. charitably waive the claim ijiJ-a, 

yai/addaqu (originally yuliifisddaqunii) = they 
donate, give charitably, make a gift. (v. i" m. pt. 

HUlUVt I'mm lusaddiujti , infill V of iddtltfii 

Isadtf/srdtj], to speak the truth, lo be irue The 
terminal nan is dropped because of the particle 
'>{» coming before it. See fityddnqu at 2:280. p 
146. nil). 

6. i.e.. the murdered person 

7. y* 'ad&ww (s,, pi, .u*' 'u'dtl') - foe, enemy, 
hostile See at 2:208, p I (Hi. n II. 

8. Jll. mUh&q (pi. jfy tmwttth'uf} = covenant. 

pact, treaty See al 4:90, p. 2SI . n. 8: 4:21. p. 
248. n 4 

9. i.e.. if he, the kilter, does not find the means 
or a slave to liberate. J** yajidiu) = he finds, 

gets, comes across (v. iii. m. s. past from wajuda 
[kujuJ\. to find. The last letter is vowclless 
because of the particle turn coming before the 
vert See at 2- 1 96, p. 95, nil 

10. fL* siyim = fast, fasting, abstention 

Technically it means abstention from food and 
drinks and sex from early dawn till sunset wilh 
intention to fast Sec al 2:183, p. 86. n, 10. 
tl. ^-V^- mutal&bi'ayn (ace /pen. of 
mutaitlln 'tin) = two in succession, one following 

the other, 1*0 consecutive (act, participle from 
luiubu'tA, form VI of tuhi'a \iaba' / labd'ah}, to 
follow Sec itlaba'lupi at 4:183. p. 278. n. 4). 









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284 



S&ruh 4 : Al-Nuti' [Pan Uaz) 5| 



>j 93. And whoever kills 



iji a believer deliberately 
»-jji>jr<J his retribution will be hell, 
^-jC&l*. abiding therein; 



't and Allah's wrath will fall' 



44k. on him 






J j and He wilf curse' him 
iiJLpU and will get ready 4 tor him 



Mac 



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a grave punishment. 



££X^/jjl 94. O you who believe, 
2Z2>ty when you set out s 
M. uij in the way of Allah 7 
^$A}\jj£> make sure 9 and do not say 



^e^H^jl^J to the one who offers you 
fiil\ "Saiam": 9 
l^*>o_!3 "You are not a believer", 
^*j~^>yCjS seeking 10 the ephemeral 
l_^j]lj^i£jl thing" of this worldly life; 

^alj_La for with Allah lie 
l^=WLi^ booties 12 in abundance. 
^ -^ — .^UuSr Likewise 12 you had been 
j^jci before. 



muie'ammid m 



deliberate. 

premeditated, intentional, purposeful wilful (act. 
participle from ta'umnuida, form V of amada 
[ timA], to intend, to support). 

2. v— ■**■ ghadiba a he was angry, wrathful, 
furious (v. iii. in s, pasl from xhuduh, 10 be 
angry. See ghudub at 2:90. p. 43. «. 6)* 
3 i.e., He will banish him from His mercy, jjJ 

/□'an.! = he condemned, damned, cursed (V, iii, 
m. s pasi from la'n. Sec a; 4:52. p. 264. n. I}. 

4, J*' Q'attda = he prepared, made ready (v. iii. 

i!i s, past in form IV of 'odda \',idii\. to count. 
See 'ii'fififarat 3:131, p. 207.0. 3). 

5, fi* 'oifm a great, magnificent, stupendous, 

grand, huge, immense, enormous, grave. Sec at 
4:66. p. 270. n 12: 4:41). p 258. B. 10: 4:13. p. 
244. n. 8. 3:179. p, 226. rt.S>. This retribution is 
apart from the wordly punishment, 

6, The ayah exhorts the Muslims not to till a 
believer rashly by disregarding his protestation of 
the faith and his offering of ihe greeting of Islam, 
even in course of a confrontation . thinking thai 
he is doing $0 for convenience and for being 
spared of his life. Some such incidents OCctUTed 
during the cariy Madinan period of Islam (See 
lbn Kaihlr, II. 336-339). ^^J. dttfabtum = you 

(all) struck, heat, hi I, SCI out (on travel or on a 
mission | (v ii. in. pi past from dtirafia [ctarbj. 
to strike Sec dsirabi at 3:156, p. 217, n. 2},' 

7, i.e., fur fighting iii the way of Allah. 

S, ly^J tabayyani - you tall) make sura, make 

clear, ascertain the facl. investigate the truth, 
scrutinize (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from 
(tiiitiYYiHifi, form V of biuut [bitywt]. to be 
cvidcnl. See mubayyinak at 4: 19, p 247, n 4), 
% i.e., the greeting of Islam. 

10, iijcJ tebtagtttina = you (all) seek, desire, 
strive for, (v. ii. m. pi. inipfcl. from ibWRhH. fomi 
VIII of Juntos [bughJ ']. to seek See ttibttixM at 
4:24. p. 250, n. 7). 

11. i.e , a little amount of booty. j*jt 'arad = 
incidental, ephemeral, transitory, unstable. 

12 fi\*f maghSnim (pi ; 5. maximum ) = 

booties, spoils, gains, prorns. 
13. i.e., in the early days of Islam at Makka 
many Muslims used to conceal (heir faith for fear 
of being persecuted This part of the dytih asks 
the Muslims to remember such situations. 



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S&ah 4 ■ AlNif^ (Part Oft) 5) 



2SS 



" -*J but Allah bestowed grace 1 




upon you. 
' So ascertain the fact. 2 



-S^iikil Verily Allah is 
lL>£^*>XL of what you do 
i-f- All-Aware. 






tSf^fi 95. Equal are not 1 









*il 









CH^ 



those who sit back* 

of the believers, 

not having disabilities/ 

and the fighters 6 

in the way of Allah 

with their properties 7 

and persons. 8 

Allah gives precedence 9 

to the fighters 

with their properties 

and persons 

over those sitting back 

in rank; 10 

and to each Allah promises' 

the happy ending; 12 



1. y manna = he bestowed grace, graced, 
favoured, (v iii. m. s past from, maun, to be 
kind, gracious. Sec a* 3: 1 64. p. 220, n. 1) 

2. i e . ascertain the fact before rushing to kill a 
person on the assumption that his profession of 
Islam is not genuine. One or two such incidents 
took place during the early Madman period 

>,_' tabayyanH - you (all) make sure, make 

clear, ascertain the fact, investigate the truth, (v, 
ii m pi imperative from tttbavyana. form V of 
bamt [bay3n\. to be evident, See at p, 284. n. 4). 

3. ij^i yastawf = he is equal, becomes even, 

straight, regular, upright (v. iii. m. s impfet, 
from uraivfJ. form V|[] of samyia \si*nm\, to be 
equal. See islawa at 2:29. p. 15, n. 13). 

4. jjjuiti qS'idun (pi.; s. qa'id) = the seating, 

sealed, inactive ones (act participle from qu Wu 
[ou'6d\, to sit down. See ua "6d at 3: 191, p. 231, 
n, 7). The immediate reference is to those who 
stayed back home and did not participate in the 
battle of Badr, hut the meaning is general and it 
applies to all times and places. 

5. xr* darar (fi.\ pi Wruii = harm, damage. 

disadvantage. 'alu/'uli at tjunit a those with 
disabilities such as disease, blindness, lameness 
and the like 

6. iijAiU*. mujakidUn (pi,; s, mujuhid) = 

fighters, warriors, struggle!? (act. participle from 
jBhadu, form III of jahadu [fahd]. Do endeavour, 
to strive. SecjShada nt 3:142. p. 210. n 8). 

7 JljJ 'amvSI (pi .; sing. «kM) = riches, wealth, 

properties, goods See at .1: 1 IS, p. 201 . n. 7. 

8. ^fJtl unfus (sing, nafi) m lives, persons, 
individuals. See at 2:155. p, 73, it. 10. 

9. Jj» faddaia - he preferred, gave precedence 

(v. iii. m, s. past in form tl of fadah [fad! 
/fudSt], to excel, tu be in excess, Sec at 4:34, p. 
254, n. 6). 

10. "-jj darajah {pi. darajSt) - step, stair, flight 

of steps, degree, grade, rank, status, stage. See at 
2:228. p. 112. n. 8. 

11. j*j wa'nda - he promised, pledged, gave 

word (v, iii, m, s, past from w&'A, to make a 
premise. See wa ttdta at 3: 1 9-4, p. 132. n. 9). 

12. d-f hiuni (f.; m 'ahstm} the best 
outcome, the happy ending. 



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286 



Siirah 4 : Ai-Niii' [Part {Jut ') S] 









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and Allah gives precedence 
to the fighters 
over those sitting back 
in an enormous 1 reward - 

96. In ranks 2 from Him, and 
in forgiveness and mercy. 
Alfah is Most-Forgiving, 
Most Merciful. 

Section (Rak&') U 

97. Verily those whose 
lives the angels take," 1 
they doing wrong* 

to themselves, 5 

they (the angels) say: 

"What you had been in?" 6 

They say: "We had been 

oppressed 7 in the land". 

They say: "Was not 

Allah's land vast* 

so you could emigrate in it?" 

Such people, 

their abode 10 is hell; 



1 ,-i* 'azim - great, magnificent, splendid big, 

stupendous, grand,, huge, immense, enormous, 
tremendous, grave, gruesome, See at 4:93. p. 
184, n. J, 

2 The Prophet, peace and blessing s of Allah be 
on him, said that then: are one hundred ranks in 
paradise Which Allah has prepared Tor fighters in 
Ihe way of Allah, (See BakMri, no. 2790), 



he lakes in full, causes to die, 
s. past in [mm V of wafti 



3. jy tawaffd 

lets die (v. lii. in 

\wofd/wafy], a be perfect, to fulfil. See 

yaiawaffa at 4: IS, p. 24S, n. 6). 



4. li ^At rdtfinfl/THaccJgen of tt'ilimun, t, zUlim, 

the terminal nun being dropped because of the 
genitive construction) = transgressors, unjust 
persons, those doing wrong See at 3 86. p. 190. 

n 3) 

5. i.e.. b/y continuing [0 remain in Ihe land of kufr 
although nut free lo practise Islam and by not 
migrating to a land of Islam 

6. i.e., what had you been doing with regard to 
your duty in respect or properly practising the 
din (Islam)? 



■>•*- 



muslad'afin (pi.; ace/gen. of 

muslud'afun; I, mustaif'af ) = the incapacitated 
ones, those rendered weak, made helpless, the 
oppressed Passive piirtitiple from tskid'ufti, 

form X of dd'ufo \du'f/<hj], to be weak. Sec at 
4:7S, p, ItiX n. 4),* " 

8. l~-lj wSsi'ah Jf.j m. wdii") = wide, vast, 
extensive, far-reaching, ail -reaching, abou nding 
active participle from wtui'u Am* 'fl {»™3'irA|, 
to be wide. See ivOsfai 3:73, p. 184,n. 2). 

9. 'jyiV tuhAfiru(na) m you emigrate, migrate, 

(v. ii. m. pi. impfct ftoiti Mjara, form III of 
htifara \hijr /liijriin], lo emigrate. The terminal 
rwit is dropped because of a hidden 'tm in fu ' 
{causal /S coming after an interrogation) - See 
yiitiajiru at 4:39, p. 280. n 14), 

10. <j}U ma'van ($_, pi am'dmn) = habitation, 

abode, dwelling, place or refuge, shelter. Adverb 
of place from 'aw& \'awiv\, to seek shelter. Sec 
at 3: 1 97, p 233. n. 13). 



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Surah 4 : AlNisu' [Part Ual') 5 1 



287 



L*'TjV*J 









l» r'" , -r M l'- 11 



by* 









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and bad it is 1 

as a destination/ 

98. Except the oppressed 
ones 1 of men 

and women and children 
who are not able to* 
make a device 5 
nor do they get guidance 6 
to a way. 

99. Then such people, 
maybe that 7 Allah 
will excuse 6 them: 

and Allah is Most Excusing, 
Most Forgiving, 

100. Whoever emigrates 9 
in the way 10 of Allah 
will find" in the earth 
many a refuge 11 

and plenitude; 13 
and whoever sets out 



I. imLi s&'al - she/if become foul, bad. evil (v, 

iii f. j. past from sA a | s&'h<iw'\. to be bad. See 

jd'ual 4:38, p. 258. n. 2), 

2 jr** TOiiuY = destination, ptacc al which one 

amves, destiny, end, See at 3: 162. p,219, n. II). 
3. i.e.. those who arc oppressed and made 
powerless and helpless, ^u^^^ mustod'afia , 
see n. 7 on the previous page 
4 uj-> ti I&+yasiati'£na = they are not able 

lo, are not capable of (y, iii. m pi- impfct from 

tfUtt&'O, fonn X of td'ff [low'], lo obey. See 

yaxtait'JtnaM 2:273. p, 143. n 3). 

5, v MM (s., pi. luyul/'tihuil) = means. 

device, expedient, trick, stratagem. 

6 j jJin yahladdnn = Ihey receive guidance (v. 

iii. m. pi, impfct from tffcuii. form VIII of Audi] 
( hudy/tiudan JkidHyiih\. to guide, lo show the 
way. See at 2:170p. 80. n 7> 

7. ir * 'aid (followed by 'an) = it might be, 
may be thai. See 'usaymm at 2:246. p. 124, u. I . 

8. jijn ya'fH = he waives, excuses, ef faces (v. 

iii. m. s. impfct. from 'afd fd/w/intf'].[o be 

effaced Sec al 2:237, p, 120, u. S). 

9-. j^i^tyuhdjiriuy = he emigrates, migrates, [v. 

iii. in i- impfct. from tiAjafti. form III of hnjtiru 

Ifiijr / hijr&n], to emigrate. The last letter is 

vqwclless because the verb is in a conditional 

clause (preceded by man ), See yuh&jiru at 4:49, 

p. 280. n. 14). 

10 J— jflftff (pi subul/asbilak) ■ way. path. 

road, means, See at 4:88, p. 280. n. 9. 

1 1 . -*** yejidW = he finds, gets, comes across 

(v iii, tn. s past from wajada \»ujud], to find. 
The Last tenet is vowellcss because the verb is 
conclusion of a conditional clause. See al 4:92, 
283. n, 9). 

12. pHyi maragham - refuge, place to escape 14, 

retreat. Adverb of ptacc from rdghama, form III 
of raghitna/ raghamti [rugham], to be dust, to be 
humiliated. It means such a place or refuge as 

Iniscrriics and humiliates the enemy. 

13. **-sa*ali = plenitude abundance, affluence, 

roominess . spaciousness Sec al 2:247, p, 125, n. 
3. 






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SiiraA 4 : Al-fViiH- IParl (Jut - ) 51 



•j^ud fr° m his home 1 
ttfjit*^^ emigrating 3 to Allah 



«*b£yj and His Messenger, 
%*£ bm there overtakes 1 him 

iijif death, 4 
*f}-ui then indeed there lies* 
-■ai^i'ii his reward on Allah; 
$£k&\{$ and Alial1 is Most Forgiving, 
^CUr5 Most Merciful. 

Section (Ruku") 15 

•£r* y V 101. When you travel 5 
<>jV"i4 in the earth 
CJj^$3»rt2 it is not on you a sin 7 
[£JuJ\ that you make short 8 
ij^i'iS; °f tn e prayer* 

o**ru| if you apprehend 10 
'J Z.jX j that there may harass' ' you 
ij^^jjf those who disbelieve, 
tf/^fto* Ve "'y ^e unbelievers 
ijj^>j IjJlfare to you an enemy 
^ iiJ open and clear. 












I. ™ ftavr (5:, pi. /juyui/friffuftiri - home, house, 

family. 

2- j"tf mufciyir (s ; pi. murn'i/iriin) ■ emipranl. 

one emigrating (act participle from ftdji™, form 
ttt of hajara [hijr / hijrdn], lo emigrate. See 

mhiijirin p 287. n. 9 

3. $r>* yudrikW = he catches up. overtakes. 

attains, teaches (v. iii, m. s. impfcl. from 
adrakti, form IV of daraka ].ttttmk/dark\, lo 
attain). The last letter is vowcllcss because the 
verts in a conditional clause (preceded by man ), 
See -k 4:77. p. 275. n. 9). 

4. i.e.. before he teaches his destination, the 
place of migration, 

5. £Jj waqa'a = he or ii fell, fell down, occurred. 

lay (v. tit m s past from wuqS', lo fall), 
Followed by the particle 'uiu, this verb gives 
the sense of falling due, which is used here lo 
emphasize the deserving of reward. Otherwise 
the giving of reward is entirely within Allah's 
will and pleasure. 

6. fAj* faratrtum - you (all) struck, beat, hit. 

went out. sel out |on travel or on a mission | (v. 
ii. m. p|. past from daraba [dtirb], la Mrike. darb 
ft at anj is on idiom mt:j.iiinj; lo set out on 
travel- See si 494. p. 284, rt 6), 

7. {-L» junAh m sin, misdemeanour, 
impropriety. See al 2 282, p. 149. n 7 

6. ijj~u; h:qiuruina) = you make short, shorten, 

be slujrt/instifncien! (v. ii. in. pi. impfcl from 
quiura [qisar/qairfqaiurah). to be short or to 
make short The terminal nun is dropped because 
of the particle 'on coming before the vera. 

9. i.e., to pray two instead of four tak 'ahs. 

10. ?-*- khlftum - you apprehended, feared (v. 
n m. pi. past from khdfa {khawft maiMph / 
khifak\, to fear. 

I ] j^i yaftina(u) - he puts to Dial, he torment^ 

troubles/harasses (v iii. m. s. impfc! from fatanu 
Ifutntfuluft), to put lo trial, to tempt. Ssefilnah at 
4:y I , p. 282, n. 6). This clause is nol a condition 
for shortening the prayer; for the Prophet, peace 
and blessings of Allah be on him. explained that 
the permission to shorten prayer in travel is a gift 
from Allah and the Muslims should accept [he 
gift (Mu.r(im, no 686; Ibn Kalhlr. II. 247 24$). 



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Surah A : Al-Nua - [Pail Uia ) 5J 



269 



-— - ■-_ ! Ii 

ferfTi' -' — 












*< VJ^ 



hij^ 102. And if you be with them 
and and perform 1 for them 
the prayer, 

let there stand a group" 
of them with you and 
let them take 1 their arms; 4 
then when they have 
prostrated themselves 
let them be in your rear 5 
and let there come up 
the other group 
that did not pray 6 
and let them pray with you; 
ijj££[j and let them take 
fiij-v their precautions' 
"^iltj and their arms. 
S-i^j There do wish* those who 
iy^S" do not beiieve 
v_^jJjjj JJ if you became unmindful 
P ^v ^Cl^ of your arms 

y^^i and your equipment 10 
S& ^As^ so they could sweep down 1 
V^'^S on you in a single sweep. 



'j> . .j j ii > 



1 This 'fiyah leaches the. method of praying in 
congregation while confronting the enemy or in 
the slate of alarm and under fear of attack, lit 
such a state prayer can be shortened, as in travel 

See also 2:23°, supm. pp. 120-121. cil 

'aqamla = you performed, straightened, made 
rise (v. iii. m. s. past in form IV of qunw Ji-„ 

qiiwmab/->j qiyam] to gel up, stand up. See 
yuqimunu a| 2:3, p, 5. n 3)- 

2 UJU» ni'tfoA (pi, J>> tawd'if} - section of 

people, sect, group, band See at 4:81, p. 277, it 
21. 

3. iyi*\iya'khudh<i{mi) - they take, receive, gel, 

seize (v. iii. m. pi. impfei. from 'akkadtm 
[^''tikMh], 10 take, The terminal n$m is dropped 
because of the l&m of command coming before 
the verb. See khudht a! 4:79. p. 281, n. 2. 

4. i-j-i ' astihah (pi., I. c »_ .rildb) = arms, 
weapons. 

5. tijj ward ' = tear, behind, beyond over and 
above. See at 4: 24, p 250. n. 6 

6. ijLa, yusallu (.nuj = they pray, perform stttHh, 
worship (v. iii. m. pt. impfei. from sattA [sulali], 
to pray, to worship The temiinal fun is dropped 
because of the panicle lam coming before the 
vert*. It also gives the imperfect verb the sense of 
post tense. See musullan al 2:125. p. 59, n, 12) 

7. jj^ kidhr = caution, precaution, alertness, 
watchfulness. See at 4:70, p. 271, n 1 J, 

8. j j wadda = he loved, liked, wished (v. iii. m 

s. past from wadd Amdd Midd /wad&d Mudud 
/mawaddak, to love, to like. See al 2:109. p. SI, 

n.8. 

9. ^jLbJ taghfalSaa - you become unmindful. 

heedless, neglect, ignore, disregard (v, ii, m. pi. 
impfei. from ghafala [ ghstfluMzhuful ], to 
neglect, See ghufil at 3;99. p. 194. n. 13] 

10 feul 'amti'ah (pi., s. Mi Ainr^') = equipment, 

shjffs. effects, baggage, articles, chattels, objects 
of enjoyment, necessities of life. See mat&' at 
4 76. p. 275.11.5. 

11 jy— , vtrmt7fiiui - ihey bend, bend down, 

incline, lilt (v. iii. in pi. impfct from main 
Imttyl/ trmytdn], to incline, to till. When followed 
by Ihe panicle 'aid ii gives ihe sense of going 
against, acting hostilely, 



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290 



SSrah 4 : AI-NW [Part (/w) 5) 



jj^ A1ji* jj A^ no sin 1 lies on you 



^jo^u* 'f there is with you 

ti2 any trouble 2 
j~**ji due torain J 
js*^*^ jl or you are unwell 
«£5 that you put down 5 







_ JJ.I your arms;* 



p 3 J^|> jlj but take 7 your precautions. 8 
\'J»\%\ Verily Allah has got ready' 






.u. 



- JtjSCil for the unbelievers 



\i\%. a humiliating 10 punishment. 



^■.x'J aV^ 103, Then when you finish 11 
* jLLff the prayer 
«af \$^=>i U re member ' 2 A 1 1 ah 






lijlijt^j standing and sitting, 



ij^i-^J ana " wn 'J e on y° ur sides." 
ll*flb!i So when you feel safe 1 * 
ijLiliijijji properly perform the prayer. 
c-;s »JLiHij^ Verily prayer is 
,<^£lK^ upon the believers 
Lis. a prescript 



•jliyj: set with time.'* 



I r^" jun&h = sin. misdemeanour, 
impropriety. Sec at 2:282, p. 149, n. 7. 

2. ifjl 'adhan = trouble, offence, harm, injury. 

hun, painful thing. See at 3;1&6, p. 229, n. 6, 

3. jv motor (s.; pi. /kJ Vim/df > n rain, 

4. ^^ mandtf (pi.; s. j^, marld\ = unwell, ill. 
sick, diseased, indisposed, patients. 

5. ijpuii tadVfJi;™) = you (all) put down, lay 
down, place (v. ii. m. pi, impfcl. from wadd'a 
[utrJ], to place, to put down. The terminal nSn 
is dropped for the panicle "tin comes before the 
verb, See mawo'di' at 4:45, p. 261, n. 30. 

6 «*Jw.t 'atlihoh ■ see n 4 on the previous page. 

7. iji*. khudhu = you all take, receive (v. ii. m. 

pi imperative from 'iikhudlm [akhdh], lo lake. 
See at 2:6 J. p. 30, n. 10) 

8. ji*- hid/it - see n. 7 on the previous page. 

9. jel a'odda = he prepared, made ready, got 
ready (v. iii, m. s. past in form IV of 'odrfu 
[ odd], lo count. See at 4:93, p. 284. n. 4). 

10. I j r f muMn = humiliating, disgraceful, 
debasing, ignominious, (active participle from 
'tih&na. form IV of hdna [hown], lo be of little 
importance. Sec at 4:37, p, 257, a. 13) 

I I. p==-«J qadayium = you finished, carried out, 

accomplished, performed, discharged, decided, 
decreed <v. it. m. pi past from qadd \qaM'\, lo 
finish Sec quda al 2:1 17, p. 5S, n. 9). 

12. 1)/"^ udhkuril ■ you (all) remember, call to 

mind, i.e., make prayers and glorify Allah {v, ii. 
m. pi. imperative from illinium [diukr/tadhtAr], 
lo remember See at 2:194. p, 96. n 10). 
13 i- e„ while you are lying down. s>>» /unult 

(pi.: s janbl = sides. See also 3:191. supra, p. 
231. 

14. fULii tima'aamum = you felt safe, were at 

ease (v. ii. m. pt post from ilma'anna. See 
talma inna at 3:126. p. 20S, n. 12). 

1 5. i.e., an obligatory duty, v^ kitab = writing. 

writ, prescript, book, document, contract, Sec at 
3:145.. p 211, n, 8. 

16. ^?y mowqOs = given specified time, set 

with time, time-assigned. 



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S&mk 4 : M-Nisa [Pan Uuz ) 5] 



29] 



ijLp^S l04 - And do not ' an E uish ' 

^iji^i^ in pursuing 1 the people. 3 
j^j£iyj>2oJ If you be suffering pain, 4 
lL>yS^^+& they too are suffering pain 
^jJl; llT as you are suffering; 
^K^frji but you expect 5 from Allah 
^>£yy£ what they cannot expect; 
€jf.%,\d£$ and Allah is All-Knowing,* 

{§£ii All-Wise, 7 

Section (RuM*) 16 
Ll^iUi 105. We indeed have sent 
w£S3"(iUl down* to you the Book 
j*ll with the truth 
^3 so that you may adjudicate 9 
te^ljjf ^ between men with what 
iaUikjt Allah has shown you; 10 
H^UjyS^ and be not for the traitors" 
ptL — a*, an advocate. 11 
yj^ltj 106. And seek forgiveness 

%{ of Allah. 
oftit^l Verily Allah is 
V^jii. Most Forgiving, 
' Most Merciful. 



1. i^+i V /fi labuid « dn not languish/fUg/bc 

weak/be feeble (v. ii. m pi. imperative 

[prohibition] from wahana/wahwia \wuhn\. 10 
be weak. See wuhurtu at 3:146. p. 212, n. 3). 

2. ^Jk taiah = pursuit, quest, search, 

3 i.e.. the enemy The immediate context is the 
pursuit ul the retreating QuraySh after the battle 
nf 'Uhud. but the instruction is general. 

4, yt ta'lamuna - you (all) feel pain, suffer 

anguish (v ii, m. pi. impfct. from "aitma 
I 'alam], 1o be in pain) 

5, vij»> tarjuna - you (all) expect, hope for. 

look forward, from mjSt \raj&'\, 10 hope. Sec 
yurjunti aI 2:218. p 106. n. 6). 

6, i.e.. particularly about what is good far you, 

7, i.e.. particularly in His directives and 
instructions with regard to His creation 

8, U^lT 'anialnS = we sent down (v. i pi. past 

from 'arnaia. form IV of na&iin [ttuztif], to come 

down. See at 2:1 59. p. 75. n. 3 

9- S-<; tahkuma iut- you adjudicate, judge. 

decide (v. ii. m s. from hakuma [hukm], to pass 
judgement. See yahakkimi at 4:65. p. 269. n, 9- 
The last letter lakes falhah because of a hidden 
tin in the /dm Hi in the sense of kay. Mm of 
motivation). The address is to the Prophet peace 
and blessings of Allah be on him, and through 
him to the Muslims asking them to decide the 
matters arising between them according to the 
Qtir'ln and Sitnnah 

10, i.e.. what Allah has taught you by means of 
wahy, '} = he showed, pointed out, made see, 
informed, taught (v. iii. m. t, past in form IV of 
ra'n [ra'y/ru'yah], to see, notice, See ru'ayta at 
4:61. p. 268, rLl). 

1 1, .^A* tM'btSn t,p\.; s, khu'in} = traitors, the 
treacherous, betrayers, deeeivers. Active 
participle in the accJgen. from khdnu 
fWidim/HiiyoiKiA], to be treacherous. Sec 
lakhtamtna at 2:187. p. 89. n. 7). The immediate 
context is the case of Tu'mah ion 'Ubayriq of 
Binu Zafar who committed a theft and then he 
and his people falsely laid the blame at the door 
of a Jew and sought the Prophet's judgement 
,y:.n;i\i the latter 

12, nr** klmslm (s.; pi- khusamii'/khu!man) = 

advocate, defender, one who controverts and 
argues. Sec khisam at 2:204, p 99, n. 4 



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292 



Samh 4 : Al-Nisd' |Pmrt {Jui'y 5 J 



jji^j 107, And do not plead 1 
^■uKj* on behalf of those who 
^jllii'iOylSii betray 2 themselves. 
*l*-ki&t>\ Verily Allah does not like' 

S^l- the one who is 
^lljjliiy- perfidious, 4 sinful, 5 



1*1 1 * 

^ . . .. «j- ^-^ 



108. They seek to hide 6 

from men 

and do not seek to hide 

from Allah 

while He is with them 

when they design by night 7 

what He does not approve* 

of the saying. 

And Allah is 

about what they do 

A 11- Encompassing.* 



w 



^jiaji;ti* 109. Here you are those 10 



^*- '£j£r who plead on behalf of them 






\^ in this worldly life; but 
lj who will plead with Allah 



1. JjLmi 1 Id ttijfitiil = Jo not plead, argue, 

debate, wrangle l,v n m. s imperative 
I prohibition | from jddala,(anti.\\i,ofjadula, 
\jad!\. to lighten. Sajiddtai 2:197, p. 96. n I). 

2. J>1^^ yokhliinuna - they betray , deceive. 

dupe (v. ill. m. pi impfct, I rum iktuami. form 
Vm of OrrJiiu |ii<ruu'n^fiirniiuA], lg be 
treacherous. See mkhttmina at 2: 1 87. p. 89, n, 
7)- 

3. v-»s ^ M+yuhibdit = he sloes not like. does 
rot love (v. in jn. |. impfct from 'ahabba, form 
IV of (j(jW3a|/i„J,f,].n, love. Sec at 3:57. p. 178, n. S). 

4. Oi y khewwsn = perfidious, treacherous. 

traitor, faithless {active participle in the emphatic 
form of/a" 'dl from *AJjw [khaivnAfiiyanah]. See 
n 2 above and n, II on the previous page) 

5. f? 'athim (*. ; pi utfttimd') ■ sinful, 
criminal, evil. Active participle in the form of 
fall from 'ultima {'ithm/'alham / nm lhtim\, to 
sin. See drtrim at 2;283. p. HO. n. 10). 

i. i>ji*^—t yasiakhf&na - they seel In hide, try 

ID conceal, attempt m secrete ( v. iii, m pi 
impfn in form X of kkafiyu [fcna/2' /khifiih 
/khufyah], lo be hidden See yukhfujn, u 3: 154. 
p. 215. n. 13) 

1 -rn yubnyyUuna = did by night, brooded by 
night, put up for the night, contrived, harboured, 
designed (v. iii _ m. pi, impfct in form II of bdla 
[bayl fouyiit Muibll t mubul JbaylTttiM], lo be in 
the night, not lo finish. See btiyyala at 4:g|, p, 
277, n 3) 

B ^AJ ar 4& = he is happy, is satisfied, agrees, 
approves (y. iii. m. s. impfct. from rudiya [ridna 
MiwSn /mardOh\, lo agree, to be satisfied. See 
iardawnuax 2:J$2. p. 148. n. 6). 

9. i.e., irt knowledge, so that none tan hide 
anything from Allah. V" muhfr ■ one who 

closes in on. surrounds, encompasses, 
comprehensive, Active participle from 'ahata. 
form IV of hSta [hawMtahfliiyAiah]. to enclrcie. 
enclose, guard See at 3 : 1 20. p. 204, n , 1 . 

10. The address is to the sort of people who sided 
with Tu'mah ibn 'Ubayrict in his sinful act ( see 
n. 1 1 on the previous page) and the emphasis 
here is lhat none will be able lo defend anyone 
before Allah on the Day of Judgement. 



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SQrah 4 : Al-Niia' [Part (to) 5] 



293 



>"Ji 



w^^r^ty* r 1 



■}u===: 



j} 



Jij^liijl 



ill I 



i>l- 






zJSk 



0*1 






on behalf of them 
on the day of resurrection 
or who will be over them 
a guardian? 1 

] [0. And whoever does 

an evil 1 

or wrongs 1 himself 

and then seeks forgiveness 4 

of Allah 

will find* Allah 

Most Forgiving, 

Most Merciful. 

1 1 L And whoever acquires* 

a sin 

he only acquires it 

against himself. 7 

And Allah is All-Knowing, 



§£j£. All-Wise. 



s' .JT^j 1 12. And whoever acquires 
U^'^ii. a fault* or a sin 9 



1 i.e., none will be able lo help anyone against 
Allah's judgement, J^j. wakll (s ; pi. wnWd") = 

authorized agent, deputy, core-taker, trustee, 
guardian (act. participle in the scale of fa'il from 
wtikata [wakt /HiuiSlj. to entrust. See at 4:81. p. 
277, n. 7). 

2 ly .Hi' (pi. 'uiwii') a evil. ill. offence, injury. 

calamity, misfortune, bad deed. See at 3:174, p. 
224,tt. 3. Seeal4:17. n.246.n. II) 

3. Ulij Yazlim{u) - he wrongs, does injustice. 

oppresses, transgresses (v. iii. m. s impfcl from 
■ulomti [zafrn/zuiiii], to do wrong, The last letter 
is vowclless because the verb is in a conditional 
clause (preceded by nam ). Sec zalamu at 3:135, 

p. 208. n. 3.) 

4 jp£-i yastaghfiriu) - he seeks forgiveness, 

begs for pardon (v. iii. m. s. implct in form X of 
ghufttm \ghafr fiwghfirah /ghafran\. to forgive. 
The last letter is voweltess for the reason given ,11 
n 3 above. See isltighfirti ai 4:64. p 269. n, 5), 

5 -l»j_vujMh) = be finds, gets, comes across (v. 

in. m. s. past from trajuttu [wjiJd]. 10 find. The 
last letter is rendered vowelless because the verb 
is conclusion or a conditional clause. See ax 

4:100, 287, n, II) 

6. k--*£, yakiihiu) ■ he cams, acquires, gains. 

gathers (v. iii. m. s, impfcl. from katabit [kasb\, 
lo gain, The las! letter is vowellesi because the 
verb is in a conditional clause (preceded by 
man}. Sec kaiabU at 4:8i. p. 280. B. 9). 

7. i.e.i the consequences of it falls on him and he 
alone is accountable for ii, so thai none else can 
atone for it. See 2:134. 2:141 , 2:286; 6:1 64. 

8. itk* khati'ah (s: pi. khataya) - sin, mistake, 
fault, offence See Ichat&yd at 2:58, p. 27, n. 9. 

9 j*» uhm <pl. 'aih&nt) = crime, offence, wrong, 

sin, sinning. See at 2206. p, 99. n, 13. See at 
2:219. p, I07.it. 4, 



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294 



S&rah 4 ; Al-Nisa {Part (J*ie) 5| 



fiJ'/J^ and 'hen hurls' it 
%Zj at an innocent person 2 
I4II undertakes the burden 3 of 
a clumny* and a flagrant 5 sin. 



'' ic-' 1 "-" 






Section (tliikii<) 17 
^/j 1 1 3, And were not 
L*l;1r.4tj„ ^ Allah's grace upon you 
J^ljj and His mercy, surely 

''A there would have designed 6 
AL a group 7 of them 
lijL*^ ^J to mislead 8 you; 
^jLiiCij but they do not mislead 

^-"v.i^m anyone except themselves; 
li&Xra&i and they do not harm* you 



■ j -„ J > 



jjji ^ of anything; 



\ 



-wij^jlj for Allah has sent down 
IM^J&I upon you the Book and the 
~<&4r [ j wisdom 10 

iJajG^ you were not in the know of 
JiTjUj .^j Ift anc * AHah's grace 

: - jWc upon you is immense, 



1. fj( jfurmiff) = he throws, hurts, flings, hits. 

casts, pelts, shoots | figuratively accuses, 
imputes, lays at the door or }(v. IE m. t, impfet. 
from rum& [ramy/nm&yaii], to throw. The last 
letter yd' is vowetlcss and hence dropped 
because the verb is in a conditional clause 
(preceded by man). 

2. *tSj< bait' (s :. pi. tibtiy8A>urufiilra") = 

innocent, guiltless, free, exempt. See labarm'a al 

2: 166. p. 78. n. 5. 

i. J*i-« tittamaia = he burdened himself, bore. 

carried, undertiok the burden ( v 111 m s past in 
form VIII of humata \tuiml\, to carry. Sec la 
lukammtl at 2:2iS6. p. 153, n. 4). 

4. JUft buhlin - slander, defamation, libel, 

calumny. 

3- j? 1 mubfn - flagrant, glaringly obvious, 

manifest, patent See u 3;L64. p. 220. n. 8 

6. c— * kammax = she designed, she thought of 

doing, was oboul to, was concerned, worried [v. 
iii. f. s. past from hamma [hamm\, 10 worry, to be 

important See al 3; 122. p. 204. n. 5). 

7. UDt ta'ifah (pi. j-V ruwcfij) a section of 
people, seel, group Sec at 4:1(0, , p. 21J9, a 2). 

8 ijLk, yudilluwiu a ihey lead astray, mislead, 

tniigi.de, make go astray (v. iii, m. pi. impfci, 
from adatta. form IV of daliti [dnial/dalSl<ih\, 
10 go aslray. The terminal nun is dropped 
tiecausc oT the particle 'an coining before the 
verb. See yudtiluna .11 3:69, p. \S2, n. 7), 

9 Jjj-* yadurrSna = ihey harm, injure, 
damage, hurt (v Iii. m, pi. impfct. from darm 
\darr\ t to harm See yadurra at 3: 177, p. 22i, 
n!2) 

10. i. e., Ihe non-Qur'anic waky (sunnaM. This 
pan of the 'ayah is a clear statement that ihe 
Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him. 
\ utitji to ictevit YflMjwcfaittt amA s&uvasuvac U™. 
Allah not only through the Quran hm through 
non-Qur'5nic wutty as well (see 3:164, 2:269) 
i*£r- hikmah (pi hiSmmi = wisdom, sagacity 
S« at 3:164, p. 220. n.7). 
1 1- (Jt*- 'allama = he taught, instructed, informed 

(v. iii. m. s. past in form II of 'alima ['Urn], 10 
loiow. See at 2:282. p. |47. n. 9). 



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S&mh 4 : Al-Nis& ' [Part IM') 5] 



295 



• > * * Z r 






1 14, No good is there in most 
of their secret conversation 1 
except of the one who bids 2 
charity 3 or fairness'* or 
conciliation 5 between men; 
and whoever does that 
desiring* Allah's pleasure, 
We shall give him 
an immense reward. 



-Jm" } 115, And whoever 

^ilj^ tums hostile 7 to 

jji-jf me Messenger, 

JCIC jJu^ a f ter tnal c ' ear has become 11 

^JLiJiii to him the guidance, 

s&LX'j and follows* other than 

j-j^jjly^ the way of the believers, 

«4^ We shall assign 10 him 

jjfc to what he has undertaken" 

'■ j and shall broil 12 him in hell; 



siulj and evil it shall be 
as a destination. 



1 tJj»J rtttj-wa (l.J p|. tf^Ufci ji,j/iiH(J) = secret 

talk, confidential conversation. 

2 jJ 'amara = He commanded, ordered, bid (v 

in. in. I. post from 'umr, order, command. Sec at 
2:27, p, 15, n, 1). 

3 ii-ij mdaqah (pl.-^l*J™» sadaqdl) — 

charitable gift, chant) 1 , voluntary contribution, 
alms, See at 2; 196. p, 94. n. 11, 

4. ■Jjj*- ma'rtl/= known, well-known, fairness, 

equity, kindness, approval by sharVah {passive 
participle from 'arafa/'arifa \ma'nfah / tt <••>■■ \ 
10 know, to recognuc See at 4:25, p. 251. n. 6). 

5. c^*" 1 'isldh = restoration, repair, conciliation. 

reconciliation (verbal noun in farm tV of mlahs 
/sttluha [sutuh /safahiyak /suiQh], to be good, 
right, proper See at 4:35, p. 256. n. 8). 

6. Mifl ibtiglrt' m to seek, desire, for the 

purpose of. aiming at {verbal noun in form VIII 
of bughil [bughd'l to desire. See at 3:7. p. 156, 
n. IK). 

7 ji'i-i, yushdqiqiu) - he turns hostile, opposes. 

breaks away (v. tij. m. s impfct. from shaqqa. 
form \!itnji/,i \.ilt,iijq/mmhii^tfnh\, to be hard; 
also, to split. The last letter is VQweiloss because 
the verb is in a conditional clause (preceded by 

man). See ytahsitaqqaqH at 2:74, p. 35. n. 5). 

8 jrj' labayyana - he or il became clear /open/ 

evident/ manifest (v ui m s past in form V or 
bona [bayn/bayan], to be ctear, evident. See at 
2:256. p 132, n. 3) 

9, £4 yattebi'iu) = he follows, pursues (v. iii. 

m. s. impfct. from Hiatal' a. farm VIII ot liibi'n 
\iaba' //offltih\, lo follow. See ytittabi'iim at 
4:27, p. 152. n. 10). 

10, i.e. We let him be in what he lias 
undertaken. J y nuvattH!) ■ we assign, turn, 

appoint (v. i. pi, impfct, from walld. form 11 or 
waliya to be close, to lie next. See lutwtilltyttnmt 
at 2: 1 44. p. 68, n 9). 

1 1, Jy (awalla a he took over, undertook; also. 

turned away, desisted (v. iii. m. s. past in form V 
of waliya. lo be near. See at 4:80. p. 276, n. 12). 

12, J-— ifUtlHi} m we fry, broil, coast, set on lire 

(v, i pi, impfcL from 'afla. form IV of said 
Uataa/ suliy/ sild'}. to roasl.See at 4:56, p. 265. 
n'- 5}. 



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2% 



SSfuh 4 : At-NisA |Part yJut) 5| 



Section (Ritku') 18 

ilol 116. Verily Allah 
$^J>i does not forgive 1 that 
,*.Il^j partners are ser with Him, 
;JiaTj and may forgive 
— ia-S <^,jlc whatever is besides thai 
l££^l! for whomsoevr He will. 
AM&j ^ n d whoever sets partners 
jiG with Allah 
Ju.JiiJ has indeed lost the way,' 
ij_JojiiS straying far away. 4 



-— 'j-^jI 117. They invoke 5 not 
^jj- 5 ^ besides Him 
"i^V[ but females; 6 
0|j and they invoke not 
jj*itj»_£vi but the recalcitrant 7 Satan. 




iiiiljy 1 18. Allah cursed 8 him; 
j^i and he said: 
jjU^V " I shall surely get hold 
3 jL-6o^ of your servants 
^lij^Ull^ a portion 10 appointed."" 



1 A-iWglifini = he forgives, pardons (v. iii. m. 

s, impfct, from ghafiim [ghafr finaghfirah 
ghufran]. lo forgive. See at 3: 1 36, p, 20S. n. 10). 
Liljii yushrakaiu)- he is given share, partner 
are set with him (v. iii. m, s, impfct passive from 

mhniin, form IV of shanka | fAirJc/t tonkin], 
to share, See la lushriku at 4:36, p, 256, n. 10) 
The last letter mkes, faihufi because of the panicle 

'an coming before the verb 

3. i.e., from the way d! [he truth J-^ Jofla = he 

lost way. went astray, strayed from (v. iii, m, s. 
past from dalal/dalAluh. to loose one's way See 
at 2:1 OB. p. 51. n. 6 See also yvdiltu at 4:60, p 
267. n. 13), 

4. J-. iw'io" = Is : pi. /.u'i«*3' Ah'jIJ /biTilVin 

/bi&dl = for. far-off, faraway, far-reaching 
distant, remote, unlikely. See at 3:30, p. 167, n 
7). 

5. jjtj, yaJ'uaa - they tall, tall upon, invite, 
invoke (v. iii. m pi itnpfcl. from da' A [du'a"\, to 
call, to summon. See at 3:104. p. 1*7. n. 10}. 

6. i.e.. idols, to whom they give female names, 
such as nl-Lii, al-LTzia, etc. 'Itidlfi (pi : s 
'unthu) ■ females. 

7 J^ ntd/fd = recakitranf. refractory, 

rebellious, Active participle m the scale of fu'ii 
from marudu tmanida [ismruii / muradahf 
mnriidish], to rebel, to Ik rebellious. 

8, j«l Waaa = he condemned, damned, cursed. 

banished from mercy {v, iii. in. t. past Trom la'n. 
See at 4:93. p. 284. n. 3). 

9. liJUj'S la+'auakhidhanne = ] shall surely 

take, lake up. get hold of (V, i m s impfct. from 
itlaihadha. form VIII ot uk/mdha [ iikhdh\, to 
lake The initial ki iinil ihc tcTminallj ildublcd 
nun ore for emphasis . Sec Id tatttikhxdhu ai 4:89. 
p. 2B0, n, 1 3). 
JO. t-^jinsO (%,, p|. nusub /iiasibtt - /anfibati) 

- share, portion, lot, dividend. See at 4:85, p. 
279, rt. 3. 

' I ■ u^Jv*" mofrtid = supposed, presumed, 
premised, ordained, appointed Passive participle 
from jarada [fard], to decree, 10 appoint. See 

furidah at 4:24. p. 250, n. 12. 



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S&rah 4 : Al-Nha' (Purl <-ta) S] 



297 






yAjjj 1 19, "And I shall surely 
mislead 1 them 
■tfMj' and will arouse vain hopes" 
" in them 



.TV - 



lyjj and will command them, 
i ^^ so they will surely cut off 1 



iVf^ijll trie ears of cattle; 

^iiyi^i so they will indeed alter 4 
^j^L the creation of Allah." 5 



'£js) And whoever takes up 






# 



Satan as guardian 

in lieu of Allah 

does indeed incur 6 

a loss glarignly obvious'. 



, t * „ 1 20. He makes promises 7 

, * L — I 

" to them and 



■^3 i {jt 



£rj± 



rpr£? j inspires vain hopes in them; 
-£ ; ; l i^j JL^Uj but Satan promises them not 
D) Cj>^i except delusion. 5 
JUI jl 121. Such people, 
^jt their abode 10 shall be hell; 



>* ,«■ . /, "> 



jja^Jj and they shall not find 



i^ from it any escape. 11 



I J-tH la+'uditlunna - I shall mislead, lead 

astray (v, j. m. s. impfct. from "uduHa, from IV of 
dutld [daim/ ^tilainh), io go astray The initial in 
and the terminally doubled nin ore for emphasis 
Sec(Mfoat4li6.p. 2%, n. 3). 
2. i.e., such as thai there is no resurrection, no 
accounting, no hereafter, no heaven and hell, etc 
$pH Jo+'rimo'iiivanirn = I shall sure!} rouse 

hopes, stir desires (v. i s. impfct in the emphatic 
form, from miinnii, form II of WW 
ImunH/nuiFiy], to try, to put to (est, See lu 
tuitimimawv 014:32. p. 254, n 6), 

3 J>~ la+yabattikunita = they will surely out 

off, sptit { v iii. rn pi. impfct. in the emphatic 
form, from batiaku, for II of butaku [bulk], to 
cut. The pagan Arabs used to cut off or split the 
cars of a cow as a mark of sanctifying her if she 
consecutively gave birth to five male calves, The 
sense here is that Satan would try to mislead men 
to worship false gods. 

4. ij^iJ la+yugfiayyiruntlil = they Will SUrcly 

alter, modify, change (v. iii m. pi, in the 
emphatic fotm. from gftuyyara. form II oT jjtouru 
[gisuyr/gimyruh], to be jealous. 

5. The altering of Allah's creation means both 
physical alteration such as castration of animals 
or human beings and changing Allah's din by 
innovation, omission and alteration of the rules 
(AITabarf, pi. V.2S2-2S5). 

6. j~*- khiairu = he incurred loss, suffered 

damage (v, iii. m. s. past from khusr tkhut&r 
/khiuiiruh /khusrSn. See khoxirin at * Nfl p. 
2I\ n 5 

7. £■» wufrin - Hag rant, glaringly obvious, 
inanifest. patent, See at 3:164, p, 220, n. 8 

8. a* yn'idu = he promises, assures, threatens. 

(V. iii. m. S. impfcl. from w'ada [wad], to make 
a promise. See at 2:268, p J 40. n. 13). 

9. ijjf •hanir - dttwtiim, deception, conceit, 

vanities. See giiarrti M S:185. p. 229, n 2, 

10 ^fjU ma wan (s_. pi itui'Hwin} m habitation, 

abode, dwelling, place of refuge, shelter. Advert) 
of place from 'm*& [ Viwiy], to seek shelter. Sec at 
4:97, p. 286. n, 10). 

J I ,_-»-— mahii - escape, flight, place of refuge. 

rcuxai. 



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29S 



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Surah * ; Alms' [Port {Jn'} 5) 



{ r^ r -djj^i 122. And those who believe 
wi»Jl^fi \j^j ^nd do good deeds' 
-fr+Lir-c^-, We shall put them in 

.v'> gardens 
] Ht£^*sJ£ flowing 3 below them 

ftffiff the rivers, 
GSt^^^i. abiding^ therein for ever, 
jil lij a promise of Allah 
Hi in truth, 
j-u^l^j And who is more truthful' 

r m 3 ' *■ 

^rA^Cji than Allah in speech, 



'^jXX^A 123. Not by your desires,* 

jUl Vj nor me desires of 
-■; f-^^j Vl the People of the Book - 






l££l S^ktj* whoever does an evil 

<.£, j_^ shall be recompensed 7 for it; 

i] JL* *jfj and shall not find* for him, 

Jta>io- in lieu of Allah, 

&^*C>&3 a S 11 ^^ 115 nor a helper. 10 

JUS ..-_^'y 124. And whoever does 
o^l^Sl^ of the good deeds, 



1, oULi rfWi4l (sing. i-»u, iffliituJiy - good 

deeds/things, sound, and proper ifceds (approved 
by the (Jur'an and Ik sunnah. See al 4:57, p. 
2&S. n 1 1 ). 
2-Jv-Jj nudkhilu a wc admil, put in. enter, make 

enter (v. i, pi, impfcl. rrom 'adkbalu, form IV of 

itiikhalu [ilukhut\. io enter See ai 4:57, p. 265, n. 

12). 

3. ts >■-' tqjrf = she runs, flows, streams (v. iii. f_ 

s. impfcl. from jard \jary), to flow. Sec al 3:198, 

p. 234, n. 2). 

*. &&* khSlidin (acc/gen. of kMlidun, pi. or 
khalid) = living for ever, abiding for ever, 
everlasting, eternal (active participle front 
khaliiAit [ktiitlad]. to live for ever. See at 4:57. p. 
265. n 14). 

5 JjJ 'axdaq = truer, more veracious, more 
truthful relative for tMiq, acl. participle (torn 
saduqu [sadqttidtfi, to speak the truth, [0 be 
sincens }. 

6, i.e., the reward ofjaimah promised by Allah in 
the previous 'ayah shall not be obtained by vain 
desires and expectations, neither of the Muslims 
nor of the People of the Book, but by the 
performance of good deeets according to the 
Qur 'an and lunnaJi. jxJ 'amitiiyy (sing, 
ummyyah), vain desires, fond hopes, idle 
expectations. See at 2:111. p. 53, n 2; 2:78. p 
36. nil. See also tu+'umanmyanna at 4:119, 
p. 297, n. 2). 

7, j*^ yujzaid) - he is recompensed, rewarded, 
requited, repaid tv. iii. m, t. impfci. passive from 
jazd Haiti"], to repay, to reward The last lelter 
yd' is vowel less and hence dropped because the 
verb is conclusion of a conditional clause . See 
yuj2l at 3:144, p. 21 1, n. 6) 

8, -L»s yajiditt) = he finds, gels, tomes across (v. 
iii. m. s. past from wajadti [wU}uJ), to find. The 
last letter is rendered vowelless because Ihe verb 
is conclusion of a conditional clause. Sec at 
4:110, 293, n. 5). 

9, Jj weityy (s.: pi. .\j f \ uwliya) = guardian. 

legal guardian, palron friend, sponsor, prelector, 
relative. See al 4 : 89. p. 28 1 . n, 5) 

10, j-+l aastr = (pi. .i^, nuumV) = helper. 

defender, supporter, ally, protector, patron See 
J at 4:79, p. 281, n, o). 






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SQtuH 4 : Al-NiiS' (Part Vm') 5] 



29=) 



Jyl jij-Sss'i ,>; of a male 1 or a female, 2 

p 

jii*'J>i and he is a believer,' 1 

5jSiZJiiJjis sucn ones sna N enter 3 
ji^Jl the paradise and 
ijiii^^ they will nol be wronged* 
@ llrtii a tiny bit. 5 

^r,;1 ^5 1 25. And who is better 6 

jl; (Sj in religion than the one who 
■i^r-jfU^ submits 7 himself 
4Jj to Allah 
^—i^i} and is beneficent 8 

lljij and follows 9 
jV£Ii~;j : the religion 1 " of Ibrahfm 
fjLi as a true monotheist?" 
'Jmi Sklj And Allah took 12 
*§S UJ~i-*yi Ibrahim for a friend. |V 

*ij 126. And to Allah belongs 
jyl'-^.lf.j ll ail that is in the heavens 
u>jVi j£j and all that is in the earth. 
*n*^ui^=»j And Allah is of everything 
' $* * All-Encompassing. 14 



1. jfj dhakar (s., pi. dluikar/dhukurah/Jhutran'i 
- mule. 

2. jif VntAd (s., pi. 'rndlVunulftuJ = female. 

feminine. Sec Vnu/A at 4:1 IT. p. 296. n. 6. 

3 This mokes n clear that iKc doing of goods 

deeds withuul believing will nol cam any merit. 

3. ilijl^^j yadkhutuna - they enter, go in (v. iii. 
ni. pi. impfcl. from dakkala [dukhul], la enler. 
Sec yadkhuia at 2: 1 14. p, 54, ji. 1 1 J. 

4. uj-ikj ywilumrioo = [hey are wronged, done 

injustice, oppressed (v. iii en, pi. impfct passive 
rn .iii mlama [mlm/wlm\, to do wrong. See at 
J. 16 1. 'p. 219. n. 6). ' 

5 ^i nafJr - liny spol on a dale pit- 
Figuratively, an tola, a tiny bit. See at 4:53, p. 
264. it. 6, 
6, j_j-l 'ahum = belter, fairer/fairest, rti&re/mosi 

handsome, morc/ntust befitting Elati^e ofhusan, 
pood. beautiful. See at 4:59, p. 267, n. 5. 

~ — .' 'mlama - he ■.Liircn.lcrf.l lUbmjJBed, 

committed himself, resigned himself [v iii m. %, 
pan in from IV of saiima iMiliinuih/tuit'un], to be 
safe, secure. See at 1:83. p. 1 8U. n. 7 

i. {ftpf mutism (s.: pi. muiisinun) - one who 

docs good deeds according lo the Qur'in and 
turmtth. does good to others, beneficed! (active 
participle from ihtaH, form IV of liaiunu 
ihutal to be good). See at 2:1 J 1. p. 53, n.S. 

9. ^.i iltaha'a m be followed, obeyed, pursued, 

succeeded (v. iii. ni. s pa.ii in form Vlll of labi'a 
[ttsbu/tabSah]. to follow. See at 3: 162. p. 219, 
n.7). 

10, 4i- miliah (*.; pi. miltil) a religion, creed. 

religious community, denomination, See al 
2: I3S. p. 64. n 2). 

1 1 vjt* hanif (s; pi hutuifii') - one who shuns 

ihe t.ilsi: jdipnm A-.ui follows (he tnic r u- L I ;.; 1 1 1 ra i 

iruc monolheisr. See at 3:95, p, 193, n. 4}. 

12 Jwji ittakhottha - he took to him, look for 

him, look up, assumed (v. iii m s. past in form 
Vlll or 'akkadha [ akhdh). lo take. See at 2:1 16. 
p. 55, n 5). 

13. J-* kkalU ft,; pi. aihiU&'JkJiuU&i) - 

friend, intimate friend, 

14. i.e.. in knowledge. See al 4: IUK. p. 292. d. 9 



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300 



Surah A ; Al-Nita' [Pm<Jn')S] 



H 127. They seek your mling' 
i* j about the women. 
iiijj Say: Allah gives you the 
h\i h y-~-t— m ruling 2 about them; and [it is] 
'j r.V-'&j what is recited* on you 
j( j, in the Book 4 
-.Ot.^L'j about the orphan women 



u j4^>i»^ jJf whom you do not give what 



has been written for them 

oj^Jj while you desire 5 

'iSj^l to marry them; 

.liftj and the oppressed ones 6 
■* • ■• 
h! ,j ^^~^ of the children; 

Vj*'— ' J ar| d that you mete out 7 

J^ . 'J U to the orphans 

'ilijC justice; 8 

fj-^j and whatever you do 

y!*-ij- of a good thing 

.*ibh iul jji Allah is definitely of it 

^ll_it All-Knowing. 

'* it^taj* 128. And if a woman fears 

l+ui^- from her husband 9 



I In pre- islamic Arabia women wen debarred 
From inheritance A guardian of orphan women 
often used to marry them lo enjoy their wealth 
[f he did not like to marry the orphan woman 
under his care he used to throw a piece of cloih 
over her. which custom prevented anyone else 
from marrying her. Similarly minor children, 
whether male or female, were not allowed to 
inheri! from their ancestors Thia 'ayah and olher 
'Atulu of (he Qitr'&n prohibit these practices and 
give women and children the right of inheritance 
(see Bukh&n. no. 4600 ; Mmlim, no 3018; Ibn 
Kathir, II, 376-377), ijit-, yastafiSaa = they 

seek formal legal opinion, ruling (v iii m pi 
impfct in form X of fatd \fatw%ai&'\. to be 
youthful, young), 

2. ^i, juftt = he gives formal legal opinion (v. 

lit- :n J. impfct. (rum 'ufia, form IV of imii Sec 
n. I above. 

3. ^L, juii& = he or it is recited, read out, read 
aloud (v iii m s_ impfct. passive from laid 
[liiSwah]. to incite See tulla at J: 101. p. 195, n. 

4 e, g , this 'u\ah and at 4:3 

5, ijj> targhabUna - you (all) like, desire, 
wish (v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from rughibu 
\raghbuk/mghah\ to like, wish, desire; also to 
detest, dislike. See yarghtib at 2:130, p. 62. n, 
I) 

6. i.e.. the minor children v ^v-i^,- muiiad'afin 

(pi.; accJgen, of muslttd'ufun; s mustadof) = 
the incapacitated ones, those rendered weak, 
made helpless, the oppressed Passive participle 
from islad'afa, form X of dtt'iifa Idu'f/da'f], to 
be weak See at 4;97, p. 286, n. 7). 
7 lyjii :tit{UMuli!.i! m you all stand When 

followed by the panicle |„ . the verb means to 
perform, to do, to act upon. taqStnUnn fa al-qiit 
= you do juslicc. mete duI justice, 

8. -L_J qilt - justice, equity, fairness, See 3:18. 
p. 161, n, 7: 3:21. p 163. n. 4 

9. J* fcrV (s„ pi. u^h ba'Aiah) m husband. It is to 
be noted ihat while the word zuwj means cither 
husband or wife, ba'l means specifically 
husband, i.e., the mate partner See baiilah at 

2:228, p. 112.11.5. 



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Surah 4 \ U-NW [Put {to') 5] 



3D] 



l^^l jtij^ antipathy 1 or avoiding 2 
r^'ir' ^KlNJj then no sin will be on them 
UJJu j if they make* between them 
fcCLi a reconciliation - 
iiilfj and reconciliation is better - 
^Vf o^1j unci set 4 are the selves 
•ill with avarice/ 



V-f ^ * ^ 



ijL-^u[j And if you be nice 6 
ijiljj and act righteously, 7 
5fSt£*>ji Allah definitely is 
;££rju2St£j of what you do 
£§5d. All- Aware. 






IJilicJj^j 1 29, And able you cannot be 7 
ijjjjj to equalize* 
J^Afffi between the wives 
*- JL ^T '"Jj even if you desired to;' 
ijL— :£j but do not deflect 10 
Jjifj^si all the deflecting 
LjkjjjS thus leaving her" 
0.'*y < like a suspended one. 12 
i^L^ui) And if you conciliate 
i.jii3j and beware of Allah 



I. jy< miM; - animosity, antipathy, violation 
of marital duties, disobedience, arrogance. Sec ol 
4:34, p. 255. n. 13. 
1, .jMjM V'ifirf ■ avoidance, turning away, 

shunning Verbal noun in form [V from "antda 
furada | "(irtfj, to be wide, to be visible. See 
'a' tidal 4:81, p. 277. n. 5. 

3. .-i—i. vwih/idfui ■ ll,c > r (two) set right, 
reform, reconcile (v U, m dual impfct from 

tislahu. form IV of or mluhii [sal&n /jutl&hJ 
stilahiyah). to be good, right. The terminal nun 

is dropped. Sec 'ffittaW ai 4: 16, p. MS, n. II). 

4. iijj»-t ukditat m she was brought, set, 

supplied (v. lii. f s past passive from 'aifdara, 
for IV of hudtiru [hudarY to be present Sec 
hadara at 4: 1 S, p. 246, n. 6). 

5. pJ lAuftft = avarice, stinginess, covctousness. 

6. i.e., to the wives. l> — n) fWiJinui'iiil = you 

(all) be nice, do good, act charitably (v. ii, m. pl 
impfct. from 'atuana. Form IV of hasuna [husn\. 
to be good, to be nice, The terminal nfii is 
dropped See 'iVi.ran at 4:62, p. 268, n. 12). 

7. ijja tati«q8{iai = you [all) beware, act 
righteously (v. ii. m pl. impfct from itlaqS. form 
VII] oT waqa ( waqy Aviqayuhi.tO guard- See at 
3:l26.p.229.tl.«). 

8. ^jB^k^J J fan + roifo/i 'G<*u> - you (all) shall 

not be able, cannot be able (v. ii. m. pl. impfct, 
[from utatd'ti. form X Of lii'a [tow 'J, to Obey. 
The terminal ruin is dropped Sec la+yaslati'una 

at 4:98, p. 287. n. 4). 

9. ff*j>- hawstum = you desired, coveted. 

intended, wished (v. ii. m, pl. past from 
harafa/harisa [tun], to covet. Sec 'ahrai at 
2%. 45. n. 9). " 

10 LjW V IS iamita = do not incline, lean, tilt. 

bend, defied (v. ii. m. pl. imperative 
[prohibition) from main [mayi /autyt&n], to 
incline. S« tomf/fl at 4:27, p. 252, n. 1 1 j. 

11 ljjij ludharHimii = you [all) leave, leave 

alone {v. ii. in pl. impfct, from from wtidtii The 
terminal nun is dropped. See yadhara at 3:178. 
p. 225. n, 7). 

12. i, c.. neither divorced nor in the state of 
conjugal life. UU. ttm'aUvqah (f, s.: pl. 
n 'atlaqdi) = suspended. 



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302 



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Siruh 4 : AINM' [Part Via) S| 






;6 ial^jj* then verily Allah is 
£j£e Most Forgiving, 
!p i^*"J Most Merciful. 






iijjToJj 130. And if they break up, 1 
y&^^^Z Allah will suffice 3 each 

~^"_ j: out of His Amplitude. 1 
li- jifo^ Allah is All-Reaching, 4 
^buii. All-Wise. 



131. And to Allah belongs 
all that is in the heavens 
and all that is in the earth. 
Indeed We have directed* 
those who were given 
the Scripture before you, 
and also you, 
that you beware 6 of Allah; 
but if you disbelieve, 
then verily to Allah belongs 
all that is in the heavens 
and all that is in the earth; 
and Allah is Above Want, 7 



4 j >'--'- jl ' til—* 







'■ **>* yotafarraqS - ihey (two) bleak up, be 
separated tv. lii. m. dual impfct. from safarmqa, 
form V of (ui.iifn \far%f/farqan\. Id separate, to 
sever. See lufurraqu at 1. 105, p 197, n. 9J 

2. i.e.. Allah may make each above the u nm of 
the ether by providing each with a suitable 
partner anil means of livelihood tlfrii Kallrir. II. 

363). jv yughnUf)- he suffices, makes (roe 
from warn, enriches, avails, helps fv, iii. m. s. 
impfct from 'tighaa, form IV afghaniyu l^/iu&at 
f ghtinU" }. to be free from want, to be rich. The 
last letter yd' is vowellless and hence dropped 
because the verb forms ihe conclusion of n 
conditional clause tjuwiih shutii See rirjfJwii at 
.1:1 16. p 201, n 6). 

J. ^. in-'afi n plenitude, ampliludc. abundance, 
affluence, roominess , jpacifusness See at 
4:100. p. 287. n. J 3; 2:247. p. 1 25, n. 3. 

4. i.e.. in His grace and favour. £-lj wasC = 

wide. vast, eitensive. far-rtaching, all- caching, 
abounding (in mercy; grace, generosity); active 
participle from wosi'u/waxu'a [waia'ah], to be 
wide Sec al 3:7.1. p, 184, A. 2), 

5. L_*j wafsayna = we enjoined, made a behesl. 
directed, made incumbent (v i pi past in form II 
of wnid lmsy\, to be joined, lightened, 
degraded Sec tram) at 2:132, p. 62, n. !). 

6. i.e.. by worshipping. Him Alone and by 
abiding all His directives and command*, 
because alt thai is in the heavens and the earth 
belongs to Him Alone, It is also an emphasis on 

the sameness of the teaching imparted through all 
Ihe Prophet.?, IjW ilitiqu = ynu (all) beware, be 

on yiKlt guard, fear, be afraid Of (v. ii. m. pi. 
imperative from IttaqA, form VIII of waijii t 
wtiify/wiijayiih). to guard, safeguard. See ai 
2:282. p. 149. n, I2>. 

7. i.e., Allah is in no need of His crcalures and 

Iheir services and worship. j# ghaniyy (*.; pL 

'aghniyd'} = above want, free from want, rich. 
Followed by Ibc particle an ihe word gives the 
meaning of : "has no need". Sec lughniya at 1: 10, 

p. 157, n. 10. 



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Surtih 4 : At-N>aa {Pan (Ja;> 5] 



;n; 



Most Praiseworthy. 



V- 1 32. And to Allah belongs 

cJ^JS^> all that is in the heavens 

e i •• ,* 

J°j^jy^ ^d ail that is in the earth; 

£ t ^$£ I 

jUj^j and suffices it of Allah 
ijjJ^Uij as a Guardian-Trustee. 2 

lL^' 1 33. Were He to will, 
^*=il*jb He could eliminate -1 you, 
ji0l^! O mankind, 
^/^-ilotj and could produce 11 others, 
vifljj jp!it jfcy And Allah is over that 
^^oi Omnipotent. 






ju/5lfo* ' 34. Whoever is to desire* 
UjIOjJ the reward* of the world, 
ji 1 i-fi then with Allah lies 
C'iliijJ the reward of the world 
;^"§"{j and of the heare after. 7 
L^.%1% And Allah is All -Hearing, 
rtjh ^ j - . All-Seeing. 






1. i.e. Allah Atone is Sufficient lo maintain, look 
aflci and oversee all thai is in the heavens and 
ihc earth, as He is the Creator and Lord of all of 

these, jii" kafd = he suffices, is .sufficient, is 

enough (v. iii. m. s, past from kifiiynh. to be 
enough. Sec at 4:79, p. 276, n. 8). 

2. JXj wflJtfl (5.. pi wuiuU ") = authorized 
agent, deputy, care taker, trustee, guardian (act 
participle in the scale of fu' it from wokctia \wukl 
fwukQt). » entrust. See at 4: 109, p, 293. n, I ). 

3. i.e., if you mm ungrateful and continue 
committing sins Allah may remove you 
altogether and replace you by a completely new 
general ion or new species (Ibn Kathir, II. 383). 
Of similar import are 'dyuhs 6:133, 35:16, 

+7:38. w»J, yadh-hibiu) = he causes to go 

away, takes away, removes, eliminates (v. iii m. 
I. inipfcl. from 'adh-huba. form IV of dhahufm 
[dhihiib Imudh- hub\, to go The last loner is 
vowelless because the verb comes as conclusion 
of a conditional clause. 

4. ^Ai ya'ti(t) +■ bi - he brings, brings forward. 

produces, comes up with (v. iii. m. s,. implcl. 
from ula [ttyaii/aiyfmu'tiih], to come, to arrive. 
The last v.J is vowclless and hence dropped 
because the verb comes as conclusion of a 

conditional clause. Sec al 2:109, p. 52, n. 7). 

5. -*ijt yuridu m he intends, desires, has in mind 

(v. iii. m. s. itnpfd fonn 'ardda, form IV from 
ttida Irawd], to walk about Sec at 4:2b, p. 232, 
it. 3) 

6. •v'j' thawtib a reward, recompense, requital. 
See at 3:I9S, n. 233, n. 9. 

7 The 'Ayah calls attention of those Who desire 
only ihe reward and benefits in this world to 
remember that la Allah belongs the rewards of 
this world as well as those or the hereafter so that 
they should aspire after both and should not 
concern themselves only with that which is 
transient and not at all Easting (Ihn Kathif, II, 
333-3S4). Of similar import are 'dyuAj 
2:200-202. 17:18 and 42:20. 



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304 



Surah 4 : At-Nisa [Pan Uai ) S] 



Section {Ruku') 20 
^tuullQls 135. you who believe, 
■y^V^^iyJ^be custodians 1 of justice, 2 
*4iU^i as witnesses' for Allah, 
f^CjJuf^jJj even if against yourselves 
t/ji^'y or both tne paints 
^j^V^j and ihe relatives/ 
^4k1^5 i*\ If he be rich 
j*ij\ or poor, 
jjlii'^ then Allah's is the best claim' 

H^ to take care of the two. 
[jLi5:£ So do not follow 5 

2s^li the desire 7 
fjl-j^jf lest you should deflect; 8 



i 7 >U jij and if you distort' 
tji^l or avoid 13 
O^i^oli ^en verily Allah is 
Ojil»lli °f w hat you do 
fwf*_L All-Aware. 



j^i^jjf l^Is 1 36. O you who believe, 
4iiliijL.C believe in Allah 
.^jijj and His Messenger," 



1, _,--y V UB'»ujirj"n (.ill /genitive Ot ((ui.H.ijmi.-j. 

pi,; s. gowtttiM, emphatic and ciaggeraicsl fomi 
of qa'im) - carelakei^. guardians, 
superintendents, managers, custodians. See 
qrm-wtimnn at 4.14, p. 255. n. 5 

2. V- i fift ■ justice, equity, fairness. Sec at 
4:! 27, p. 100, n, 2 

3 iU+J dudtadS' Ipl : s. ^.- ,(fcu/HV/)= 
witnesses, martyrs. Sec at 4:69, p, 271. n. 7. 
*■ j*j" '"flf*!* t accusative/genitive of 
aqrab&n. sing (lyrafrl = near ones, relatives, 
relations. Sec at 2: IKO, p. 85. n. 9) 

5. i.e.. if cither party io the case is rich or poor 
you should not be swayed by that, j <■ avid = 

the closest, the nearest, having the best claim Io (. 
dative otwelfyy. See at 368. p, 182. n, I). 

6. tji^j V li + tatlabi'S = you (all) do not 

billow (v. ii, m. pi. imperative {prohibition} 
from iltaba'u, form VIII of labia \lulm' 
AbM 'ah], io follow See at 2 16*. p, 79, n »). 

7. J J AaWd/a (s,; pi, riJm.;') = affection, 
desire, craving, inclination. See a/iwi' al 2:145, 
p, 69, n 8 

S. La, from the course of justice, tjuui 

in'tliliHiui i ■ vim (ail} swerve, deflect, deviate (v. 
ii. in. pi. impFtt. Tram 'adala [ udiil]. to deviate 
The terminal nun is dropped because of the 
particle 'an coming before ihe verb, See at 4:3, p 
237. n 9). 

9. jjkf (a/n liuiu i = you (all) distort, twisi, croak, 

contort, pervert, bend (v, ii, m. pi. impfct from 
lawu [layy/lawiy). 10 distort, crook, bend The 
terminal nun is dropped because the verb is it) A 
conditional clause {preceded by 'in \. See 

latwuna al 3:154, p. 214, n, Si 

10. *>»j^ m -ridii(ftit) = you (all) turn sway, 
avoid (v. n m. pi. impfct from a'radti, form IV 
or erudit tantda [ 'ard], to be wide, fo be visible, 
The terminal nun is dropped because the verb is 
in a conditional clause (preceded by "in | See 
'a Wat 4:81, p. 277.ft. 5 See 'i'rHdax 4:128. p 
301. n. 2). 

1 1. Asking the "believer?" to "believe" means to 
remain steadfast in the belief and in carrying, out 
the directives of Allah and His Messenger. 



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Surah 4 : Al-Nisa' [Part Wm ') 5] 



305 



t£jjL-££jf> and the Book which 
J'J> He has sent down 1 
Ar'iB- on His Messenger; 
gjji.^-'g^Jfj and the Book which 

J^Cr; J^ He ^d sent down 1 before. 3 
s&J*y And whoever disbelieves 
.££^^1 in Allah and His angels, 
**-p$ and His Books 
-l^jj an d His Messengers, 
>*jf "f^j and the Last Day, 

J^JJa ^ as indeed lost the way, 4 
llJjydLi straying far away. 5 



\£S\1</&1{ 137. Those who helieve 

'j32 then disbelieve, 
[£U2j2 then believe 

\)'J?m and then disbelieve 
'jjlajiii and then increase* 

I^T in disbelief, 
<si J<^J Allah would not be wont 

'$j±4 to forgive 7 them 
^'-^IVj nor t0 guide them 9 
^"^il to the way.* 



1. Jji annals = he sent down (v, ill. in.s.pisiia 
form II of tuxiala (nuidi), K> come down, to 
descend. See at 3:3, p. 1 54. n, 4). 

2. J>l 'aaiala - he senl down (v, iii. m. s. past 

in form ]V l'mi£!\ of nozaiu (najul], to come 
down, get down. See at 4:61, p 268, n 2). 

3. i.e.. all the scriptures thai had been senl before 
the sending down of Ihe Our'fin IO different 
Prophets {Ion Kathir. II. 385). 

4. i.e.. Use way of ihe truth, Ju» datta = he lost 
way. went astray, strayed from [v. iii. m. s, past 
from itiital/dalalah. to loose one's way. See at 
4: 116, p. 296, n. 3 J. 

5 -Vi ba'td - (s.-, pi. bu'adit' Atu'ud /budan 

/bi'dd) = fur, far-off, far-away, far-reaching 
distant, remote, unlikely. Sec at 4:1 16, p. 296. n. 
4). 

6. i.e . they continue to disbelieve till death. This 
'wyuA speaks about those who pake a profession 
of the faith and then relapse into disbelief and 
repeal such behaviour. ljilJ>' iz/t&ta = ihey 

increased, grew, compounded (v. iii, m pi past 
fram iidadu. form VI11 of r/idti [ziy«duh\. to he 
more, to increase. See at 3:89, p. 191. n. 2). 

7, ji*t ye&hfiraWi = he forgives, pardons (v. iii. 
m. s. itnpfcl. rrtutl ghaftiM [ghafr /mayhfinih 
fzhuffiiti], to forgive. The last letter takes falhuh 
because of a hidden 'on in li {{£m of motivation 
having the sense or kay] coming before the verb. 
See mghfiru at 4; 1 16, p. 296, n, i). 

8. ^Ji* yahdlya (yaMf) = he guides, shows the 

way (v. iii. m, l. impfct. from badfi [taJv hudan/ 
ludayah], to guide, to lead. The last yd' lakes 
fathah for the reason given in a. 7 above. Sec 
yehdl at 2:272, p. 142. n. 6). 

9, J_- sablt (pi, j- snbtilM-1 asbilah) = way, 
path. road, means. See at 4:8a. p 280. n. 9. 



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306 



S&rah 4 : At-Niid' [Pari {Jul) 5] 



ii 1 38, Deliver the glad tidings' 
£jf to the hypocrites 2 
ii^L that there is for them 
$pCjKlj£ a punishment most painful - 



Cijj*£ j«jjf 139. Those people who take 3 
Ct.jj&Jl the unbelievers 
iDjl as allies' 1 
oojii^jij^ in lieu of the believers. 



. r*«* 



cjyS2l Do they seek 5 with them 

ijjt honour?" 
;j*]i'aii Then verily honour 
4j belongs to Allah 



Jy-J»j 140. And already He has sent 
r==*J* down 7 on you 
■„ACiI j in the Book 
X^illpl that if you hear* 
-if«^X Allah's revelations 
C^jSj being disbelieved* in 
l^l^jj and scoffed 10 at, 
ffiflyfigSB then sit not with them 



1. The expression "deliver the glad tidings" is 
used here ironically. ^ baihshir - give glad 

tidings, announce good news (v. n m. S. 
imperative from baxhskara. form fl of 
baxhuro/bashirs \buhrAiushr), u> rejoice, he 

happy, Sec at 2:223. p 110, n. 7). 

2. This Syali indicates that the hypocrites belong 
lo the type of people described in the previous 
'&yak. 1 jJi^> munafiqfn (acc^en. nf mumifiifun 

i. muitAfiq) = hypocrites, dissemblers. (Active 
participle from ndfuqa. farm Ell of nafaqa 

[nufaq/nufuq]. to be used up, to perish]. 

3. J j-i*j< yattakhidhuna u they take, take up to 
themselves, take on. assume (v. ni. m. pi, impfci. 
ittakhtkthti, form VIII of akhadiui [akhdh], !o 
take, Sec la ttakhidhQ at 4:89, p. 280. n. 13). 

d ,yjT 'iswUyS' (pi.; sing. J } valiyy) s helpers. 
friends, allies, patrons, protectors, legal 
guardians. See at 4:76. p. 274, n. 4. 

5. il>s« yabtaghuna - they seek, desire, aim at, 
aspire after, strive for (v. ill. m, pi. impfct. from 
iblaghd, form VHJ of baghS \h*gh&'\. to seek, 
desire. See yabtagh at 3:85, p, 1 89, n. 3. 

6. ty- "izzah = might, power, respect. 

self-respect, prestige, honour, fame, renown, 
pride, arrogance, See at 2:206. p. 99, n. [2, 

7. i, e., irt (3:<j& (jurat al-'An'dm) which was 
revealed at Matta. Jji nazzata = Ttc Sent down 
(v. iii. m. 5. past in farm U of ixazala inuzM), to 
came down. Sec at 4: 1 36. p, 30S. n. 1), 

8. f*~- temi'lum = you (all) heard, listened, 
paid altention (v. ii. pi. past from mmi'u (jdnr' 
fseenfi' /mrnd 'ah Anastrvt'], to hear. See xumi 'na 
at 4:45, p. 261, n. 4), 

9 jiit yukfant = he or j| is disbelieved, 
denied, rejected, covered (v. lii in, s. impfct. 
passive from kafam [kaff\. to disbelieve, to 
cover. StxyukfarS at 3:115, p. 201. n. 4), 

10, tj+^-t yustahza'u - he or it is scoffed at. 
ridiculed, derided, launted (v. iii. m. s. impfct. 
passive from isiahza'a. form X of haza'a [to" 
flua'/ haxa'/tiuii7mtthzii'ah\ to mock, io 
ridicule. See yattahii'u at 2: 15,. p, 9, n. 1). 

11. ijjui; H Ii taq'u46 = do not sit (v. ii. m. pi. 
imperative {prohibition} from qa'atlu [qu'id], 
to siE down. Sec qa'adti ai 3:168. p. 222, n, 1 



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Surah 4 ■ Al-MiS' [Part (Juz) 5] 



107 



J. 






allij**^* 



<J^i 



iff* 



unless they go 1 into 
a conversation 
other than that. 
Verily you will then be 
like them. 3 

Verily Allah will muster 
the hypocrites 
and the unbelievers 
in hell all together - 

141. Those ones who 4 

lie in wait* for you- 

So if there is for you 

a victory* from Allah 

they say: 

" Were wc not with you?" 

And if there is 

for the unbelievers 

any luck 7 they say: 

"Did we not look after * you 

and protect* you 

from the believers? 10 



1. *>■>>** yakhudu(mi) = they go into, wade 

into, deal with. embark on. rush into, be 
absorbed in. rake up (v. iii. in. pi. impfct. from 
khdda [ihawaV Ithiydd]. to rush, dive into. The 
terminal nun is dropped because of an implied 
'on in hatta coming before the verb. 

2. iiJ»- hadUh {&.; pi, inuJ 'ahadilh) = speech. 

talk, narration, conve tsar ion, report relating lo 
deeds and utterances or the Prophet and his 
Companions. See at 4:7R, p. 276, n. 3. 

3. Conniving at a forbidden deed constitutes an 
indirect approval and participation in il ([brt 
Kalhir, [1, 387), 

4. The discussion Continues about the hypocrites 
who arc the subject matter of the two preceding 
'Ayahs. 

5. -i j-"/( yatarahbasSna = they wait, wail and 

watch, tic in wait (v, iii, nr. pi, impfel from 
tarabbasu. form V of rabasa [robs], to wail, to 
watch See yahirabbasna at 2:234. p. 117. n. 
I*). 

6. j^ii fath (s., pi. -jj fiii&k/e** yi futuhdl) = 

opening, victory, triumph, conquest, See 
yasttiftHi&na at 2:89, p. 42, n. 4. 

7. s-r<>j nustb (s.; pi. nusuh faniiba" /unsibah) 

= share, portion, luck, chance, fate, dividend. See 

at 4;8l p. 279, n. 3. 

S Jjj^-J n/ijva/i*'jd/i(i/) = wc look afler lard 

over, master over, overpower {v. i. pi. impfct. 
from iiiahwattha. form X of htidha \tmwdh\. to 
urge on, to spur on. The Ibi letter is vowelless 
because of the particle lam coming before the 
verb. This panicle also turns ihe trupeifecl into a 
pail tense. 

9. *-~ namna'i '«} = we prevent, forbid, prohibit. 

bar, hinder, obstruct, restrain, held back, stop 
hum. protect, defend, guard. Iv. i. pi. impfct. 
from mnti'u Jjkou'I to prevecw. When followe4 
by Ihe particle 'an Ihe word gives the meaning of 
protecting, defending, guarding. The last tetter a 
vowelless because of the particle 1mm coming 
before the previous verb to which ihU verb IS 
conjunctive. See mtma'u at 2; 1 14, p. 34, n 7). 

10. The hypocrites try to take credit for 
themselves, especially when ihe unbelievers have 
a turn in their favour, by reminding them that 
they (the hypocrites) secretly helped ihcm and 
protected them from being harmed by the 
belt* vers, 



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308 



SOreh 4 : AI-NW (Part {Jut) 5 j 



-v.. ;i- -l," 






it- 






So Allah will judge 1 
between you 2 

on the Day of Resurrection; 
and Allah will not set 3 
for the unbelievers 
against the believers 
any way.* 

Section {Raku'\ 21 

142. Verily the hypocrites 

try to deceive 5 Allah, 

but He will outwit 6 them; 

and when they stand up 

to pray 

they stand up lazily, 7 

showing off* to men; 

and they do not keep in mind 

Allah 



§P "iUi yi except a little - 






143. Vacillating' 
between that 10 - 
£4%* ^yi 8 0m S neither to these 
nor to those." 






'-% 



1, f$+* yaUtumu = he judges, passes 

judgement, gives his' verdict (v. u't, m, s, tmpfct. 
from hakama \hakm], to pass judgement. Sex at 
2:1 13. p. 54. n, 4) 

2, it. you the believers and unbelievers. 

3, J«s ynj'oh(u) = he Sets, makes, places, pub. 

appoints (v. iii. m s. impfct, r rom /a'a/a [/a"/] Id 
make, lo put. The lasl letter takes fulhah because 
or [he particle /an coming before the verb. See 
jaaia at 4. 90, p. 24), n.lSj. 

4 Jr— xaAEf tpl . sabuifasbilah) = way, path, 

road, means. See at 4:100, p. 287, n. 10. 

S. i_e., by theii outward profession of the faith 

and (heir inward harbouring of unbelief- ^jW 

yukhtidt'dna - they try to deceive, trick, dupe. 

(v. iii. m pi,, impfct from khMa'a, form HI of 

khada'a \kh#4\ to deceive, See at 2:9. p. 7. 

(1.1). 
6. i.e., Allah will turn the trick on (hem by 
punishing them for their trickery and hypocrisy 
Allah docs not trick. Far Above is fie from such a 
[rail, for He is All-Knowing and All-Seeing of 
what is unseen and unknown to His creatures, ll is 
a style of the Qur'in lo use the same expression 
which describes the offence to indicate the 
punishment Tor it too. fJL- khihlr ■ one who 

deceives, dupes, outwits. Active participle from 
ktttida a. See n, 5 above. 

7 That is so because their mind and bean arc not 
in it as they me me-t sincere believers m d, as 
mentioned in the nem clause, they do not keep in 
mind Allah and perform prayers for showing off 

lo men jfl f kuidla (pi., s, fuula») - lazy, idle. 

indolent, sluggish. 

S jjf'ji yuri'Una = they show off. make a 

show, act ostentatiously (v iii. m pi, unpfci. from 
ra'd. form III of ran \rti~v/ni'ytih], to see, notice 
See ardka a! 4:105, p. 291, n. 10). 
9. jjJji- mudhabdhabin ( ace Jgeni live of 

mudhabdhabun, pi.; s, madhtibdhab) - those 
wavering, vacillating, fluctuating. Passive 
participle from dhabdbaba, lo swing, 
10 i.e., between belief and unbelief 
1 1, i.e., not being outwardly as well as inwardly 
with the believers nor with the unbelievers, for 
the hypocrites outwardly show their adhesion 10 
the believers but inwardly belong to the 
unbelievers, and vice-ve«S (Ibn Kalhir. II. 390). 



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SHroh 4 : M-tfaA' [Part {Jut't 5 J 



309 



'^\fcJ>J.' 3 And whom Allah lets stray 1 
■ilJU J£ you shall not find 2 for him 
§$%^ a way. 1 



i^l^jjftjlti 144. O you who believe, 
ij JiJi"^ do not take" 
Oi^Sjf the unbelievers 
iQJI as allies 5 
u^-iiil 1 ! jjj,>j in lieu of the believers, 
4siJ| Do you intend 6 
A!s&-U to set 7 for Allah 
I'fc— iffc against you 
^lijJ'iiLIi an evidence 6 all too clear? 



^.j ffj ffi 145. Verily the hypocrites 
.j-lLin.jiJJli^ will be in the lowest abyss 
J^S? of the Fire; and 



in 



^Aji. J vou shall not find for them 
^ a helper. 



<%jjf^Jl 146. Except those who 
ffi^ iffi repent and rectify" 

£ and hold fast 11 to Allah 



1. JJ_h yurffii tjwdirfu] d he lels stray, leads 

astray, deludes (v. tit, m, S, impfcl. from 'adtitia. 
form tV of «Jw( L 'ij \Jtilat/iltiUiUih\. to go astray 
The last letter is vowelless for the Verb is in a 
<.i-.iiJiii..ri.iL . ];iii-.i' [preceded b> ntun] S« 
yurfif/u ,il 4:60. p. 267. n. 13). 

2. j»j ta/ida(u) = you find, get (v, ii, m, s 

impfct from wajada [wujOd], to find. The tast 
letter gets futhtth due to the particle kin Earning 
before Ihe verb. See lajiduaa at 4:9 1 .p 282. n. ]). 

3. i. c.. a way to guidance and the truth. See for 

similar sense TASb and IS: 17 

4. i>l*3 M a tmiakhidhd = you tall) do net take 

for yourselves, lake, adopt (v. ii. m pi 
imperative [prohibition) from ni,ikhatth,i. form 
VIM of ttichadhn l<ikhdh), lu lake. See at 4:89, 
p 280, n. 13 ). 

5. .l^jl 'awliyi' (p|,; sing. Jj waliyy) = helpers. 

friends, allies, patrons, protectors, legal 
guardians See at 4:139, p. 306, n, A. 

6. jjJj/ turtd&na a you (ail) intend, wish desire, 
want, have in mind (v, ii. m, pi. impfcl. from 

iinuiti. fufln IV of u'uiu [mwd\. lo walk about 
See at 4:88, p. 280, it. 6) 

7. ijia»j taj'alU inu) = you set, make, put. 

appoint tv. ii. ID. pi. impfcl. from ja 'ah \ja'l] lo 
niake, to put The last Icticr takes futhtth because 
of the particle 'an coming before the verb, Sec 
yajti'aia al 4: 14 1 . p. 308, n.3). 

8. tJU.U fulfill = authority, mandate. 

authorization, rule, evidence. See at 4:92, p. 282, 
nil 

9 Jj— t 'eufal = lowest, at the bottom, deepest; 

also i as. preposition) below, under. Elative of 
su/tl (low/basc/roeon), 

10 Jjj dark - abyss, depth, level, reach. 

11. i.e.. rectify thejt Intentions and deeds. iyJ^J 

'oslahu = rectified, made good, made amends, 
mended, put right (v iii. m p|. past from 
'tisit'liu, rorni IV of itiltiha. [lal&i/ suluh/ 
mestehah], 10 be good,' proper. See at 3:189, p. 
l?l", n. 1) 

12. \y~Mf\ ftasami = ihey held fast, clung, (v. 

iii. m. pit. past from t'rasimtu. form VIII of 
'tisama [ 'asm], to restrain, to protect See 
ya'lasim at 3:101, p. 195, n. 5). 



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310 



SiJra/i 4 : Al-NiiS' (Part (Juz') 6] 



'^i^i and are sincere 1 

k£ki m their faith • m Allan ^ 
-^Ll^Ijli Then such ones will be 

^A^.jUijt» with the believers, 

iifyjjijSpj and Allah will give 

Si-filf the believers 

{|j} tLk^l^l a magnificent 5 reward. 

fflj^qi* 147. what wilt Allah do 
^=t,ljji> with punishing you 
Ji^Cio' if y° u be grateful 6 
^jJiCj and do believe? 
SlfalSj And Allah is 
i^sli- Ever-Appreciative, 7 
' tLit All-Knowing. 



L. ■__»!>. I 'akblasu - they delusively devoted, 

dedicated, wen sincere (v. iii. m pi. past tram 
'tikkloiti. farm IV of khutasa \khuiiif). w be 
pure, unadulterated. See mukhtisSn a< 2:119, p. 
65.n lU 

2. jJ din <jt; pi. cufydn) = religion, faith, belief, 
creed, worship See at 2: 193. p. 92, n 8. 

.1. i.e.. they did not make the profession of the 
faith and their deeds for showing off but 
exclusively and purely for ihc sake or Allah. 

4. i.e.. in the hereafter in paradise 

5. fJ«* 'azfm - great, magnificent, splendid, big. 

stupendous, grand, huge, immense, enormous, 
tremendous, grave, gruesome See al 4:95, p, 
286. n. I), 

6. flfi-i rhakartum - you (all) expressed 

gratitude, wen: strain fill, thanked (v, ii m pi post 
from shakara {shukrfthitkrtm\, to I hank be 
grateful. See taskkurinu at 2: 1 85. p. 88, n 8), 

7. jfU shakir = appreciative, thankful, grateful. 

Active participle from shakara \shukr/skukria]. 
to lhank. be Ihankful See al 2:158, p. 75. a. I 



Part t/e/z') 6 

'ZMJ-V 148 * Allah does not IikeS 
j^lil^jt publicity 9 of the evil 10 

JjiH^; of words 

'j^i^t^l except for the one wronged." 

CJ?£i\ i$s An d Allah is All-Hearing. 

JvrJjlijf. All-Knowing, 



8. ,_>v "J if+yuAt&Au = he docs not like, docs 
not love (v. iii. m. s, impfel, bom 'ahubtm. fonni 
IV of hubba. See at 4: |(J7, p 292, n, 3). 

9. j«j» jahr ^ publicity, notoriety See jahrahsx 
2:5S,p.26,n,2. 

10. tf *«' (pi V™«') = evil, ill, offence. 

injury, calamity, misfortune, bad deed. See at 
4:110, p. 293, n. 2). 

11. Allah does not approve of speaking ill of 
others, let alone slandering, backbiting, libelling 
and defaming, except in the case of one 
genuinely wronged and done injustice. pii 

Ultima - he is wronged, done injustice, 
oppressed (v. iii. m. s. past passive from zatttma 
lurlWzuim]. to do wrong. Sec ycniim at 4:1 ID. p. 
293, n. 3). 



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Sarah 4 : Al-Mnl' [Part (Jtai 6] 



Ml 



ij-uio' 1^9. If you make known 

.J 

lj^ a good thing 

*jaj£j1 or keep it secret 2 
}jL jfi.lj£^ or excuse 1 an offence, 
,jEiil^ii then verily Allah is 

Ijic- Most Forgiving, 
© !/i All-Powerful. 4 

<^yll^! 150. Verily those who 
JX oj^iXj disbelieve in Allah 
**^/} and His Messengers, 
ly^Af Juj-S^/j and want 5 to differentiate 6 






between Allah 



^jj jjuj^L">i and His Messengers and say: 
' £i$j " We believe in some and 



disbelieve in some others". 




> ;, l ^ ft* 



IjJLii jl jj-*:/, i and intend to take 
Jil'i ,>j hctween that 



iy^ a course. 



iuJ ji 151. Those people, 
lij&S^S they are the unbelievers 
lli in truth. 



1. tjJJ luMum.iy - i - you (all) disclose. 

express, declare, reveal, make known (v ii m 
pi. impfct. from abda. form JV of buJii [ 
biuluHw/btidS' ] to appear, to come to light See 
at 2:284. p. 151. n, 1 The terminal runt is 
(topped because the verb is in a conditional 
clause {preceded by 'in). See at 3:29, p. 166. n. 

2. IjM l«khfulntt) - you [all) hide, conceal. 

keep secret, secrete (v. ii. m pi. impfct. from 
akhfH . form IV of khafiya [khufa' Ahifah/ 
khafyah). to be hidden. The terminal n6n Us 
dropped for the reason given in it. 1 above. See at 
3:29, p ]«, r>. 9). 

3. lj*J ta'JSlna} - you (all) waive, excuse. 

efface [v. ii. m. pi. impfct. from 'aJS 
['afnt/af&']JlQ be effaced. The terminal iriin is 
dropped for the reason given in n 1 above . See 
yufu al 4:99. p 287, n. 8). 

4. i. e . Allah is Most-Forgiving even though He 
is All-Powerful and Omnipotent to inflict the 
punishment deserved. 

5 The ayah has reference particularly to the 
Jews and Christians who believe in some of the 
Prophets arid disbelieve in the others, oj-^ji 

yuriduna - they (all) want, intend, desire, have 
in mind (v. Hi. m. pi. impfct. from 'arada, form 
IV of rada jrawi/|. to walk about. See it 4:9 1 . p, 
282. n 2). 

6 ij*>i yafamf&inti} = they divide, separate. 

scatter, make a distinction, differentiate (v, lit. 
m pi impfct. from fartttqa, form II of farat/a 
\farqffurq&n\, to separate, divide). The terminal 
nun is dropped because of the particle 'an 
coming before Ihe verb. See yufaniauna at 
2:102, p. 48, n.9). 

7 Iji** yattaMhutWnit) = they take, take up to 

themselves, lake on. assume (v. m m. pi impfct 
iltakJiadhu, form VIII of tikhtidha [akhdn], to 
take. The terminal nun is. dropped because of the 
panicle 'an coming before the verb, See 

ytmulckidhiifia at 4: 1 39, p, 306. n. 3). 

8 J—- sobU (pi. iubai/asbilah) = way. path, 
road, means, course. See at 4:100, p. 287, n 10 



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3(2 



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SSrafi A ; A t-Nit& ' [Part {Jot ' ) 6] 









X,X^Yj And We have made ready 1 
J/.jA&h for the unbelievers 

a humiliating 2 punishment. 









-JJ41 



'j»>JJ 




152. And those who believe 

in Allah and His Messengers 

and do nol differentiate* 

between any of them, 

such people, 

He will give them 

their rewards; 4 

and Allah is Most Forgiving, 

Most Merciful. 



Section (Rukii') 22 

<&_ 153. There ask 5 you 

viiipfj*1 the People of the Book 

^k J>: jt that you bring downW them 

t uii^£Si a Book from the heaven. 

'J-P yt, ji Indeed they had asked Mus*t 

Jil'S^^Tf a graver thing than that; 

ijllii for they said: ' 
VtJ^iy " Show us 1 Allah openly".* 



I Ijjj-1 ii'rirJfici = we prepared, gal ready (v. i 
pi. past in farm IV a I 'aiudu [ atad]. to be ready. 
See at 4:18, p, 246, tl, Q ). 

2. ,__«.■ muhin - humiliating, disgraceful, 

debasing, ignominious, (active participle from 
'iih&aa. form IV of favui [Auh'ji], to be of lillk 
importance, S« at 4; 102, p 290, n. 10). 

3 'ji.A yufarriq&(iM) - they divide, separate. 

scatter, moke a distinction, differentiate Iv. irj. 
m. pi impfct. from fitrrngti, form |l of/ani^a 
\farq/fuTqdn\, to separate, divide). The terminal 
huh is dropped because of the particle lam 
coming before the verb, which panicle also 
givet the vert) lite sense of past tense. See n 
4: [50. p. 3ll.n,6). 

4. jj»l 'uj'de (p).; s. j»' 'ij/r) = rewudi. 

remuneration, dowries, bridal sums. See at 4:24, 
p 250. n II 

5. 3— i yoi'o/u " he asks, enquires, demands, 

claims (v. Hi. m. 5- iropfci. from m'ata \ su'at/ 
max'alah/uis'afW, to ask, See yui'atHna at 2:2! J, 
p. 104.11. I). 

6. (JjJ ruffo^jJn(ul ■ you bring down, cause to 

come down (v. it. m s impfct, from nazzalti, 
farm ft afruaulu !nw;uf), lo come down. The last 
letter Lakes fuikah because of the panicle Via 
earning hefotc the verb. See nazmlu at 4:140, p, 

306. ri. 7). 

7. tijl 'art + n& - show + us (v. ii. m. i, 

imperative from ra'ii \ra'y/ru'yah\. to see, 
notice See at 2. 1 IX, p. 61 , n. 4}. 

8. iji* jahtaitin a openly, ovcnly. publicly. 

The Children of Isrn'il made this dernand in see 
Allah with their own eyes cither when ,Miis;i was 
receiving the Commandments on the Mount 
Sinui or when he had shown the Book In the 
Children of Isra'fl. See ai 2:55, p. 26, n. 2. 






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SSrah 4 ; At-Ntsd- [Part (Jui ) 6 J 



*^*ij4i So there seized 1 them 
<i*^jf the thunderbolt 2 
r VJL. for their transgression. 
ij^l^j Then they took up* 
U -1'^ j^Jf the caSf* after even that 
iC there had come to them 



if the clear proofs; 5 
^.ji-tjio but We pardoned that 
££'lZ£j and gave Musa 



V S jr SwSS* 



.,!'-' 



an authority 6 at) too clear. 7 



G£ 154. And We raised 8 
jjill^^ above them the Mount Sinai 
pjj£.^ for their covenant;' 
^Ujj and We said to them: 
£U\\jL>\ "Enter 10 the gate" 
(££. making prostration"; 
j£lbj#j and We said to them: 
ljj£*J "Do not transgress 12 

o^U about the Sabbath"; 13 
prl&JJJj and We took from them 

l£-i a covenant 
^ IlUc sacred and inviolable.'* 



313 

1. ^jrf-l 'akhadhal = she or il took, seized. 

grasped (v iii f. s. past from ukhodhu 
l'akhdh\, to lake, lo receive See H 2:55, p, 26. 
n.3). 

2. u*u» sd'iqah (s.; pj. juwtTii/J = thunderbolt. 

bolt of lightning See at 2:55, p 26. n. 4. 

3. i.e.. ihey look up the calf for worshipping n 
ijiu itmkhadhfi = I hey look up. look, took lo 

themselves, assumed (v. iii, m pi. post from 
iltakhndha, forni VIII of ttkhadka [ukhilh], !o 
take yntlakiudhu at 4: 1 50. p. 3 1 1 . n. 7) . 

4. >-* 'i/J (s.; pi. ujufijatalt) - calf. 

5. i.e.. the miracles Through Miisa. including the 
cleaving of the sea and the escape of the 
Children of lsra'51, bayyin&t (pi.: sing. 
bayyinah) = clear signs, indisputable evidences, 
see at 3: 183. p. 228. n 1). 

6. JlH- sultan a aulhonty. mandate. 

authorization, rule, evidence. .'Set at 4:92, p 282. 
n. II. 

7 j^ mubin = flagrant, glaringly obvious. 

manifest, patent, all too clear. Sec at 4:120. p. 

297, n. 7. 

8. t»ij rufa'nd - we raised, lifted up, hoisted up 
(v, i pi, past from rafa'a [raf). to raise, to lift 
up, See at 2:93. p. 44, n, 6), The mountain was 
lifted up and held like a canopy over them, as 
mentioned again in 7:171, 

9. Jtv mSshiq (pi jtuiuvjiAn/) ~ covenant, pact, 
treaty , See a! 4:92. p. 283, n. 8. 

10 IjUil udkhulQ m you (all) enter, go in, join 
<v. 11 m. pi imperative from dakhata [dukfiul], 
to enter. See ai 2:208, p. 100. n 5) 

11 I, e. enter ihe gate or Bayt al-Maqdis. See 
also 2:58. 

12. ljja; V IS ta'tadd = you (all) do not 

transgress I gu hcyond the limits / cross / 
overstep / surpass/ act outrageously (v. ii. m, pi. 
imperative [prohibition] from riadA ionn Vfll 
of 'add | Wtv], to speed, to race, See at 2:229, 
p, 113. n. 7). 

1 3. See 2:65, p 3I.n 6 

14. Ji_i* ghottz = sacred, inviolable, solid, tough, 
harsh, thick . See at 4 : 1 2 1 . p. 24S T n. 3, 






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314 



Surah 4 : Al-Hisa ' [Part (/ui) 6| 



Jul— a 



155. So for their breach 1 
of the covenant of theirs 
and their disbelieving 
in the revelations 2 of Allah, 
and their killing the Prophets 
without any right,' 
and their saying: 
"Our hearts are enwrapped" 4 
- nay, Allah set a sea] 5 
on them for their unbelief. 
So they do not believe 
except a few, 



i^JSCj 156. And for their unbelief 

^yj and their saying 

i^j; •£ against Maryam 

^LLiitlii^ a monstrous 6 calumny 7 - 



I^y.j 157. And their saying: 

\"<if:\ "Verily we killed* 

J^r-fl the Messiah 'Is a", 

£^j>), son of Maryam, 

i^r'j me Messenger of Allah. 



1. i.e., Allah's displeasure fell Dn thetn because 
of their breach of itic covenant, etc. J^> naqd = 
breach, violation, infringement, infraction. See 
yanqudsjnu at 2:37, p. 14. n. S. 

2. ot/ 'dytt (sing, "ayah) = signs, miracles. 
revelations, evidences. See al 4.S6. p. 265. n.4. 

3. Such as Prophets Zakariya and Yahya, peace 
be an them, 

4. i.e., their saying lo the Prophet Muhammad, 
peace and blessings of Allah be on him. these 
wonts in refusal to listen to it understand what 
he delivered to them of Allah's communications. 
i_»l* gfiulf = (pi.; 5 utfWdfl = enwrapped 
covered, enveloped. S« at 2:88, p. 42, n. 1. 

5. i.e., because of their unbelief Allah has 
rendered their hearts incapable of realizing and 
understanding the truth. £> laba'a = he set a 

seal, imprinted, impressed (v. iii. m. s. past from 
fab', to impress, to set a seal, 

6. (Jit 'attm = great, magnificent splendid, 

big, stupendous, grand, huge, immense, 
enormous, tremendous, grucsmiic. mnmtrnus, 
grave. See at 4: 146, p 310, n, 5). 

7. i.e., their atrocious imputation of unchaslity to 

Maryam, inn the i of 'til, peace be on him jU+j 

buht&n = slander, defamation, libel, calumny. 
See at 4:1 12, p. 294, n. 4. 

S. The Jews claimed that they had killed "Isj, 
peace be on him. The Qur'an belies this claim in 
this and the following '&yah. tdJ qalalna - we 

killed, put in li'.-.ith i.i s pi p.isi From quota 
lquit\, lo kill, See qOtil at 4:84. p. 278, n S and 
yaqlufuna at 3:1 12. p. 200, n. 2). 






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SSmh 4 : Al-Nis5 ' [Part [Jia') 6] 



315 



tm 


They did not kill him 




nor did they crucify 1 


him; 


4-& 


but it was made (o appear 1 so 


[% 


to them; 




J£\JL} and those who 




*jij*ii»-' disagree 3 therein 




i-*4M 


are indeed in doubt 4 


about it. 


**^C They do not have of it 


\hu 


any knowledge except 


&3IJB 


the pursuit* of conjecture; 6 




and they did not kill him 




for a certainty. 7 






158. Nay, Allah raised* him 


-Ji towards Him; 


(|g£2{3-j and Allah is All -Mighty, 


$££ 


All-Wise. 




fltf 


1 59. And none will tl 


here be s j 


^Vfe 


of the People of the Book 


&$**! 


but shall certainly believe 




in him 






before his death; 





1. IjJj salabu - they crucified (v. iii. ra. pi. 
from \aititm \salb), 10 crucify. 

2. i.e., the person put on the aiu wss made to 
appeal like "Isi, peace be on hill), and the whole 
thing was a mallet of doubt and confusion 
among those who attempted to kill him. *,* 

shufibiha = he or it was made similar, likened, 
was nude uncertain or doubtful (v. iii, w f. past 
passive from shtibbalm, form [] of shabuka 
[shabh /shitimh], resemblance, similarity. Sec 
tai/tabitha at 3:7, p, JS6. n. 7). 

3. There was much disagreement among ihc 
Jews and Christians about the supposed crifixion 
Of "Isi. peace be on him. The Jews thoght lhal 
Ihey had killed him Some nf Ihe Chnstains held 
lhat only his 'humanity' was killed, but his 
'divinity' went up. Some of them asserted that 
they had seen him crucified, others held that 
they had seen him raised up to heaven, while 
still others slated that they had seen him amidst 
them after Ihe supposed crucifixion The 
confusion and controversy persist even loay. See 
for instance B. Thiering. Unas the Man (1993) 
and H. Kersten & R Gruber, TJw J«us 
Ctmipirucy Tht Turin Shroud and tht Truth 
About the Reftitreaim (1994). _it»4 tkhtalafu 
= they differed, disagreed, were ai variance, 
disputed (v in, tn pi, pasi from iUiiulafii, form 
vni of khalafa [khalf], to come after. See 
at3 105. p. 197. n. 10), 

4. jXz ihakk (s,; pi. shitkuk) = doubt, 
uncertainty, suspicion, misgiving 

5. [_'-?' iuiba' - pursuit, following up C verbal 

noun in form VIII of tabi'ti \taba'AoM'aK\, to 
follow. See at 2:178. p. 84, n. 12; and wabcia at 
4:125, p 7.99. n. 9), 

6. & wan (s.; pi &tniiii) = conjecture, surmise, 

spposiliem, assumption. See vetzunndna at 3:154. 
p. 21S,n. 12). 

7 - &* yaqbt ■ certainty, certitude, conviction. 

See y&uin&nti at 2: 1 1 1, p. 56. n. 7. 

6. £Pj rafa'a b he raised, look up, lifted up. 

hoisted up (v. iii. m, s pasi (com raf, to raise, lo 

lift up. See at 2:253. p 129. n. 3, and rafa'nS at 

4:154, p. 313. n g) 

9. i.e. when he will be seni down for the second 

ume before ihe end of ihe worid. 






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316 



SHrtth 4 ! At-Niid' [Part </hz ) 6] 



*jjj and on the Day of 
ililf Resurrection 
Ttr^-ojS: he will be against them 
oii^L a witness. 1 



JUii 160. So» for the injustice 1 
U^-ojilf^i of those who were Jews 2 
1,,'V \?~ We niade unlwful 4 on them 

* j . y^W good things 5 that 
^JjJ had been lawful to them; 6 
^ jJjjj and for their preventing 7 
^U-l^O* from the way of Allah 
^ i^T a good many - 



few 



161. And their taking of 

usurious interest 8 - 

and they were forbidden it* - 

and their consuming 10 

of people's wealth 

illegitimately." 

And We have made ready 11 

for the unbelievers of them 

a punishment very painful." 






I i.e.. he will testify against the lews saying thai 
that they had called lie iq him, and against the 
Christians thai they had called him son of Allah, 
■ij+i skahld ($.; p], thuhada} = onlooker. 

spedalor, witness, martyr (act. participle in the 
scale of fu'ii from shuhida \iftuhiid], to see, to 
witness. See at 4:7°, p 276, n 9). 

2. |Jt zuim = injustice, wrong, transgress ran, 
oppression. See yazltm at 4: 1 10. p. 29), a. 3, 

3. ■ j jL» HM& - they became lews [v. lii. in pi. 
past from hdda [fuuvd], to be a lew 

4. ls*j»- harramnd = we made unlawful, made 

inviolate, prohibited, interdicted, proscribed, 
declared sacred, tabooed (v. i. pi. pas! in form II 
of hantmo/htinmti, lu be prohibited Sec 
hiirramu at 3:91. p. 192. n. 7; ftnd httrrima at 

4; 23, p. 248, n. 11). 

5. u.L> tayyihat (sing, itiyyil'uh) = good things, 

nice l limps, agreeable things, pleasant things. See 
at 2:267. p. 140. o. 5. 

6. ol>-[ 'uhiltat = she or it is made lawful, made 

permissible (v. hi. f. s. past passive from abulia, 
finm (V of hallo [halt/hill], to unbind, to solve, 
to be lawful. See 'uhilla ai 4:24. p. 250. n. 5), 

7. -i— tadd m preventing, stopping, hindering, 
debarring, repulsing, obstruction, resistance See 
at 2; 1 N. p. I OS. n. 3: and yiuudduna 31 4:61 . p. 
26S. n. 4. 

8. kj fibsit = usury, usurious interest interest 
See 3:1 30. p 206. n. 10. 

9. ijti nuh& - they were forbidden, prohibited. 

banned, proscribed (v. til . m, pi, past passive 
from nahfi [nuhto/nithy], lo forbid. See 
lufihenvnti at 4:31. p. 2S4. n, |). 

10. JSl 'akl - lo eat, devour, consume Set (J 
lukulS at 4.29. p. 253. n. 3. 

1 1. JJ>ki AuriJ = vain, futile, untruth, that which 

is uilnic. false, falsehood, baseless, void, hi 
ul-btini or balilan = in vain, falsely, 
illegitimately. See at 4:29, p. 253. n. 4. 
II. uiaJ 'a'tadnd = we prepared, got ready (v, i. 

pi. past in form IV of 'ahtdu [ 'aitid\. to be ready. 
See at 4:37, p. 25?, n. 12}. 
13, fJt 'altm a agonising, anguishing, very 
painful See at : IS, p, 246, n 10. 






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SGrah A:Al-m&' IPart Wm'}6] 



317 






?)! J3 162. But the well-versed 1 
-4UI4 in knowledge among them 



* ijjtfj and the believers 



"Jj^S. 



^JS^ believe in what 
^iUy^i has been sent down to you 
J^ Gj and in what was sent down 
d^j^ before you; 
*^ i i*rt^j and the performers 5 of prayer 
'i=^&£'.> and the givers* of &2&2A, 
^o>"*^J and the believers in Allah 
>3\£*3V* and the Last Day, 
.jHjf such people, 
^jii We shall give them 
qip £k££.1 a magnificent 5 reward. 

Section {Ruku 1 ) 23 
Gi 163. Verify We made the 
eO^lL^.;! communication* to you 
ClXjltS' as We communicated 
<j^J£j>di to NQh and the Prophets 
..jjttj* after him; 7 
dl^-^jij and We communicated to 
i*-i*'j\ Ibrahim and Ism^'tl, 



1. tlj<*-lj r4r(Wfin (pi., s. ritflfcA) a firmly 

established. deep-raolcd. conversant, 

well -versed (ncu'vc participle From rtaakha 
\rusHkh], id be deeply rooted, firmly 
established). 

2. i.e., the Qur'an. J>' 'unitia = he or it was 
sen! down, descended, brought down (v. iii. m. ■. 
pail passive from amain, form IV [ idai/) of 
nrnalii \nuiSt]. lo tunic down, gel down. See at 
4:60. p 1267. n, 8). 

3. j?-J- muijimm (pi. in the acc/gen of 

muqimun, s. mu^fon) = performers, those who 
erect/set up /lift up, residents, permanent (act. 

purUt-iple Imiii '(tqSmft, l.irin l\ u: jdfflti |.;.iilmi 
/^uwma/i /f iyj£m]. lo stand up. See yuijfmiiiiii at 
2:3. p. 5. n. 3, 

4. tiyy mu'tin (pi., s. wm'tin) = the givers 

(active participle from Vila , form IV of 'ali 
[ity&At atf/ ma't&h], to come. See: yn'ti at 3:79. 
p ISo.n.S). 

5. ,»>* 'ailm = great, magnificent, splendid, 

big, stupendous, grand, huge, immense, 
enormous, tremendous, gruesome, monstrous, 
grave. See at 4; 1 56. p. 314. rt. 6). 

6. t^-jl 'awhayni a we communicated (v. 1. pi. 
pasi. from 'awM, forril IV of watt Imihy], lo 
communicate See uShi at 3:44. p 172, n, 10) 
The word walty bears a variety of meanings; but 
technically il means Allah's communication to 
His Prophets and Messengers by various means. 
Snme of ihese means are indicated in the Qur'an 
at 2:92, 16:2, 16:102, 26:193 and 42:51, See also 

Bukhdri, nos. 2-4. 

7. The Wyih emphasizes theree ihitij^s: (a) that 
the coming of v/aky to the Prophei Muhammad, 
peace and blessings of Allah be on him, was 
nothing unusual and novel, for Allah likewise 
made communications to ail the previous 
Prophets, (b) Allah has communicated the same 
leaching, that of monotheism and Islam 
i, complete submission to Allah) through all the 
Prophets, (c) Same of the Prophets were favoured 
with special miracles, such as Allah's having 
directly addressed Musa in audible words and 
'Isa's being bom without a father and his having 
spoken while in the cradle, but these should not 
be any reason for elevating any of them to the 
status di divinity, as the Christians do with 
regard to 'isa All of them were only Allah's 
Prophet! and Messengers. 



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,vfimA 4 ; AINha' [Pari (Juz) 6| 






sJlu j j>tJ,] j and Ishaq and Ya'qub 

IClVi; and the Tribes, 1 

v^Ui>^-j and 'Isa and 'AyyGb, 

jj>»j Jjj^j and YGnus and HSrun 

■" y"l' \ and Sulayman, 

jJuLuilS ^d We £ ave DawQd 
ij^3 the Book of Psalms. 2 



■*—>>> 1 64. And Messengers 
»-u We have given an account - 



Jt^ -y^ 6 of to you before, 
Uijj and Messengers 
^■ "tt"' ^ We have not given account 

i£uk of them to you; 
^^\'S} and A,lail spoke* to MQsa 



tn a conversation - 



£9 CJ 



"iJULj 1 65. Messengers 
cr>31* delivering good tidings' 
i/^xJ>3 and giving warnings* 
<Sji3>*] a0 that there may not be 

:A-Kj^ ^ or men a S a ' nst Allah 
any plea 9 



1. J-V— T 'aibAI (sing fibt) = grandsons, (he 12 
trihcs of the Israelite*, so called because they 
arose out of the 12 sons of Ya'qtib Sec a! 3:84, 
p. 189, n I: 2:140., p 66, n. 1: and 2:136. p M, 
n. 6. 

2- jjij Zafirir a the Book of Psalms, which 

contained only praises of Allah and words of 
wisdom, but no rules and order;. See wbur at 
3: 1 84. p. 228, n. 7, 

3. > ■ .«,«■ foiainJ = we related, narrated, gave an 

account, told (v. i. pi, put front ijassa t<faita\, tn 
relate, narrate, 

4, j^^ii ruf$*nj( L ,-i. tmqussu) = we relate, give 

all account, narrate Iv i pi. iiupfci from qaf^i 
The last letter is vowel less because of the particle 
lam coming before the verb, which panicle alto 
gives it the sense Of post tense. See qiaaiiti 
above. 

5 i*cf kallama - be spoke, talked, addressed iv 

iii. in s. past in form II of tmlamu [ItjfjTi). id 
injure, to wound. In its form II the verb means to 
speak. See at 2:253. p 129, n 2) 

6. |J^j lakltm = speaking, conversation (verbal 

noun in form It cif katanta [kalm\, See n. J ubiwc. 

7. ic, giving the good tidings of Allah's pleasure 
and rewards for believing in Him and obeying 
His Orders and Instructions. ,>A* 

mulnashshiitn (pf; accusative/genitive of 
mabashshiriin, s. mtibtutuhir > = deliverers of 
good tidings, harbingers of good news (active 
participle from bashshara. form II o( 
bashara/bashira [biihr/bttthr], to rejoice, be 
happy. See at 2: 21 J, p. 102, n 7; and bosfishit tl 
4: 1 38. p. 306, n. I). 

8. i.e. of Allah's displeasure and punishment far 
disbelief in Him and disobedience to His Orders 
and Instructions. 1 >J ij mundhiriit |pl.; 
accusative/ genitive of titundhiriw, jirtg, 
muniihiri = wamers. i active participle from 

'tuttihara. to warn, form IV nf nodlmta, 
\nadhrMu<thuF]. to dedicate, to make a vow. See 

at 2:213. p. 102, n . !). 

9. i.e.. that they have not been given guidance 
nor warned, i~- hujjah (s.; p [w hitjajj = 
argument, pretext, pretence, proof, plea. See d 
2 150, p 71. n. 5. 



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Surah 4 : Al-Nisa' (Partf/n*') 6] 



319 



^■jVSL after the Messengers. 

$jf&i& And Allah is All-Mighty, 
(g) liii- Alt-Wise. 

J^iiiSI^" 1 66. But Allah bears witness 1 
»XU^T£j to what He sent down to you 
,i]pl that He sent it down 2 
'S-^-j with the knowledge' 1 of it; 
Sjjy5 ^UiljV}and the angels bear witness; 
*ib jij and suffices it of Allah 
%\ 1. , \ as a Witness. 5 



i/jfr Sf$\L\ 167 - 1^ 056 who disbelieve 
and prevent 6 
from the way of Allah 
do indeed go astray, 7 
straying far away.* 



'JO— j 






.^- i 



168. Those who disbelieve 
and do wrong, 9 
Allah would not be 
to forgive 10 them nor to 
l*jt^j^3 show them a way - 



**fe2 



I. The 'ayah is addressed lo the unbeliever of 
nil lime and il is die moil emphatic assertion of 
Allah about die (ruth of the Qur'in and (he 
pTOphethood of Muhammad, peace and blessings 
of Allah be on him, -4-W yolk-kudu = he bears 

witness, witnesses, attests, testifies lv, iii. m. s, 
inipfcl from shuhida, \thuhud\, lo witness, See 

stwhisu it 4:1 5, p. 245, n. 4). 

2. J>I "Bruala = he sen! down (v. iii, m. s. past 
in form IV [ 'inzdt] of nazala \nuzul\. to come 
down, get down, See al 4, 136, p. 105, n, 1). 

3, i.e.. wilh His Full and Perfect Knowledge of il 
and lis purpose and of Ihe well-being of His 
ircalion. fit- Him = knowledge, learning, 
cognizance 

4. ^if ta/d = he suffices, is sufficient is 
enough (v. iii m, s. pas! from kifayak, to be 
enough, See al 4 132, p 303. n. I). 

5, 4*1 slutkfd (s. h pi jshuhadd') - onlooker, 
spectator, witness, martyr tact participle in the 
scale of fa'ii from ikahidtt [shultud]. to see, lo 
witness, See at4:)S9, pjlo.n. 1). 

S. i.e., prevent others from the way of Allah, 'jJj 
iaddQ = they turned away, diverted, deterred, 
dissuaded, (ejected, repelled, prevented (v, iii, m. 
pi past from ladda [fudd], lo turn away. See 
yasHddbrw 4:61. p. 16%, n. 4}. 

7, ljL» datiu - they went astray, lost the way, 
strayed (v. iii. m, pi. past from dalkt 
[daldl/dal/Uiih], lo loose one's way, See dalla at 
4; 1 36. p. 305, n. 4) 

8, i. e., froni [he path of guidance and the truth. 
A* ba'id = (s.; pi. bu'udii' /bu'ud /bu'ddn 
/bi'&ii) = far, far-off. far-away, far-reaching 
distant, remote, unlikely. Sec al 4; 136, p. 305 n 
51. 

9, i. c.. persisted in disbelief and in oommitting: 
Sins till death l^lt latamu c ihcy did wrong, 
injustice, oppressed, transgressed fv, iii m. pi. 
past from attama \taim/iulm\. to do wrong. See; 
yaiiantin al 4:124, p, 299, n. 4). 

!Q. jii, yaghfiraiu) = he forgive*, pardons (v. 
iii. m. s, impfct. tcamgha/ara Igfwfr /itmghfiruh 
gkufran]. to forgive. The last letter takes faihah 
because of a hidden 'an in ii { lAm of motivation 
having the sense of kay) coming before ihe verb 
See at 4:137, p. 305. n. 7), 



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320 



Surah 4 : Ar-AfcrT IPart(Jur) 6] 




* 'l' 



1 69. Except the way to Hell, 
abiding 1 therein 

for ever; 
and that is 
on Allah's part 
quite easy. 2 

1 70. O mankind, 

there has indeed come to you 

the Messenger with the truth 1 

from your Lord. 

So believe, 

it will be better 4 for you; 

but if you disbelieve, 

then to Allah belongs 

alt that is in (he heavens 

and the earth; 5 

and Allah is Ail-Knowing, 

All-Wise. 



s^Hj*b' 171.0 People of the Book, 1 
ijLL^ do not overdo 7 
[* *^^ ~^i4 in your religion 



i 



I . ..Xl- kkilitffn (ace ./gen. of Uuiliilui:. pi or 
khalid) = Living for ever, abiding for ever, 
everlasting, eternal (active participle from 
khakida [khulud], to live tor ever See at 4; 121 
p. 298. n. 4; 4:57. p. 265. n 14) 

2. p-t ftatr - easy, simple. insgniFtcMU See at 
4:30, p 253. n. 10. 

3. i.e., the Qur'fei and Islam, 

4. it. it will be belter fur you in this world as 
well as in the hereafter. ^- khayr = good, better, 
best. Sec at 4:66. p. 270. n 9. 

5. Believing in Allah and obeying His dircctivei 
in all matters art for the benefit Of men. Allah u 
in no need of man's worshipping Him. Mi: i. 
Above Want and <di that exits in the heavens and 
the earth is His. 

6. The 'Syah is addressed particularly to the 
Christians 

7. ijU; V U laghtii = do not overstep, toss die 
limit, exceed the bounds, overdo (v. ii. m pi 
imperative [prohibition I from jjAufri \gkulim]. 
to exceed the bounds 

8 ^ din (s.: pi. adySn\ = religion, faith, belief, 
creed, worship See at 4:146. p, 310, n. 2; 2:T°J, 
p. M, n. 8. 









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Surah 4 : A}-Nit&" [Put \M"\ 6] 



321 



\¥j£>% nor say against Allah 



i* 



•* < r. 



jiiT'V] jii jt anything but the truth. 1 
u^eA—JlLIi Verily the Messiah *lsa, 
io^S? son of Maryam, 
<jj| _)jij is the Messenger of Allah 
T '!'\Z _/ and His word 2 
ic^* j[l^1 that He offered 1 tq Maryam, 
rjjj and a breath of life 

HI 

'j-lii *>„ from Him. So believe in 
.^^ J»\, Allah and His Messengers; 

<& [ y£>% and do not sav 'Three", 5 
ij^Iji refrain, 6 
i*==*l l^i- it will be better for you. 
Zi\\l\ Verily Allah is the Only 
jUcj <j| One God. 
-aI^vLI Sacrosanct 7 is He, 
'■fi^jhtj that there should be for Him 
*Jj a son. 
i! To Him belongs 
4^i£jfj££ all that is in the heavens 



*iiL 



And suffices* it of Allah 



0^L4=) as a Guardian-Trustee.* 



1. i. e,. do not altrihuie any partner wilh him. nor 
say that He has a son. nor thai He is incarnated 
in any being nor that He is a Trinity. 

2. 'Isa, peace be on him He is referred to as "a 
word from Allah" because he was created by 
Allah's command, tan (be), and he came into 
existence in his mother's womb, ulT talimah 

(s.; pi. kalimiii = word, speech, address, 
utterance. See 3:39, p. 171. o 3. 

3. jii! 'alqS m he cast, flung, plunged, posed, set 
forth, offered (v. tii, m. s. post, in from IV of 
toqiya l&jfd" AuaySn /lutfy Auqyah/tuqoti], to 
meet Sec 'tilqaw at 4:90. p. 2RI. n. 13). 

4 £JJ r&h (s.; pi. arwOh) = breath of life, soul, 
spirit. 

5. This is a denial of the Christian doctrine of the 
Trinity and a prohibition to believe in it. 

6. Ij^al infant! = yoti (all J refrain, desist. 
[emiiriLilc. finish, give up (v. ii. m pi. imperative 
from intaha, form Vlfl of nahd [nuhy/nahnl, to 
forbid, prohibit See mlahaw at 2:193, p, 93 n 

1). 

7 The word ^L~— Subhan is derived fmni 
subbaka, form II of ,iubaha Uabh/sibdhvtil to 
swim. In its form ][ the verb means to praise, lo- 
sing the flory, 1 1 if an exclamatory expression 
meaning Free from and High above all kinds 
ofassocialiviry and undivine attribute, ft is 
generally rendered as "Glory be to Him"; but 
"Sacrosanct is He" seeins to convey the meaning 
better. See at 2; 1 16, p is. a. 6. 

8- So, there is no need lo associate any partner 
wilh Him nor to seek the assistance of any other 
being, ji!" kaflt = he suffices, is sufficient, is 
enough (v. iii m. s. past from kifSyah, to be 
enough. See at 4:166. p, 319. n. 4) 



9. JJ"j wakil is.; pi. wuJtaW) = authorized 
agent, deputy, care-taker, trustee, guardian (act. 
participle in the scale of /a it from wakiitti [wmW 
A,uJku7], to entntsi. See at 4;] 32. p. 303. n. 2). 



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322 



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SArah 4 : AI-NifO' [Pari Uuz)6] 



I 



172, Never will disdain 1 
j -v/.jl w__ 'A \ the Messiah to be 
jSJ&S a stave of Allah 
m J ?/i'A \s\ nor the angels 
Jyli\ stationed nearby; 2 
. \C-- "u *j and any that spurns 
.ffd^f-yf at worshipping Him 
j^=uJjj and turns proud/ 
4J1 ^jiClj He will muster them to Him 



latli: all together. 4 






^SfjJiCi 173. And as to those who 
\£Z\' t believe 
iiiitllji T ij and do the good deeds* 
^4-4^ He will give them in full 6 
Iijji.1 their rewards 7 
-^iyj and will give them more 8 

* A : **zii ^ rom His G race - 
^Zj3S\jX} And as to those who 
2| disdain* 
'Xj and be proud 10 

He will inflict on them 
lljjlLili an agonizing" punishment; 






1. *j£^—t ytutankiftu) = he disdains, spurns, 
scorns, looks dawn upon (v, iii in s, impfct. 
frtini islankafa, forni X of rwfcq/il [flirty], 10 
disdain. 10 scorn. The last letter is vowrtles; 
because dT the particle fan ccming before (he 
verb), 

2. tijij*- muqarrabtiirt = those placed kit, 

brought near (passive participle from qtimibti. 
form II of t/amba [tjurb/maqrabak]. to be neat. 
See nuiifurrabtn at 3:45, p. 173,n. 8. 

3. ,-i^-i .nufuWirtu) = he turns proud, nims 
arrogant, is puffed up ( v. iii. m. S. impfct. from 
ismkbara. form X of kabara [kiibr/ kibarf 
kabdrah] to become big. large, great. The last 
teltet is vowel less because the verb is in a 
conditional clause (preceded by man\. See 
Ulukbam at 2:34, p. IS, n. 6). 

4. i e , on the Day of Judgement. 

5. olnlU* satihat (pi.; sing i~A«. sdiihukj = 
good deeds/things, sound and proper deeds 
(approved by the Qur'&n and the iunnalt) See at 
4; 1 22, p. 2 98, n. I 

j* jntwqffi = he gives in full, fulfils, lives up 

to (v. iii. ra. s. impfct. form waffs, form II of 
wa/a [wafa'\ to redeem, fulfil, live up to. See n 
3:57, p. 178. n.6). 

7. jjjtI 'vj&r (pi.; s, ^.l 'ajr) = newixdi, 

remuneration, dowries, bridal sums. See at 4:152. 
p. 312, n. 4, 

8. J*> yaztdu = he gives mote, increases, 
augments, adds to ( v. iii. m. 5. impfct, from ;utlii 
[zpyd/ziyodah], to be more. See H jM» 3:173, 

p. 223. n, 9). 

9. iji£i-t istaakafi = they disdained, scorned, 

spumed (v iii, ra. pi. past from Mtinkafu, form 

X of aakafa. See n. I above) 

10- 'j/^' istakbarH = they become proud, 

turned arrogant, were puffed Up tv. iii. m. pi. put 

from isiukbaru. form X of kabura. See n. 3 

above. 

II, «Jt 'afim - agonizing, anguishing, very 

painful. See at 4:|6l,p, 316, n. 13. 



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SSrah 4 : Al-NtsU (Pare Vui) 6] 



323 



jjiJ. -$_J and they shall not find 1 
^J for them 
Qj)s*yji££ in lieu of Allah any friend 
^s-ju^j nor anyone to help. 2 



>&\£ 















174. O mankind, 

there indeed has come to you 

a proof J 

from your Lord; and 

We have sent down 4 to you 

a light* most clear. 6 

1 75. So as to those who 
believe in Allah 

and hold fast 7 to Him, 8 

He will admit* them 

into Mercy from Him 

and grace 10 

and will show them 

towards Him" 

a way 12 straight and correct. 13 

176. They seek your ruling. 14 



1. jj-u* yajidHaa = they find, get, come across 

(v. iii. m. pi, impfct. from hdjWu [wujidy to 
find- See ysjid al 4: 123. p. 298. n, S). 

2. i.e.. against Allah's judgement and retribution. 
nosh J?*, aestr = (s.; pi. .i^. milord I - helper. 

defender, supporter, ally, protector, patron See 
at 4: 1 23. p. 2298. n. 10), 

3. i.e., Ihc Prophet Muhammad, peace and 
blessings of Allah be on him. with the evidences 
and miracles, including the Qur'an. JU^ hurhun 
(s.; pi. btir&hin) = proof, evidence. 

4. *Jj;l 'amelnd = we senl down (v. i. pi. post 

from 'antala. form (V of miiaki {nuzut], to come 
down. See at 4:105, p. 291, n. 8>. 

5. i.e.. the Qur'Ati. n6r (s.; pi 'tmwijr) = light, 
illumination See mirnjVat 1:184, p, 228, n. 8. 

6. iisr* Hfubbt = flagrant, glaringly obvious, 

manifest, patent, all too clear, most clear. Sec al 
4 120. p. 297. n. 7. 

7. iju*l i'taiamd = ihey held fast, clung, (v. 

lii. m. pi. past from itasumu. form Vllf of 
'aiamti ['am], to restrain, in protect. See at 
4:L45.5i. 309, n, 12) 

8. i.e.. to His guidance and instructions as 
contained in the Qur'ati and tu/uio/i, 

9 J^Jj yudkhilu - he admits, mikes enter, 
enters, puts in. inserts (v. iii. m. s. impfct. from 
'odihala. fomi IV otdukhala (dukhSti, to enter, 
to go in. See yudkhil at 4 : ] 3, p. 244. n. 6. ' 

10. i,c ..jimnah. paradise. 

11. i.e.. to the din of Islam in this world and to 
jaitnah in the hereafter. 

12. Mp* sir&t = way, path, road. See at 4:68, p. 

271. n. 2. 3:101. p. 195. n 8. 3:51. p. 176. n 3 
and 1:6. p. 2, ji. 3. 

13- f <}' • mustaqSm = straight, upright, erect, 

correct, right, sound, proper, (Active participle 
from i-idiifdnm. form X of qiimu 
[cjtiwnmMfiYdm]. to stand up. to get up. See al 
4:68, p, 271. n. 3. 

14. i)j^-t ymtaftOna = they seek formal legal 
opinion, ruling {v. iii, m. pi. impfct, in form X of 
JutS \]'atH-/fina"\. id be youthful, young. See at 
4: 1 27. p. 300, n. 1). 






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324 



Surah 4 : Al-Nisd' EPan </«*') 6] 




36*3 
*- -1 *i- 



Q* 



JtlJU^J 



L+S^'>j 












1 al..ul|J - : 






IJ»JLc 



Say: Allah gives you the 

ruling' about the heirless: 2 

If a person dies 3 

and he has no child 4 

but has a sister, 5 

then she will get 

a half 6 of what he left; 7 

and he will inherit 3 from her 

if she does not have 

a child; 

but if there be two females 9 

they shall have two-thirds 

of what he left; 

and if they are 

brothers and sisters - 

men and women - 

then the male shall have 

the equal of 

the share 10 of two females." 

Allah makes clear 12 for you 

test you should go wrong; 13 

and Allah is of everything 

All-Knowing." 



I ^ ytifii = he gives formal legal opinion |v 
iii m s. impfct. From 'ufiH. form IV of Jala. See 
note J 4 on the previous page. See n 4: 127. p. 
300. n. 2. 

I. iMf kaldloh - a person leaving no sun i 

father. Son include* here son's son or the Sutler 1 ! 
son howsoever downwards; and father includes 
here fathers father and the burr's father 
howsoev« upwards See ai 4: 1 2. p. 243. n. 7, 

3. Jl* haiaka = he died, perished, was destroyed 

(v, iii. m- s past from hitlkAalk/halSk/lahtukak 
See uhlakas at 3:1 17. p. 202. n. 5) 

4. i.e.. neither any direct descendant nor any 
ascendant, a kaWah. 

5. i. e, a full sister or a consanguine sutler. I he 
uterine sister's share h one-sixth as mentioned ia 

Oyah 12 of thissSmh. 

6. ,m nitf (pi. rtji,r H /'j- half, middle. See it 

2:237, p 120, n. 3. 

7. Inraka = he left, left behind, abandoned, 
relinquished, gave up. bequeathed (v. iii. in. i. 
past from lurk, lo leave, See at 4:7, p 239, n. 
12} 

8. i. e,, Ihc full brother or uterine biulher will 
inherit her whole property if she docs not leave 
any child, ^j yarishu = he inherits, is heir lo [v. 

iii. rn 5. impfct from waritha [wirili/ 'ink/ 
irlhah/ wirflihah /rilhuh/iuriih\, to inheril Set 
vumtAir at 4: 12, p. 243, n. 6). 

9. i.e., two sisters Of the deceased brother. 

10. Jb- ftocj {s.; pi, tuifuf) = pornon, share, fat, 

good luck, good thing. Sec at 4;1 1, p. 241. n. 3; 
3:176, p. 224, n 12. 

II. j»sl 'untfia'ayn (dual; aec/gen of 

'uniha'un, s. 'unlhd) = two females. See 
at 4: 1 24. p 299, n. I 

12. jrt yubayyinu = he makes clew, elucidates, 
i'>.jil,n;i-, i ■. iis in ■, impfel from bayytase, lnsm 

II or btmti I bayan\, lo be clear See at 4:25. p, 
252, a. A). 

13. ljLiJ tadillaina) = you go asiray, go wrong 

{v. ii. m p|. impfel from ijalla [daliUMiiliilak], 
to go astray The terminal min is dropped 
because of the panicle 'an coming before die 
verb. See ai 4:44. p, 260, n. 14). 

14. i.e., of everything including, particularly, 
what is good and beneficial for His crcatjon. 



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5- SURATAL-MA 'ID AH (The Table) 
Madman: 120 'ayahs 

This surah is called Al-Ma idah (The Table) on account of the reference in it { ayahs I ] 2- 1 1 5) to the 
demand of the- disciples of "Isa, peace be on him. for a miracle in [he form of bringing down a table set 
With food from the heaven. The greater pan of the surah was revealed shortly after the TreaLy of 
Hudaybiyah < 7 H). 

Like other Madinan surahs this surah also contains, among other things, rules and instructions 
regarding a number of matters such as the duly to fulfil contracts and agreements, rules regarding 
purification of the body, lawful and unlawful food, inviolability of the Sacred Mosque (Ka'baJ', the duly 
(o be strictly just, and impartial in dealings, prohibition of wine and gambling and punishment for theft, 
insubordination and rebellion. Besides such matters reference is made also lo the conduct of the People 
of the Book, particularly the defiance and disobedience of the Children of brail lo their Prophets and 
their deviation from the guidance they were given, and to the struggle between the forces of the right and 
the wrong typified by QShil's (Cain's) killing of his brother Hibil (Abel), At the end of the surah 
attention is drawn to the mistake in regarding "Ssa. peace be on him. as god and in worshipping him as 
such, by pointing out that on the Day of Judgement he will be brought forward to testify whether he had 
asked men to worship him and he will emphatically disavow having ever done so. 






m 



m 






*®&3'ii*4!— 



I . O you who believe, 
a^i)t;>jl fulfil 1 the contracts. 3 
^JiiJ Lawful is made 1 for you 
uVi i^-r: tne quadruped of livestock* 
Sfrfj save what is recited 4 on you, 
not allowing hunting 7 
while you are in 'ihram* 
Verily Allah decrees 
what He wills. 






•Jf- 
'A- 



*4 



$.42 



f^l^jjll^fe 2. O you who believe, 



i * 



iji^ do not violate* 



1 . <>jl *«*/5 = you (all) fulfil, cany out, redeem. 

give in full (v. v. m. pi. imperative from wafS 
[wo/a -]. to fulfil See a! 2:40. p, 20, n, 12). 

2. i.e.. the implied contract to believe in Allah 
and to obey His orders and instructions in all 
affairs, as well as all lawful contracts and 
agreements, explicit Or implied, with others. 
lyp'tujUd (p!., s. .«*■ 'atjifj - contracts, 
agreements. 

3. oi»-t 'uhiltal = she or it is made lawful, made 
permissible (v, in. f. s. pasi passive from aljalla. 
from IV othaila [l/u!t/hill\, to unbind, to solve to 
be lawful See at 4:160, p. 316. n. 6). 

4. k^tf beMmah (s., pi. buhil'im) = quadruped, 
beast, animal. 

5. fUjf 'ati'Am (pi.: s. .* m'am) = gracing 
livestock (sheep, cattle, cornels, goats) 

6. i.e., what is recited hereafter as unlawful. J* 
yutld = he or it is recited, read out, read aloud (v. 
Mi. m s. lltlpfct. passive from rata \iik}wuh\. to 
recite. See al 4: 1 27, p. 300, n. 3). 

7. Af^ sayd^ hunting, 

8. i. e. ceremonial garb for hujj ai'umrtth. kurum 
{pi.; s. fmrdm) = inviolate, forbidden, prohibited, 
interdicted, in the Slate of 'shr&m. 

<i. 'jl«i v la tuhilte = do not violate, desecrate, 
make lawful (what is forbidden}, unbind (v, ii. m. 
pi, imperative from 'ahalla. See n. 3 above. 



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326 



SHrnh 5 : Af-M&iduh [Part Uuz} 6) 




->**y J rs ji - rt 

•y, i^ \ 
- ; ffi 



the rites' set by Allah, 

nor the sacred month, 2 

nor the sacrificial animal,* 

nor the nee kJ aces, 4 

nor the repairers* 

to the Sacred House" 

seeking the grace 

of their Lord and Pleasure. 

And when you end 'ihram 1 

you may undertake hunting. 8 

And let there not impel* you 

the detestation 10 for a people 

that they prevented 1 1 you 

from the Sacred Mosque 

to committing excesses. 12 

And assist one another 13 

in piety 

and righteousness; 

and do not assist one another 

in sin and aggression; 

and beware of Allah. 

Verily Allah is 

Severe in punishing. 



1. / IUi tha'&'ir (sing, sha'trnh) - signposts. 

[nkens. religious riles. See at 2:)5S, p. 158. I). 5. 

2. i, e., do no! engage in fighting in (he sacred 
months, e. g.. Dhij rd-Qa'dah, Dhfl nl-Hij/ah, 
Muharrani ami Rajab. 

3. tiJ* hady = what is offered as sacrifice, 
sacrifice, the sacrificial animal. 

4. JiH qald'id (pi ; s. i*~>i qitadah) = necklaces. 

The Arabs used (u pui a special type of nccktace 
round the neck of a sacrificial animal lo indicate 
thai it was meant fur sacrifice and thai ihe person 
taking [he animal inlcndcd to perform fjajj, This 
pan of the 'ayah prohibits preventing the person 
from performing kttjf and making Ihe sacrifice. 

5. _~'. 'ammin (acc/gen. of dmmun, s. 'dmm) * 

repairers, betake rs. those who go to see something 
or Someone (act participle from 'timmti ( urnm), 
to go, to bciakc oneself 

6. i.e., the Ka'ba 

7. f^l*- hislaUum - you (all) untied, unfastened, 

dissolved, ended the stale of 'thrrun (v, u m pi. 

past from halla [halt], to unbind, untie). 

6. ijiiiuj* iit&d& ■ you fall) engage in hunting, 

chase, hum for prey (v. ii. m. pi imperative from 
iftdda, form VIII ofsdda [tayd], to hunt) 

9. j^'j^i V la yajrimanna = lei he or it not incite, 

impel, urge (v. iii. m. s impfct. emphatic from 
jaritnia [jorm\ , to commit an offence). 

10. jliii shane'ia ■ hatred, detestation, 

1 1. As happened in ihe year of Ihe Hwtaytiiyah 
Treaty. IjJ-r saddS = they turned away, diverted, 

detente!, dissuaded, rejected, repelled, prevented 
(v. iii. m. pi past from mddti [taild]. to turn 
away. See tu 4:167, p. 319, n 6). 
12 i e., io doing injustice io lhcm ijj«j 

ia'iadtHna) - you (all) assail, assault, commit 

excesses (v. ii m. pi, impfct. from i'tadii, jiirm 

VIII of 'add l'adw\, lo speed, io race The 

terminal ruin is dropped for Ihe particle an 

coming before the verb. See at 2:231, p 114, n. 

IS) 

1 J. lyjW ta'dnanu = you (ail) assist one anoUier, 

cooperate (v. ii. m. pi. imperative in form VI front 
■he root "awn) 



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SSrah 5; AI-MH idah |Pan Uuz'} 6] 



327 



I &4J * 






3. Unlawful is made on you 
(he dead 1 and blood, 2 
and meat of swine, 
and what has been offered 1 

C# MP 

h j^Vjy to anyone than Allah; 
ii^-Jij and that which is strangled, 4 
«j£j\j that which is beaten to die, 3 
+fj% that which has a fatal fall, 6 
i-JcJij that which is gored by horns 7 

^j and that which 
^Ji 3fl a beast of prey B has eaten' 
C^i - save what 
£fl you may duly slaughter 10 - 
£ui£j and that which is slaughtered 
J^lij* on altars; 11 

ulj and [unlawful is also] that 
_ii^i you seek apportionment '- 
^jjVt with divining arrows. 11 
j^'i That is 14 sinfulness. 1 ' 
y^\ Today 

JL^ hopeless have become 16 
S^M those who disbelieve 
~t*^ r about your religion. 



I . i, C, an minimal naturally dead, 

2, i, e„ blood which is caused to flow, 

3 i, e . that which Is slaughtered in the name of 

any being other than Allah. J*I uhilla = he or it 

b offered, offered up. cheered [v. hi m s past 

passive torn abulia, form (V of hatla [hall\, to 

appear, [o come up 

4. *i^t, munkhaniqah = that which is strangled, 
c halted to death, suffocated to death (passive 
participle, f.. s,, from iniAcinuqa, form V[[ of 
kuimaqa \khtmtf\. to Choke, to strangle). 

5, iijij- mamqdhah ■ lhal which is beaten to die, 
fatally hit (passive participle, f., s., from *u<jaiiha 
Iwenfilhl to hit fatal! yj 

6 ijj/. mutarattdiyah = that which ii dead by a 

Tall [active participle, f.. s . from toradda, form V 
of radiyti [tody], to perish). 

7 i^i nalfhjiit e that which is gored by horns. 

8. £- Miu' (s„ pi jittH 1 ) = beast of piey, 
predatory animal. 

9 i. c. captured and wounded to cat without 
having completely kilted [he prey, 

10 The exception applies to the categories 
starting from that which is strangled". -ifi 
dkaikaytum = you (ail) slaughtered, kindled lv. 
ii. m. pi. past from dltakkeL form II of dhukiytt 
\dhaky], to be intelligent). 

II. i. e., what has been sacrificed on altars fixed 
for the worship of idols and gods other than Allah. 
•—* nusub (pi., s imsiib) a altars, images, idols, 
Ii I, — iij taiiaqiimdina) = you (all) seek 
apportionment, division (v ii. m p|, impfet from 
istwfuitnu. form X of ijufama {qasm.]. to divide 
The terminal nd* is dropped for the particle 'tut 
coining before the vctb), 

13. flfjl 'ailam [p|„ s . lulum) = arrows, divining 
arrows, The Arabs sometimes used to fix their 
respective shares in something, particularly the 
meat of n slaughtered animal by means of 
divination with arrows. 

14. i.e., the eating of Ihc prohibited things in 
disregard" of ihe prohibition. 

15. j~i fug = sinfulness, moral depravity. Sec 
/iu%al 2:2B2, p. 149, n II 

16. i.e., they have lost all hope of your ever 
revetting lo unbelief. ^ ya'iia - be became 
hopeless, despaired (v. iii. m. s. past from fa i), 



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i:s 



5«r«>l 5 . M-M&idtih [Part [Jui) 6] 












Pi 






^ 






r'.' ','jf 









So do not fear' them 

and fear Me. 

Today I have perfected 2 

for you your religion 1 

and have completed" on you 

My favour. 5 

and have approved for you 

Islam as religion. 

But if anyone is constrained" 

in extreme hunger 7 

without being inclined" 

to sin, 

then verily Allah is 

Most Forgiving, 

Most Merciful. 

4. They ask* you what is 
made lawful 10 for (hem. 
Say: Lawful are made for 
you the good things." 
And that which you teach 1: 
of the predatory animals, 11 
being trainers , 14 



t . ijA*^ M Id fokhshaw - you (all) do no! fail (v. 
ji. m pi. imperative (prohibition] from khushiya 
[ktuuhv/Uuuhyah]. to fear. See kkuhjwh M 2:74, 
p. 35. B.8). 

2. i.e., perfected and completed ihc rules of 

shari'aH.<±£l 'okmetiu = I pcrfccicd. completed 

(v i. s. past from 'tlkmaltl, form IV of kttmulat 
kiimila/kamuta [kamiilAumul]. to be perfect. 
complete. Sec tiikmitu a! 2:185. p. 88, n. 61 

3. ji^ ilia is usually translated as 'religion': but ii 

has a comprehensive connotation of a way or life 
and a code of conduct 

4. o— . i 'osmamtu = I completed, finished (v. 1. 1. 

jiiM from iJluiFinm , form IV (if Mmnut [liimum), 

lo be completed See uh'm/rui al 2:195. p. 91, 

11.2}. 

5 i. c, ty bringing you qui of the darkness of 

ignorance and error to (he light of islam 

6. i. *., if one is constrained by extreme hunger is 
take the prohibited food. J*tf idlurra = he ii 

consiraincd, coerced, forced, compelled, obliged 
(v. iii. in s. impfct passive from idiarw, form 
VIII of durni [cturr], lev harm, impair See 2 171. 
p. ai.n.ll) 

7. »^-jt. mni iiiatuiiii = exiKme hunger (verbal 

noun from khamaxa, to be or empty sionuch. 
hungry. 

8. ^^Ul> mutaJBnif^- inclined, wilfully deviating 

(active participle from lajuntrfii, farm VI of 
jutia/a \juati{\, to incline, deviate. Sec jam:! al 
2:182, p 86. n 6> 

9. jfi—i yas'aluna - the ask. enquire (v in m 

pi, impfct. from tauta ] su'tit/ mus'uluh/im'a!\\. 
to ask. See 31 2:215, p, KM. n I). 

10. Sec at ; 1:24. p. 250. n. 5. 

1 1 . LiLJ» tafyib&l { si ng layyibahj - good things, 

nice things, agreeable things, pleasanl things See 
at 4: 160. p. SI6.n, 5. 

12. CiyjMi iu-ultimunii = you (all) teaeh, instruct, 

educate (v ii m. pi. impfct from 'ullama. form II 
Of 'alimu I'llm]. lo know. See at 1:79, p. 1*7, n 
23. 

13. ^Jyr jawanh (pi., s. jAnhah) = predatory 
animals or birds. 

14. ^>5U mukaUihin (acc/gen. of muknliil>iin. i 
nmtullib) - trainers, instructors 



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S&rah 5: Al-Ma 'idah [Fart (Jia'} 6] 



\ki£j& teaching them of what 

JiiJSSu Allah has taught you - 

'$Zffl>)$S eat of what they catch 1 

'p£, on your behalf 
^X^y^i and mention 2 Allah's Name 
,ck over it.' 
ilif^ And beware" of Allah. 
m\1[ Verily Allah is 
5-3^£r Prompt 5 in taking account. 

j-.i.^il 5. Today lawful is made 
.i^'JP for yo« the good things; 
4Ji^ and the food 6 of those who 
33^1 were given the Book 
>J J* is lawful 7 for you; 
'fS&£ 3 and your food is 
;&3* lawful for them; 
1'^^Hj and the chaste women 8 
^v^if^ of those believing 
ij '•--& ; and the chaste women of 
tfj^jjf those who were given 
fHJortv^Ji 'he Book before you 
i»j£*K5j !f you pay* them 



329 

| I . i. e , teaching ihem or whal Allah has given you 
of the knowledge and skill of hunting and preying, 
j£~J 'amsakna n they (rem.) caught, seized, 
grasped, held, retained (v. lii f. pi. post 
fiom"flmjfl*o. form IV of masaka [mask], to 
grasp See 'amsitii at 4: IS, p. 245. n. S). 

2 Ijjfii udHkttrH = you (all) remember, call In 
mind, mention (v, ii, m pi imperative fram 
dhakara \dhikrfadhkar], to remember. See at 
4:103. p 290. n 12). 

3. Jt is lawful to train animals and birds for tbe 
purpose of hunting and to eat of what such 
animals or birds catch provided thai Allah's name 
is mentioned at the time of sending the hunting 
animal and that the latter does not cat of the prey 
(See Bui h.n i no. 5473). 

4 IjH ittaq & = you (a|]| beware, be on your 
guard, fear, be afraid or (v n rn pi. imperative 
fiom tttaqti. forni Vlit of waqd ( uiaqyfwiqdyah}, 
to guard, safeguard, See al 4: 1 3 1 . p. 302, n. 6). 

5. gf sort' - prompt, expeditious, quick, 
speedy, rapid, s*ifl See at 3:J99. p. 234. n JO. 

6 i e ., the animals slaughtered by the People of 
the Book according to the prescripts of their 
Scnplures, fUk ta'em <pj, i«J.1 at',mahy= food, 
diet. meal, repast. See al 3 93. p. 192, n. 6. 

7. J~ hill = lawful, permissibte. free. 



8 Likewise it is lawful to marry [he chaste 
women rrom among the believers and the People 
of the Book provided the conditions set in the 

ayah are fulfilled cyt±— muhasanai [f p|.. s. 
muhsanah. in. mutism) = fortified, rendered 
inaccessible, i.e.. the women whose chastity is 
fortified by their being married, also free and 
chaste women, maidens, See at 4:25. p, 251 . n t ). 

9 f&. -ataytum = you (all) gave, offered, 
granted, brought (v. ii. m. p | pasi f fom -& la f rom 
IV of aid [ityun/tuy/maithL 10 come, to bring. 

10 give or offer See a| 2:233, p. 1 17, n 9). 









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330 



SHriih 5 : M-M&'idah [Part Uui) 61 






jiJ^J their dowries, 1 
Is^Jk being chaste, 2 
' j^\ r> J 7L not being fornicators, 1 
'j^fej*^; nor taking" paramours.' 1 
i^i\ j^t.j'i And whoever denies the faith 
3£^&g-M> his deeds shall fall through 5 

£^*i«ij*J arK * ^ e w '*' ^ ' n ^ e hereafter 
^)ZfyJWj* among those in loss. 

- ,„ Section (RukS' ) 2 
"' ■-/,,, 6, O you who believe, 
'/-'\ \\\ when you get up 
•jl^i j| to the prayer, 
iCijij y--*S wash 5 your faces and your 
^^ Jlf^J^j hands up to the elbows; 
ftZ r // / >}J*T^Sj and wipe B your heads 
'^ il^^j and (wash) your feet 
o£-S^Jl up to the two ankles' 
'£&&$ And if you are 

Ci- in a state of impurity, 10 
'*>£&% purify yourselves." 
&C5f£&j£ And if yor are ill 12 

X*&$ or on a journey, 
i-. „•*"?<. .< or any of you comes 



!. jyJ 'uj&r fpl.: s ^-f 'ct/j-J w rewards 

remuneration, dowries, bridal sums, See ai 4:173, 
p. 322. Jl. 7. 

2. ji-**** muhslntit (acc/gen. of jnuAriaun, s. 

mahjin) m chaste men. men who fortify their 
chastiiy by being in wedlock. Sec at 4:24. p. 250, 

3. j-il — ■ mm&fihtn (ace /gen of mu.fu/ifiiin, s 

wiuwi/r/i) = fornicators' (nit participle Irwrn 
sufiiha, farm III of xafaha \su}h/nufah\, to shed 
See it 4:24. p. 250. ii. 9).' 

4. tskhdan (pi ; s i/Wdi n intimate friends, i e, 
paramours, illicit lovers. 

5. Vj- fra6isa = he or H fell through, miscarried, 

went in vain, was futile, was of no avail (v. m m 
s. past See huhitutM 3:22, p. I £3, n. T). 

6. 'jj — *■' ighsiiu - you (all) wash [v. ii. m pi. 

imperative from ghu$ul« \ghti*l\, to wash), Thii 
'.-iwjJi lays down the rules for cleanliness. 

7. jit/- mar&fiq (pi., s ji^ mirtiiii} = elbows. 

8. i. e.. wipe with the wet hand, tj^^-i imiaiia - 

you (all) wipe , stroke with (he hand, clean (v. ii, 
m. pi. imperative from mmuilfii [mtisfi], to stroke 
wlili the hand. Sec at 4:43. p. 260. n. 7 J. 

9. ko'bayn ( dual, ace ./gen. of kiibHu, s. ku'hy - 
two ankles. 

10 —wjunu/i - state of ceremonial impurity (on 

account of sexual intercourse or ejaculation): alio 
one not belonging to the tribe. See at 4:43, p. 259, 
n. 12. 

1 1, i. e.. purify yourselves by taking a full Mh 

Ij^Vl iltfthharu = you (all} purify yourselves, get 

yourselves cleaned {v. ii. m. pf. imperative from 
luiuhhunt. form V of tahara/luhara (Ju/ir 
Jmhatah], to be pure, dean, See mumhhir at 3:55, 
p. 177, n.S). 

12. ^jf mariS (pi.; s, ji, marid) = unwell, ill, 

sick, diseased, indisposed, patients. See at 4:102, 
p. 290. n. 4). 



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Surah 5 : At-Ma - idah [Pari (/«; ' ) 6] 



331 



ipio* fr oir > the call of nature 1 
" "'i j or has had contact 2 
;Llyf with women 
iUljjL^jiii and do not find water, 
ijH3 ^ en have recourse to 3 
t^/x^o a ground,' 1 good and clean, 5 
iji^'S and wipe* 
'^=^^ your faces 
*Jj JCj^Ij and your hands with it, 
fif^C Allah does not intend 7 

to put on you 
jjpi. ji any difficulty* 
■ii^c^dj but He intends 

pA** • J. 

(Ai+Ui to purify you 
ji^JJ and to complete 10 
i His grace on you 
p'^-hLJ that you may 

express gratitude." 






VU*»iij 7. And remember 
p"#Ml i-Jii Allah's grace on you 
J^i"ii£_.j and His Covenant 13 which 
«i [i^j He covenanted with you for, 



1 1«* jAit'rf <s.; pi. pAuf^Ajytll) = low and 

spacious ground, human excrement. See at 4:43, 
p 260, it ] 

2 fi — V lamas turn = you (all) touched, had 
contact with {v ii m, pi. past from (dmo™, form 
HI af lamrnii [JumxJ, to touch, to handle. Sec ai 
4:43. p. 260. n 2). Heie ii is an indirect 
expression Tor sexual intercourse. 

3. tj— g tayammamu - you tall) ami a(, intend, 
set your mind on. resort, have recourse to (v. it, m. 
pi imperative myummtimu \tayammum\, lo 
intend, lo aim at. See at 4:43, p. SoO, n. 4}. 

4, J^-. fa'fd (s.: pi itu'a/f) a highland, upland, 
plateau, ground See 31 4:43, p. 260, 1 1 S. 

5, v-J" fayyib = good, pleasant, agreeable, 
salutary, clean. See at 4:43. p. 160, n, 6. 

6- i.e.. rub with the dusi on the ground. 'j«*_j1 
imssh& = you (all) stroke, rub. wipe off, clean (v. 
ii. m. p|, imperative from mtatiHa [mash], to 
slrake See at 5:5. p. 330. n. 8). The rule is to 
wipe I he Face and the hands from the cibow to 
Ihe tip of Ihe finger 

7. ^ji yurida - he iniends. desires, has in mind 
(v. ill m. s. impfet. form aratta, form IV from 
rdda \rawtf\, lo walk about See ji 4: 133 p 103 
■.S). 

8. jy haraj = difficulty, distress, constriction, 
OOfcB&h. cnlical siluation. See a[ 4 65. p 270, n. 

9. jfa yutahhiraM s he purifies, cleanses (v. 
in. m. s. impfet from ttdthura. form II of 
mhara/tuhiirti [lubr/uiliUmk], to be clean The 
last letter lakes Jtithah because of an implied 'an 
in Ii (ton of motivation) Coming before ihe veils. 
See luhhara at 3:42. p. 1 72. n. 6), 

10. +-. ytihmtixii u .. = he completes, makes full ( 
v. iii. m. s, impfet. from 'aiamnm, forrn IV of 
tiimma [uimwn], lo be completed. The last letter 
takes fathah for Ihe same reason as given in the 
previous hole. See atnmmtu ar 5:3, Jh 32S, n.4). 

11. i}^ rashkitrSna = you (all) express 
gratitude, be thankful, be grateful (v ii. m. pi. 
impfet from .thukarn Uhsikrffhnkran\. to thank, 
express gratitude. See at 2: IBS, p 88, n S. 

I 2. J*V Miiheq (pi. ^j, mcmdthiq) = covenant, 
pact, treaty See at 4: IS4. p. 313, n. 9. 



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332 



Surah 5 : Ai-M&idsh [Pan (Juz ) 6] 



''.<^-'\'a when you said: "We hear 1 
lX!j and we obey ,r . : 
^i^tj And beware of Allah, 
j jjf '-'^j, Eerily Allah is All-Knowing 
of the secrets of hearts/ 









-* .7; , 8- O you who believe, 
-. / Kfii* be steadfast 4 for Allah 
lu-jlifjw^ bearing witness with justice; 5 
^^'. ^-^j and let there not impel 6 you 
^o&Lt the detestation 7 for a people 
i J Jj5*tf* ^ on to not doing justice.* 

ij^it Do justice; 
tfci^i^j* it is the closest* to godliness; 
^lljl^ij and beware of Allah; 
j\_i-iii £4 verily Allah is All-Aware 
<". j- '-^ ^. of what you do. 



St Jij 9. Allah promises 10 
i^ili^Jf those who believe 
.~*^~imy**j and do good deeds. 



&* 



jt they will have forgiveness 
f ^jj and a magnificent reward. 



1. The allusion is lo Ihe covenant which the 
Muslims made with Ihe Prophet either ji 
al-'Aqabah oral Hudaybiyah. U^_ jpmi'nii = we 

listened, heard, paid attention (v. i. pi pail from 
sunu'ti [sum' /suimb' /lama'ufi /maxmn'\. [a hear 
See al 4:45. p. 261. n. 2). 

2. tJ»* 'ofa'tiA - we obeyed, followed, submitted, 

yielded, complied with, acceded lo [v. i p|. past in 
form IV of t&'a [/aw] lo obey. See at 2:2*5, p. 

152, n 3>, 

3. jjJ-» sudue (p]_; sing jj- jadr) = breast*, 

chests, bosoms, beans. Tmni, beginning, start. See 
at 3: 154, p 216, n. 5. dhat at-iaJur - that which 
posccscs the herats. i.e.. the setter of hearts 

4' tJ^J* qawwemln {acc/genitive of if amtmm, 
pi.; s. qawwam. emphatic arid exaggerated form 
of qd im) » steadfast Odes, caretakers, guarduns, 
superintendents, managers, custodians. See it 
4:13S,p. 3Q4,n |, 

5. J«-J gflf = justice, equity, fairness. See a 
4:135. p. 304. n. 2. 

*>■ i^-J*" V '■ yajrimanna = let he or it not incite, 
impel, ufge (v. hi. m. s impfiit emphatic from 
jarama \jarm] , to commit an Offence. See it 5:2, 
p 326. n. 9). 

T. thana'SH = hatred, detestation, See it S:2, p. 
326,rv 10. 

», 1/W ta •dilu{no ) = you (al 1) treat equal ly, deal 
with equity, be impartial, do justice (v. ii. m. pi 
impfct from 'atiafa[ adlS'addlah ], lo act justly. 
The terminal run is dropped for the panicle 'an 
\ 'on (al comme before the vert), Sec it 4: 135, p. 
304, pi. 8). 

9. Vji' 'aqrab ■ closer, nearer, nearest, 

more/most likely (elnlive offlarf*. See at 4: 11 , p 
242, n 4). 

10. j*j wa'ada - he promised, pledged, pave 

wool (v, iii. m. s, post from wu'd. Id make a 
promise. See ill 3:95. p 285, nil). 



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Surtik 5: A/-W iduh [Pail ( Jul ) 61 



333 



^fS^silfj 10- But those who disbelieve 
\££$ an ^ call lies 1 
tiilii to Our re ve Sat ions, 3 
^Cl^ijl such ones will be 
*^_£i_;i the inmates 1 of hell. 4 



^ '.. sit , 

- >„ / 1 1 . O you who believe, 



#3 



remember 1 



•A'-'- -; Allah's grace on you 
r^rti il when a people meditated* 
jjrjfcj j £'..:: J to stretch 7 towards you 
^Jjj-U their hands and 

' He restrained 9 their hands 
^=sLi from you. 
iiiyifj And beware 9 of Allah; 
^'S-3 and upon Allah 
£j-& should the believers rely.™ 

Section (*"*#') 3 

lilJk^I jjjj 12. Allah did indeed take 
Ji-: the covenant" 

Si&i C^? of the Children of IsrS'iL 

: "J And We raised 11 from them 
twelve chiefs; 13 




t. (jj-kT kadhdhabS = they called lies, thought 

untrue, disbelieved (v. iii. m. pi pasi from 
kadhdhaba, form I] of kudhubu \kidhb /kcid)nh 
Aadhbiih / iirfWa/i], to lie. Sec al 3: 1 84. P- 228. 
n. 5). 

J. o^l 'iySt (sing. JvaA) = Signs, miracles. 

revelations, evidences. See at 4:155, p. 314. a. 2. 

3. ^\**jf 'ashSb (pi.; sing „~Lj joM] = inmates, 

dwellers, companions, associates, comrades, 
followers, owners, possessors See at 3:115, p. 
201. n. 8), 

4. fr~» /ofrfm b hellftre, hell. 

5. 'jjfil udiikurd = you (all) remember, call to 

mind, mention (v n, m pi. imperative from 
dhakara [dhikr/ladhkdr], lo remember. Sec al J;4, 
p, 329, n. 2). 
fi. p> fiamma - he meditated, designed, though! 

of doing, was about lo, was concerned, worried (v. 
iii, rtl. s. past from hamma \iwmm\, lo worry, lo be 
important. See hammtit at 4: 1 1 3, p, 294, n, 6). 
7. l^k—j yaltsutiUna'l - they stretch. Spread, 
spread ou| , expand, extend (v. iii. m. pi. impfct 
from basasa \txut], to spread. The ternsirml nitn a 
dropped because of the panicle 'an before the 
verb. Sec yabiutu al 2:245, p. 1 23. n. 9). 
!. jT kaffa = be restrained, Jens ted. refrained, 
prevented, checked, held back (v. iii. m. past from 
kaff. to desist See yukuflu at 4: 9 1 , p, 282, n. 9J. 
= you (all) beware, be on your 



9. Ijil 

guard, fear, be afraid of fv, ji m. pi. imperative 
from iiiaqd. form VIII of tvd^tf ( nraqyfau}dyali), 
lo guard, safeguard See al 5:4, p. 329. n. 4) 

10. J*Vi yalawakkat{u) ^ he relies, depends, puts 
his trust in. appoints as representative (v. iii. m, s, 
impfct. from tawukkata, form V of wukaia 
[ufakl/wukCti], lo entrust) The final letter is 
vowel less because of the Uim of command before 
the vert). See al 3:le50, p. 219, n. 1). 

11. i. c, to worship Allah Alone and to obey their 
Prophet Jlv milhSq (p|, j,-y mawdthiq) - 
covenant, pact, treaty. See al 5:?, p, 331 , n. 12. 

12. LU, ba'alhna = we raised, sent OUt, 

resurrected (v. i. pi. past from ba alha [tra'th], to 
raise, resurrect. See at 2:56. p. 26, n. 6), 

13. i e, for their twelve tribes, ngqtb, (s.; pi. 
ruqabd ') = leader. Chief, headman. 



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and Allah said: 
" I am with you. 1 
If you perform 2 the prayer 
and pay zakah and 
believe in Our messengers 
and support 3 them 
and lend 4 Allah 
a benevolent loan, 
I will e f f ace 3 fro m y ou 
your sins 6 

and will admit 7 you in 
gardens 

flowing 8 below them 
the rivers; 

but whoever disbelieves 
after this from amongst you 
will have gone astray* 
from the right way." 

13. But due to their breach 13 
of the covenant of theirs 
We cursed" them 
and made 12 their hearts 






l I. ft, in help and protection, 

2. piJl 'aqamtum * you lull! performed, 

straightened, made rise n ii. m. p|. po$| in form 
IV of qi'ima [uy qawmti)s/t\^ qiytlm] id gel up, 
stand up. Sec "auamlu in 4, 102. p. 2E9. n. 1]. 

3. |u;/ 'uzzarium = you (all) supported, assisted 

[v. ii. tn. pi, past from 'auMra, form II of "mora 
\ azr). to turn away, la pa- vend. 

4. i. c,, spend in the way of Allah- t^*/ 

'aqradtum - you (all) tent. Advanced (v. ii. m. pi. 
past from 'aurada, form IV of qetrada \t[ard). to 
cut, lo sever. See yaqridu at 2:245. p. 123, n. 4), 

5. OjiX^i fat 'iikaffir anna = I certainly efface, 

obliterate. Cover, pardon (v. i. s. emphatic tmpfcl 
iji form II of keif am [knfr /Itufr /kafran/kufir), a 
hide, to disbelic vc. Sec al 3;t95, p. 2.13, n. 6). 

6. c>u_> leyyi'St [pi., s. tayyi'ah) = evil deeds, 

misdeeds, bad sides, offences, sins.. See at 4:31, 
p. 154. n J, 

7. _J»-iS k+'udkhilanna = I certainly nuke 

enter, admit, put in (v. i. s. emphatic impfcL in 
form IV of dakhata [ditkliu!\. to cwei. See at 
3:1M, p . 233,n 7). 

8. iij»i tgjrt- she rims, flows, streams (v. in. f. s. 

unpfcl. from^flra \jary\, to flow. See M 4: 122, p. 
2v8, n 3). 

9 Jj> delta = he lost way, went astray, strayed 

from (v. iii. m. s. past from datal/daldtah. to loose 
one's way. See at 4: 1 36, p. 305, n. 4). 

10. j*i naoti = breach, violation, ihlnngeini.-nl. 
infraction. Sec Bl 4:155. p. 314, n I. 

11. bJ lifanafi = We condemned, damned 

cursed, banished from mercy (v. i. past from 

la'ana [ la'n ], to damn, to curse See la'tma 
4:1 17. p 296. n. 8) 

12. klw Jn'alnS - we macte, set, appointed [v, i 
pi. past from, ju'ata \ja'{], lo make, to set. See at 
2: 125. p. 59. n. 6). 



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Surah 5: AIMiiidah [part (J uz ) 6] 



335 



*^-. .,■•"* relentless. 1 
$&*$> '^f'A They deflect 2 the word 

H4*j.l^i,jt from its positions;^ 
lilUiiij^ and they forgot" a portion 5 of 
^tfcS* w[iat tne y were reminded 6 of; 
Ji^Vj an< ^ y° u wil1 f 101 cease to 
jiCiLi come to know 7 of 

pii^U. treachery 8 on their part 
■;,.. j- ? * 
rr*>4**i\ except a few of them. 

,^*^k*E So forgive* them 

j*-*% and forbear." 

^'j' Verily Allah loves 

-Jl the benevolent. 



tfE^Jfij-S 14. And of those who say: 
M "We indeed are Christians", 



ttj^ll We took their covenant" 



--+ j 






Uiii^i but they forgot a part of 
'*ib^4tl: what they were reminded of. 
l^lli So We brought about 12 
.jijji^^ among them enmity 13 

itSijT; and hatred 14 
*^Ui? J I '"'I the Day of Judgement. 



I ^ffcfpcA (f; m fl( j, Jn ) = relentless. harsh 
hard. Active participle from ?af d 
IfatHioA^ijdiivffA). to be han>h See ?! ua/ and 
?ajwo* ai 2 74, notes I and 3). 
2 'ijVv yuharrifSna = they distort, displace, 
pervert, deflect, twist, misconstrue (v iii. m . p J 
impfct. from l/arrafa. form [] of harafa [harfl, l0 
deflect, to change. Sec at 4:45. p. 26 J , n. 2 ) 

3. t. e., they take the statement in the scripture 
out of its context and misinterpret it an d alter i! 
gJ*j» manSdi' (pl., s. ^,, j»nH>rfi'| ■ positions, 
places, sites, passages (in a book). 

4. <j_J Hofu = they rorgot, became oblivious (v. 
in. m. pi, past from naH}m [nsisyMhyin]. to 
forger See nasind at 2:286, p. 152. rt. 10), 

5. 4»- hag <S . pl. hum) = portion, share. Id, 
good luck, good thing. Sec ai 4: 176. p.324. n 

6. ijj^idhukkim = they were reminded (v, iii, m 
pi. past passive from dhuiara Idhikr/tgdhkir], to 
remember. See at udhkurvrt. 5:4, p 329, n 2). 

7. (Lki w«wff'„ . you K.^ (0 kn|Wi ^ 

acquaimed with, be abreast or [v. ii, m s impfct, 
From itiala'a, f 0ml V N| of /(,(«'« Ifol']. to rise), 
■ «U Mfl-inirA - Iteaclray, perfidy, disloyalty 
9 jti u/a = y0u ef f mlx forgive, excuse, 
condone (v. ti. m. pi imperative rrom 'a/4 
i 'a/w/afd "J, (o efface, to forgive. See at 3 I S9 a 
2JB.n. 8). ' 

! gU isfuh = forbear, leave alone, overlook 
(v. ii. m s. imperative rrom safaha \safh\, to 
forbear, overlook, broaden, flatten See isfahu at 
2: 109, p. 52. n, 5). 

1 1. i.e., to worship Allah Alone, jiv miiMq ( p l. 
jrV tnawathiq) = covenant, pact, treaty . Sw ai 
5:11, p 333. a. II 

1 2. Uj>t 'agkrayni - we caused to grow, brought 
about, produced (v. i, pl pasl from aghra, form 
IV of ghara [ghtir-w], to glue). 

13. iju* -adiwah = enmity, hostility, aminos uy, 
antagonism 

14. .U, fagiuti- -= extreme hatred, deicstation, 

animosity, anlipathy, aversion. See at 1 118 n 
202. n. 13. 



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Surah 5 : AiMaidah [Pari {Jut) b] 






-^->i-j And soon 



iX_/«j>ijLJM'i Allah will apprise' them 
«iJ.l^of what they use to do. 






, ,.-g_J Cj 'J r 1 1 5. O People of the Book, 
rt-^il^; Jj there indeed has come to you 
£jjij Our Messenger 
■(£-1^1^ making 2 clear to you 
UgSg&xa a g OOC i deal of what 
^jjljllli£= you use to conceal' 
I - ^^Igsall^ of the Book 
^£j_jl>ji^j and waiving 4 a good deal. 
.^=>itj£. jj There indeed has come to you 
j^M^t from AUah a light 5 
*.*.A * '-.<-=** and a Book all too clear* 

+i&Aft£±+t 16. Therewith Allah guides 
£-jl^^- those who pursue 
-£j>ij His Pleasure 
jJJLlTji-^ to the ways* of peace; 10 
^^.J^y-^HJ and brings them out 
i-.' . t&U ^S from the darknesses 1 ' 

^k^^JL *° lne bght 12 b y H > s leave ; 

i jjj lJjJ and leads them to 



1. tlJ ^ yanabbi'u ■ he makes known, informs, 

notifies, advises, apprises (v. lit. m s, impfcl 
from nabba 'a. form 11 of nabu a \nab 'Mubu ■}, Id 
be high, prominent. See ytmabbi'u at 3:49, p 

175. n 7). 

2. i. t, ihrowing light on and explaining. ^ 
yuArjyyinu = he makes clear, elucidates, explain! 
(v. Hi. m- S- impfcl. from hayyorta, form II of 
bona I bayan], to be Clear See at 1. 1 76. p. 324, n_ 
12] 

J. OjJkU lukh/ana = you (all) hide, conceal, keep 

secret, secrete (v. ii. m. pi. impfcl. from 'akhfa . 
form IV of khiifiyti (Ww/ii' fkhifnh/ khufyah}. lo 
be hidden. Sec lukhfu il 4: 149, p. 3 1 1, n 2). 

4. i. e., not requiring you to do. ' *•** ya'JS = be 

waives, excuses, ef fates (v. iii m. s. imptct. front 
■ji/3 f 'afwfafd 7,10 be effaced. See at 4:99, p. 287, 
n.8). 

5, i, e , the light of guidance and ihe Qur'an. 

6. J&- mubiit = all too clear, glaringly obvious. 

manifest, palenl. explicit. See al 4:174, p. 323, n 
6 

7, £fl ittaba'a - he followed, obeyed, pursued, 

succeeded (v. iii. m. s. past in form VIII cf Hiin'u 

[ttiba'/tabifah\. to follow. Sec at 4:125, p. 299. 

n") 

R j— subul I pi., s js- suWf! - ways, paths. 

roads, means See sabsl al 4: 14 1 . p. ^08. ft. 4. 

9. £,^~ fukhrija = he lakes or brings out, 

removes, dislodges, ousts, expels, dispossesses (y. 
in. m. s. impfct. front writers/a, (torn IV cf 
kharaja [khuny], to go out See it 2:2S7, p 132, 
n. 13). 

10. i.e., of Islam and salvation, of peace rn Ibis 
world and peace and happiness in the hcrcatcr. 

1 1. i. e., the darkness of ignorance, unbelief and 
ting, .uUlU mlumat (sing. mir ziilmeh) * 
darkness, gloom. Seeal 22SS. p. 1 32. n. 14. 

12. i.e., to (he Eight of guidance and lulh, of 
Islam. 



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S&ruh 5: Al-Ma idah [Pari {Jut) 6] 



337 



■^i~f <j\, a way 1 staright and right. 



■ i ii 



jjj 17. They indeed disbelieve 
S»6y5^'^£Jjf who say: "Verily Allah, 
^i--lJi^A He is the Messiah, 
ll^^A son of Maryam." 
«ijU^>jji Say: "Then who can hold 1 
^— i^Lt against Allah anything 
&I04 if He intends" 1 
K__ljf JI44J0' to destroy * the Messiah, 
j^T^^;i son of Maryam, 
,i^l$ and his mother 
j^jV' 4^J*j and whoever is in the earth, 
L^Jr all together"? 6 
^ J To Allah belongs 
L . y-<U - _j yi, the dominion 7 of the heavens 
J?jj\j and the earth 

SCij and all that is between them. 
jte He creates 



i\*liC whatever He wills; 



' •>-- 



j^.^j^iilj and Allah is over everything 



>.■}* 



Omnipotent.' 



1. >'j~» sirit = way, path, road. See at 4: 175. p. 

323, n. L2; 4:68, p. 271, it, I: 3:101. p. I?S. n. 8. 
351. p. 176, n. 3 and 1:6, p. 2, n, 3. 

2. ?£-*• miMiitjim s straight, upright, creel, 
correct, right, sound, proper, (Active participle 
from islai/dma. Form X of ^ama [^awfnub^i.ViJm], 
to stand up, to get up. See al 4:175, p, 323, n. 13; 

4:68, p. 271. n. 3). 

i. ^AU, yamtiku = he possesses, holds, dominates, 

owns, has power (v. iii. m. s. impfct rrom malaka 
[maik/muik/mi!k\ Id lake in possession. See 
molakal at 4:36, p. 257, n. 7). 

4 Jljl 'arada = he intended, desired, had in mind 
(v. iii. m. s. past in rorm IV of rdda [rawd], to 
walk about- Set 'aradna al 4:62, p. 268, n, 1 1 ). 

5. JJJ+ yuMi/tain) ■ he destroys, he rums (v. iii. 

m. s. imptct. from ahtaku. form IV of lialaka 
[AaM/faiM/iuAfcifceifa], to destroy). The last Idler 
takes fuittah because of the particle 'an coming 
before the verb. See at 2:205. p. 99, n. 7), 

6. This 'ityah emphatically asserts that 'Isa (Jesus) 
Messiah, peace be on him. is not god and thai 
whoever considers him 10 be so is a kafir, infidel. 
Allah is the Only Creator. Susluincr, Nouns her 
and Lord of the entire universe and all thai exists, 
having Supreme Power of life and death over 
every created being, including 'is.i and his mother. 
Nothing can avail against His will, and He AlOnc 
deserves to be obeyed as Lord and worshipped as 
such. There is no partner wilh Him, neither in the 
matter Of creation, nor in Lordship (rab&biyah) 
nor in the right to be worshipped ( 'ulahiyuh). 

7. .ill* mulk = dominion, kingship, monarchy, 
right of possession, ownership. See al 3:26, p, 
165. n. 1, 2:247, p. 125, n, I. 

8. ji^H yakhluqu - he treats, brings into hting 

(v. iii. m E. impfct. from khaiaqa [khalq], to 
create Sec khutisa at 4:28, p. 254, n I) 

9. i. c., Allah can create, among other things, a 
man without the instrumental tly of a falher or 
mother or both ^a qadir - Omnipotent, 
All-Powerful See at 2:20, p, 1 1. 0. I. 



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M8 



Sirtib 5 : Al-MS'idah [Pari {Jut ) 61 



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18. There say the Jews 

and the Christians: 

"We are Allah's sons 

and His beloved ones." 1 

Say: "Why then 

He punishes 2 you 

for your sins?"' 

Nay, you are human beings, 

of those whom He created. 4 

He forgives whom He wills 

and punishes 

whom He wills. 

And to Allah belongs 

the dominion of the heavens 

and the earth and all that is 

between the two; 

and to Him is the destination. 5 



^.i&jftits 19. O People of the Book, 

pit j* there has come to you 

djij Our Messenger, 

'^JcZ making clear 6 to you, 

>i.t< --'-'*<*. on a pause 7 

l^-V JijJ*<jr a j- ter t ^ e Messenegers, 



I; The 'ayah belies iht claim made by the Jew: 
and Christians that they were Allah's sons and 
beloved ones and hence would be preferentially 
treated by Him, Similarly [hey claimed that they 
would noi be in hell except for a number of dayst 
see 2:30). thai none except the Jews and 
Christians would be admitted into paradise (see 
2:1 1 1) and [hat ihc Jews were above any euiii in 
reipcct of ihc unscriptured people (see .1:75). 
Such claims ore belied by the Qur'Sn and it is 
emphasized that Allah treats all equally and 
rewards and punishes one according one's deeds.. 
'ahibbd' [pt.. s. hubib) = beloved ones, dear ones. 
friends 

2. v^i yu'adhdhibu - he punishes, penalizes. 

chastises, tarmenls (v. iii. m s. impfel from 
'udhdhabu. form II [la'dhib] of 'adhabtt \'tuthb\. 
in impede, to obstruct See at 3:138, p. 206, n 7; 
2:284. P . ISI.n.6) 



J. ^tyi (IhttnSb (pi,; sing, tthtinb) = 
offences, crimes. See at 3:J47„ p. 212, h. 9. 



sins. 



4. This pari of the 'Ayah stresses that Jews, 
Christians, and for that matter any other particular 
people arc pan and parcel of mankind as a whole, 
oil being created by Allah. It points out ihc 
equality of man before Allah and says thai no 
especial merit attaches to anyone on the ground of 

race, clime Or colour, ji*- khalaqo - he created, 

made, originated (v. iii, m s, post from khahj. to 
create. Sec at 4: 1 , p. 236. n 3). 

5. i. e.. everyone, whatever his race and station in 
ihc earthly life, will have to return to Allah and 

render an account of his deeds p-** mtair - 

destination, place at which one arrives, destiny, 
end. See at 4:97. p.2B7, n. 2). 

6. i. c. making clear Allah\ revelations and ihc 
rides of conduct tihurf'vk}, j&. yubayyinu = he 

makes clear, elucidates, explains (v iii, m i, 
impltt. from bayyana, form II of bona [ baydtt[ 
to be clear. See al S: 15, p. 336, n 2). 



7 fairah (s.; pi falaral} - pause, interval 
lime, intermission. 



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Struh 5: At-Ma idah [Purl (Jan') 6] 



339 















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lest you should say: 

" There did not come to us 

any giver of good tidings, 1 

nor any warner." 5 

So there has come to you 

a giver of good tidings 

and a warner. 

And Allah is over everything 

Omnipotent.* 

Section (Ruu') 4 

20. And [ recall] when MQsa 

said to his people: 

" O my people, remember* 

Allah's grace on you 

when He made 5 amongst you 

Prophets; 

and made you kings 

and gave you 

what He did not give anyone 

of ail the beings. 6 



ijtlf^ji^ 21. "O my people, enter 7 
Z3£XJ.3$ the Holy 8 Land 



] «&i bashir (pi, biuhtirH') a conveyer of giad 

tiding}, harbinger of glad tidings, i.e., the tidings 
ol' regard and paradise for the believers and duers 
of good deeds according to the Qur'an and 
simtitih Active participle in the scale of fail form 
buxharufouhiw [biittt/bushr], to rejoice. \o be 
delighted. See ai 2: 1 1 9, p 56, n, 9, 

2. ji naiiliir (pi. midlmr) = warner. i.e., giving 

warning about punishment and hell for the 
unbelievers and wrongdoers. Active participle in 
the scale of Jail from attdhara \niidhrMudhur\, to 
vow. lo pledge See al 2:II9,p, 56, n. 10. 

3. This is a reminder that Allah can easily punish 
the unbeliever and sinner and reward the believer 
:md duet of good deeds. >Ji qadir - Omnipotent 

All-Powerful. See at 1:20. p. 11. il 1. See at 5.17, 
p 337, n. 9. 

4. l i/'^ udhkurii = you (all) remember, call 10 

mind, mention (v. ji m pi. imperative from 
dhakara [tthikr/tadhkarj, to remember. See at 
5 10. p 333, n .5). 

5. J*»r jaala = he nude, set, put, plated, 

appointed (v. in I. past from ju7. to make, to pui 
Sec ju ulna at 4: 33, p. 254, n.l 1). 

6. i. e.. All die beings of the time. ^■'■■^ 'dlamin 
(ace /gen or a^JU 'iilnmun; sing, ju 'tiltim. i.e., 
any being at object that points to its Crcatot: sing. 
'•Htm) - all beings, CicatutES. See at 3:108. p. 
193. n, 8, 2:131, p 62, n 7; l:2.p l.n.4 

7. ijjjiji udkhulu - you (all) enter, go in, join [v. 

it m. pi. imperative from dakhalti [jMAiif]. to 
enter. See at 4:154. p. 313. n, 10; 2:208, p. 100, n. 
S). 






8. i, e. , Bayt al-Maqdis and (he surrounding area. 
Palestine. It is called the Holy Laod because it had 
been the habitat of Prophets and believers, t^ji* 

muqaddtiitih (1 s.; hi. rmtqtuMai) = sanctified. 
sacred, holy, consecrated Passive participle from 
quddasa. funn II of qadusa lquds/qtidus\. to be 
holy, be pure. See nuqaddisu at 2:30. p, 16, n. 9- 



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Surah 5 : AlMaidah |Part iJuz) 6| 







j^ftuCSjlt which Allah wrote 1 for you; 
(jjjy^j and do not retreat 
$$& turning your backs' 

for then you will be reversed 4 
as losers. 5 

foggfe 22. They said; "O Mfls&, 
£5Caii surely therein are a people 
isJlfr of colossal build and might;* 
x$L'J> jifyj and we shall not enter it 
£r£f!-]k&- oatiS they depart 1 from \\. 
i^.iji.jjcu^ So if they depart from it 
<-j$»fi ^ we w i 1 1 be enteri n g . 

^yij 3 1* 23. There said two men 

i;jiUc/jjf£- of those who feared, 8 

^/T r.uiLTJ whom Allah had graced 5 on: 

pOTi^ijStiT "Go in on them at the gate; 

* jljii'j £6 if you make an entry into it 

O^^li you will be victorious. 10 

ijS^J-Jii jcj And upon Allah you rely, 

^-^,>j^^ oi. jf you are believers. 

,.>.,», 24. They said: "O Musa, 
■f—^tjlLi 



1. i. c. Allah sanctioned through ihc Prophet 
Vaqub. peace be on him. v^" kalaba = he wrole, 
ordained, made obligatory, imposed (v. iii. m. s. 
past from Jtol/i /kitobah, to write. See kutiha al 
4:77, p. 274, n 10). 

2. iji>- V Id lartaddit a you (alt) do nol fall back. 

do not retreat (v, ii. m. pi. imperative [prohibition) 
from irladda, form VIM of ratida [radd\. lo send 
back. Sec taddu al 4:91. p. 282. n S). 

3. jtjjl 'itJhtir [pi.; sing.^ dubr/dubur) ■ backs, 
backsides, tear parts See it 4:47, p. 262, n. 7. 

4. jiij fun^uJifriitiiti) = you be turned round, 

turned back, turned about, reversed (v. ii m pi. 
impfct from inqulahu, form VII of qalabu 
[tjalb], lo turn, |o I urn about. The terminal niin ii 
dropped foi the verb comes as cunclufinn of a 
conditional clause. See al 3:149, p. 213, n 3), 

5. On Allah's instruction Pmphel Musa, peace be 
on him, asked the Children of IsrS'il to fig.ht ihc 
unbelieving people who had occupied Byt 
al-Maqdis and lo reoccupy it, bul Ihey were afraid 
of the powerful occupiers; and refused to f ghl 

Ihem. as mentioned in the next uvuH jjJ* 
kh&sirin (occVgcti of kh&irun, sing Oiiiir) - 
losers, those in loss, those lhat incur bs s (active 
participle from Mfvdm [MttTr Jkhasdr fkhasirab 

fkhusrdn] to lose See at 314?, p, 213. n S). 
6- j«jL» jabb&rfn f pi. ace, /gen of jubbarin; t. 

jtibbdtir) - those of colossal build and might, of 
overwhelming power. Active participle in the 
scale of fa ' 'iii from jaburu [jiibr/jubur], lo force, 
lo compel, lo restore). 
7. >^.j^y«khrujHntit = ihey gooui, leave, depart 

(v, iii m. pi. impfct, The terminal niin is dropped 

i"-..;m ,,.- ,,| ,i Ii Jdcn tin in htittu coming before 

(he verii. See akhrij al 4:7$. p 273, n, S}. 

8 i e feared Allah Ay^yakhafutia = they fca. 

are afraid or ,0. iii. m. p|,, impfcl form Uufa 
\khawf], to fear See yaUifyU al 2:229, p (O.a. 
I). 

9, i. e.. graced with ihe quality of piety 

obedience. »a>T 'an'ama - he graced, fivi 

(v. iii. m. t, past from na'ama \nu'mahi' ma* 
to be in ease. See at 4:72, p. 272, n- 6). 

10. >JjA* gholibua (pi., s. ghalib) 

conquerors, dominant (active participle 
shiilidiu [ghtillt/ghtitbtih], to subdue, lo tonqiot. 
Sec yacniifrat 4:74, p, 273, n. 3) 









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Strati 5; Al-Ma'idah [Part (int ) 6] 



341 



fJKj i i'2j& we will not enter it ever 

Ci-jijiijU as long as they are 1 in there. 
i&jj^ZSili So, go you and your Lord 

%±** and fight; 
^jjuiilliiu^ we here do remain seated. '* 



6jjfi 25. He said: "My Lord, 
^I^jL indeed I have no power 4 
^jJiVl except over myself 
jSj and my brother, 
t~» ijffi So divide 5 between us 
i^^L^j and the people 
rh^^ insolently disobedient, 
JB 26. He [Allah] said: 
Qj "Then it [the land] shall be 
~ v $-'"l'*- forbidden* to them 
*do?*ij1 for forty years, 
^rJ^ii-^rt^i they wandering 7 in the earth. 

fcjfcy* So do not be sad B over 
EjLjtfif.sjiili tne sinful people." 



Section iRukU') 5 

ri~*J& 27. And recite' upon them 



1 . ij.li t> ma ddinu a as long as they were, as long 

as they remained (v. ill. n», pi past from dAmti 
[dawm\, to last, to continue). 

2. The Israelites wen: so much defiant and 
disobedient thai ihcy not only refused to obey the 
orders of their Prophet but even its Iced him to go 
with his Lord (Allah) 10 fight against the 
occupiers of the Holy land, VAJ qtitila = you two 

light, wage war (v. ii, m. dual, imperative from 
qiitulu. Ikiiii 111 of qalutu [quit], to kill- See y«nf 
«4rS4. p. 276, n. 5). 

3. j^-n-ii tfi-ldun (p|.; s. ga'«fl = the seating, 

Mated, inactive ones (act participle from qa'ada 
\au'ud\, to sit down. See at 4:95. p. 28 S, n. 4). 

4 JiU 'amlika = J own, possess, have power 

over (v. i. s. impfti from malaka 
[malktmutk/mtik], to take in possession. See 
jwuntfta at 5: 1 7. p. 337, B, 31. 

5, i.e. Mu-iii prayed to be separated and 
dissociated from his sinful followers. J>' ufrua = 

separate, divide, dissociate, distinguish (v. tL m 
s. imperative ftamjarafa [farq/furqdii], separate, 
See yufarriqa at 4: 1 52, p. 312. n. 3). 

6, \-jrv muharmmah ( f. I„ pi muharramgs; m. 

mirWnun) = forbidden, prohibited, interdicted 
(passive participle from hnrrama, form 11 Of 
hurumu/hurima, to be prohibited. See harramna 
at 4:160, p. 316, n. 4) 

7, Ojf^i yatthSna = they wander about, move 
about bewildered (v. jii, m. pi. impfcl. from lata 
[fft], to wander about, to get last). 

6. j-ti 'V la ta 'sir = do not he sad, do not grieve 

(v. ii. m s imperative {prohibition] from ya'tsa 
\ya 'i/ya 'disk), to give up hope). 

9. Jfl uilu - recite, read aloud (v. ii. in s. 

imperative from lata llilSwah]. la recite. See 
V«l(dat5:l.p. 325, n. 6). 






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342 



S&rah 5 ; At Mil , idah [Part {Jut) 6| 



\Z the intelligence 1 
£■1 of the tw 

j^Si in truth. 



f jl* ^11 of the two sons of Adam 



Si^^il Lo, they offered 2 a sacrifice 3 
SJti but it was accepted 
&jQk£2i&* of one of the two and it was 
A^SiJ^S not accepted 5 of the other. 
SSfV Jg He 6 said; "I will kill you". 
ilf^lEu^jli He T said: "Allah but accepts 
) i^pJf^ of the godfearing." 8 

uJ 28. "Even if you stretch out* 
£j.C$\ towards me your hand 



ji'i"i to kill me, 
±-.C]ftZ I am not going to stretch out 
itiiitijj my hand towards you 
d£i^ to kill you; 
««L_jL.lti| b I fear Allah, 
3 j±Ji$i>j the Lord of all beings." 10 



^ JiyMl ^9- * w ' sri tnat y° u ^ e ^^en 1 
liii^jiL with my sin and your sin 
iJS and thus be 



JjJjLJjjJ^tjj fj of the inmates of the fire; 



I The reference here is id ihe slot} of ilie two sons 

t>f Adam, (peace be on him), Qi'ibi and Habit and 
how the former killed the latier and thus 
committed a grave sin and became an object of 

Allh's punishment. ^ naba' (s.. pi. imlni i » 

news, tidings, intelligence. Sec tmtthln 'u at S 14, 
p. 336. n I, 

2. liji qarraba — I hey (two) offered up. presented 

(v. iii m. dual, past in form It of qaribst 
[tjurb/'iuiijfiibtih), to gel close, to come neat. 

3. cv} qurhan Is ; pi ^y qardbSn) - sacrifice, 
of fcr ing. Sec al 3- 1 83. p. 227. o, 1 1 , 

4. JjJ tuquhbiin - he or it Was accepted. 

received, granted (v. iii. nt. s. past passive in form 
V of qnbiht [qabub'qubul], tn accept. See 
mqabbalu at 3:37. p. 169, n. 8). 

5. j~fc. yataqabbaHul - be or il is aceeptetf, 

received, granted (v. iii. en. s. impfct passive [rem 
lutiiikbutti, form V uf uobiiu The last teller ii 
vo^cl less because of ihe panicle him coming 
be Tore the verb), 

6. i, e., Ihe brother whose offering was not 
accepted 

7. i. e_. the brother whose offering was acceded. 

3. ,>*> mutlaqfn (acC./gen. Of mubaqtm, sing 

rnuffafin') = those who are on their guard, 
godfearing. Aclive participle from ittaqi. ft™ 
VI II of iraqd [watfy/ wiqayah}, lo guard, to 
protect. Sec al 3:1 IS, p. 201, n. 5). 

0. basal- !a = you si retched, spread out (v u m s 
past from basala \ba$t\, lo spread See yabiulu it 
5:1,1, p. 333,11. 7) 

10. ^Jfj- 'Sfamfn (acc/gen. of jyA, 'Sltmin, 
sing. ,Ji» Viloni, i.e., any being or DBjecl thai (Kiina 
10 its Creator, sing. "iUum) = all beings, c-mliutl. 
See at 5:19. p. 339. n. 6). 

1 1. IjJ tabS'a(u) • you bear, incur the burden, he 

laden with (v. ii. m. s. impfct. frum bfi'u {bat/1 
to return The last letter takes fathah because of 
the particle on coming before the verb See bi't 
al 3:162, p. 219. n. 8). 



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Sumk 5: Aim idah [Part {Jut) 6] 



M3 



iy^i-lu-i) and thai is the reward 
t^jJ0\ of the wrong-doers." 1 






^j'jj iJtjS, ^jj^l 
■V-' -^ =• *— 






30. But his ego allowed 2 
him to kill his brother; 
so he killed him. 
Thus he became* 

of those in loss. 4 

3 1 . Then Allah sent 5 a raven* 

scratching 7 into the earth 
to show him how to hide* 
the shame* of his brother. 
He said: "Woe to me; 
Am I unable 10 to be 
like this raven 
and so to cover up" 
the shame of my brother?" 
Thus he became 
of the repentants. 12 



^ij-Piitt 32. On account of that 11 
^OxiU» We ordained on the 
Jit>fe Children of lsra'?l 



1- Cft*^ tMlimia (acc./gen, of -ulimiin. sing. 
iillim) = transgressors, wrongdoers, unjust 
persons. Active participle of islama [;u/n), lo 
transgress, do wrong. Sec at 3:86, p. 190, n 3). 

2- ii*jfc iawwa'et = ihe or 11: allowed, made it 
feasible, permuted, rendered obedient (v, iii. f. s. 
past in form II of Ida |faw'] b to obey, See 
laltmwaa at 2: 184. p, 87. n. 8), 

J. £-»' 'asbaha - he became, became in the 

morning (v. ii, m. 5. past in form IV of mtbaka 

[stibh]. to be in the morning. See 'iLtlmltlum at 

3:103. p. L96, n.9) 

4- .Xr- 1 *- ***l*(rfn (acc./gen of khdsirm. Sing, 

khfisir) - losers, (hose in Loss, those that incjf loss 

{active participle from khesara {khmr Ahasar t 

khasdrah /khuirdts], 10 lose. See at S:22. p. 340, 

n. 5). 

5, ,**, ba'tttho ■ he sent, dispatched, raised, 

raised up (v. iii. m 5 past front ha'ih. to send, to 

raise. Sec at 3; 164, p. 210, n. 2). 

D <*»> g/utrdb (s ., p]. ghirbanfaghmb/aghriboh) 

= raven, crow. 

7 »i-»> * yab-hathu - he searches, explores, loots 

into [here scratches] (v. iii. m. s. impfcl. from 

bahgtha [batjlhy to loot, to search). 

8 -tfj l * fuvart= he hides, conceals, secretes, 

covers up (v. iii m. 5. imjifct. in form IN of ward 

[wary], to kindle;, 



9. «>- rtir'wA (S.; pi. «,j- jow'af) - shame, 
disgrace, disgraceful act, 

10. ^*y»*. 'ajiuu = ] was unable, became 

incapable (v i, pasl from ajtaa[aji], to be 
unable, weak). 

11. tfjij' 'uwdriyalri) = l conceal, hide, secrete, 

cover up (v. 1. impfct from wars. The last letter 
tikes laihah because of a hidden an in fa (/J of 
causality J. coming before the verb. See n. g 

above), 

12. jpM ntidimin (accJgen. of nddimun. s. 

nddim) = repentant, remorseful (active participle 
from mniima (nadamJnsitlamah), to repent). 

13. i, e., on account of murder being a grave sin 
and crime 






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;4J 



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Sarah 5 : At-MA idah [Fan Um') 61 



(- — -V- ** 



i that whoever kills a life 1 






^J^j^u other than for a life 

jt^S*,; or for mischief-making 2 
ofjV'wJ in the land, 
JiaUilSssij then as if he killed 
dLj^. J.llii mankind as a whole; 
Uli£.\^j and whoever saves it, 3 
K^iT t v i£-^j, then as if he saves the life of 
ii^i. J.Q\ mankind as a whole. 
X^'^i- ji^i And there indeed had come 
■ '-j to them Our Messengers 
1L with the clear evidences, 4 
£, f^lit^ Even then many of them 
j*}i\ j^Ji^lZ after that were in the earth 
£>%Jl£ indeed committing excesses. 5 

iy^JL CS\ 33. Verily the punishment" 

Ojjjf of those who 

jj^jU: war 7 against 

il^-jjii) Allah and His Messenger 

^fjV^Or^j and strive* in the earth 

IjO making mischief 9 

ffi % J is that they be executed 10 



I ^,-i na/j (s.; pi nu/u.^'un/kr^ living being, 
person, individual, nature, self See 'tmfus at 4:1, 
p. 236. n, 4. 

2. Ji— 1 /oJifd = mischief-making, decay, 
corruption, depravity. See si 2:205. p. W. o- tO. 

3. i. c the life of an individual V' "aAjrf ■ be 

gave life, revivified, saved life. (v. iii. in s. past in 
fomi !V of hayiya \hayah], kt live. See at 2:M J, 
p. 122. n 10) 

4, oi_j hayyinat ipl ; sing bayyinah) - dear 

signs, indisputable evidence}, see at 4IM. p. 
313, n 5} 

5, jji^— • mttirifuif (pt; 5. «Jf)/} ■ theme- wha 

cum mil excesses, exceed alt bounds, extravagant, 
prodigal, wasteful. Active participle from 'airafa, 
fomi IV of sarafa/iarifa [sarf/ ram/], to con-ode, 
to spoil, lo neglect See 'isrtffM 4:6, p. 239, n J}, 

d. »lj» jaw' " requital, recompense, reward, 

return, punishment, penally See at 3:87, p IM, 

n 4 

7. i. e., defy and disobey the injunctions and 
prohibitions of Allah and I lis Messenger or turn 
hostile to and wage war against the Messenger af 
Allah, OjfjUj jfU/rart-Oiijiio ihey war. wage war. 

fight (v. iii. in pi. imopfct from karaba, form III 
of honba [WabJ. to be angry, furious See A*r* 
at 2-279. p 146. rt. 2). 

8. Jj«_, rayWnd - they move quickly, strive, 

endeavour (v. iii, m. pi nnpfct from ia"d [ id V]. 
10 move quickly See ja d at 2:205, p. 99, n. 5) 

9. i. e.. by causing bloodshed and conwumng 
crimes. 

|{1. IjUj yu^uria/uf/in) = they ire killed. 

executed (v. tii, m, pi. tmpfel passive from 
qaiitita, form II or qalata [qal[], to kill The 
terminal pun is dropped because of the panicle 
'an coming before the vert>. See qatita ai 5:24. p 
341, n. 2) 



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Surah 5; Al-Mu'idah [Pari {Jul.'} 6] 



345 



j ^l <^j or be crucified 1 
*^jj)1 or there be cut off : 
jj,1 their hands 
^Lj\) and legs on opposite sides 1 
i^}1 or they be exiled 4 
Jf^' l ^yi from the land. 
^J ^4;j That is for them 
CJj!^;^ the disgrace 5 in the world; 
^jj and they will have 
j^TM j in the hereafter 

iij* a punishment very grave.* 



^,-jjWi 34. Except for those who 
J jj^Vjltf repent 7 before that 
,L3eLy>3s you gain mastery" over them. 
R^ b^H^u So know that Allah is 
j,Ai Most Forgiving, 
-~»j Most Meciful. 

Section (Ruku') 6 



, /, 35. O you who believe. 



iilljijl 



beware' of Allah 



jjuji^ and seek 10 towards Him 
^_»^!i the means of approach; 11 



[. ijjj iwoffaAtHna) ■ the an crucified (v in 

m pi. impftt passive (tarn iattnba, form II pf 
Stilahn [salb], to crucify. The terminal nun is 

dropped because the vet* is conjunctive to ibe 
previous verb which is governed by "an. 

2. fJu; tuqetta'aiu) - she or il is cut off, severed 

(v iii. f. s. impfct. passive from qaiia'a , form II 
of ijojSaV l^u;']. to cut The final letter takes 
ftuhuh because of the reason staled at n I above. 
See taqaitn'a at 2: 165, p. 76, n. 8). 

3. <JS>- j- fflin khUef - on opposite sides, 
alternately. 

4. iysi yunjun\na) = they are exiled, banished. 

deported, expatriated (v iii. m. pt. impfcl. passive 
from no/a (na/j), to banish, to exile. The 
terminal Jrita is dropped because of the reason 
smed at n I. above). 

5. <sy- Itltizy = disgrace, ignominy, humiliation 
See at 2: 1 14, p. 54. n. I.V 

6 ^ii ■*<;/>» b great, magnificent, splendid, 

stupendous, grand, huge, immense, enormous, 
tremendous, grave. Sec at 4: 162. p. 317. n 5). 

7 lyV tSbi they returned, Lurmcd lo (v. iii. m_ 

pi. past from idtm [ mwb/tawhah t matdb] 
Technically it means, in respect of man, to turn 10 
Allah in penitence and with resolve to reform. 
and in respect of Allah, to turn in forgiveness 
Seerfl&ual2?|S7.p 89. n. 9) 
8. i JvP ti; taqd!ta[tta] = you (all) gain power, gain 

mastery, are able, arc capable (v, ii. m, pi. impfct 
from qadarti fqaitira [qudrahf maqdurahf 
mngditrah/ qailtir], to have power, to be master. 
The terminal nun is dropped because of the 
panicle an earning before the verb See 
yaqdiruna at 2:264, p. 1 38. n. 9} 
'). ijit iitaqu = you (all) beware, be on your 

guard, fear, be afraid of (v. ii. m. pi. imperative 
from illaqd, form VIII of waqd { waqy/wiqayah), 
to guard, safeguard. See at 5: 1 1 , p. 333. n. 4). 
10. Ijfc*! iblaghi = you (all) seek, deiiie. aspire 

after, strive for (v. ii, in, pi. imperative from 
ihiaghd . form V|U of HW lbtigh&% to seek). 
)l. iU,j wailtah (s.; pi, H><ua"il)= means, 
means of approach, device, medium. 






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3*5 



Sarah 5 : Aim ' (dWt [Part (fe 1 ) 6) 



:/ ^4'ijj^-S and fight 1 in His way 
*^-iH ' that you may 
(|y ^ijfi^i: attain success.' 






<_>IJ£. 



LlS 






■£> 



$Sji( 



36, Those who disbelieve, 

even if they had 

whatever is in the earth 

in toto, 

and its equivalent* with it, 

to ransom themselves* 

therewith 

from the punishment 

of the Day of Judgement, 

it will not be accepted 6 

of them; 

and they will have 

a punishment very painful. 7 



t » 



■Zs&ij. 37. They will intend* 

j&\&)J*-jk<y to come out' of the fire 

^jit-ilij but they shall not get out 

^j Qu of it; and they will have 

^Jiu* an abiding" punishment. 



1. 1jjA- }6kid& = you (all) fighl, straggle hard, 
strive (v. ii. ni- pi. imperative [torn jiiauda, form 
111 ot juhuda Ijuhd], to strive. See juhadi 
3:l42.n.8). 

2. i. c. tar making the word of Allah prevail, J_- 
saMI (pi stihul/iisbiluh) = way. palJi. road, 
means. See at 4:141, p, 73, n. 4 

3. ij»Jir luflihuna = you (all) succeed, prosper 

[v. ii, in pi. impfci, from aflaka, form IV of 
falaha \fath). to split, See at 3:200. p. 235, n. 5). 

4. i. f . if the unbeliever had all the wealth and 
resources of the earth and an equivalent of thai 
and if he offered that to redeem himself un the 
Day of Judgement. Ji» milk! (s.; pi juJ 'timihdt\ 
— [ike. equivalent. See at 4:10. p 241. n 2. 

5. 'jJ^s yaftad&l'itii = they Coll) ransom 

themselves, redeem themselves, sacrifice (v. tit. 
m. pi. irnpfcl. from iftadd, form VIII of /add 
\fidun/ fuia'}, to redeem, to ransom, to sacrifice 
The terminal nun is dropped because of US 
implied V"i in U [ti'im of motivation} coming 
before the verb. See t/tutlfi at 1:91, p 191. n, 6). 

6. Jr* tuqubbila = he or it was accepted, 
received, granted (v. iii. m. s. past passive in form 
V of qubitit [tjubul/ttubu'l], to accept. See at 5:27, 
p. 342, n- 4) 

7. |^ll 'altm = agonizing, anguishing, very 

painful, Sec at 5:33. p, 345. n. 6; 4:173, p. 322, 
n I 1.4.101. p. 316. n 13. 

8. ijJ*> yurtdOna = they (all) want, intend, 

desire, have in mind (v iii. m, pi. impfci. from 
ar&da, form IV of rdda \rawd\, to walk about 
See 1114:150, p. 31 1, n. 5). 

9. ij»r>( yakhiujH.na) = they go out, leave, 

deport (v. iii, m. pi, impfct The terminal nin if 
dropped because of the particle 'on coming before 
the verb. See ' at 5 22. p. 340, n. 7) 

10. &rj* khSrijtn {accusative /genitive of 

khdryun, sing. khSrij') = ihose going out, leawag. 
Active participle from kharaja [khutaj], (a gooul, 
10 leave. See at 2: 167,. p. 79. n, 5 

11. fj* maqim - abiding, lasting, persistent. 

enduring, lingering, permanent, resident, he who 
sets up (active participle from 'aqfimn, form IV u( 
qdnm [tjiyam/qwvmuh], to get up. Sec maifimin n 
4; 162, p 3l7,n.3) 



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Surub $: Ai-Mu'idah I Part Util ) 6 J 



347 



%0(i 38. The male thief 1 and the 
ijyUJlj female thief, 
fl-KJ? iji-kTu cut off 2 the hands of the two, 
*lr£ as penalty 1 
CTtlj for what they have earned 4 - 
SbsS an exemplary punishment 5 
ZSl^ from Allah. 
^>2& And Allah is All-Mighty, 
^-All-Wise. 6 

vU^ 39. But whoever repents 1 
^4-it-w^l after his transgression" 
^lSIj and reforms,'' 
-ij^^v^j? Allah turns in forgiveness 10 
Idc to him. 






js^olij Allah is Most Forgiving; 



?p -»3 Most Merciful. 






j/£ j| 40. Do you not know 
j^gj that Allah. 
^Ijti^ to Him belongs the dominion 
uj» jVfj4»yl£li of the heavens and the earth? 
iUj^v-£i He punishes 1 ' whom He wills 



L JjUj£rff (m. s.;pl. tSriqtn, wraqe h . 'Jmrrif, 
f sariiftth, pi .wwwjifi = thief, stealer Active 
participle [ram saruqu \sarnq/ sariq/ jarm/ati/ 
ttmijiMsurtititth to sle.il). 

2. ijJJl ijM 'ii = you (all) cut ofr. cul, sever, 
chop off (v ii. m. pi. imperative from qtila'a 
[qui'], to cul Sec ytiiflti'ii at 3:127, p 206. n )'). 

3. Jjh- /«tf' - requital, recompense, reward, 

tcltim, punish muni, penally See at 5:33. p 344. 
ii. 6. 

4. t^-f kataba = they (two) earned, acquired, 

gained (v. Hi. m. dual, pasi from Itataba [kasb] to 
gain See iiuutfl at 4:88, p. 280, It. 5% 
5 Ji& nuliil = exemplary punishment, warning 
example, warning. See at 2:66, p. 3 1 . n tt 

6. i. e, the prescription of Ihis exemplary 
pumshnienl is Trum Aliah's Supreme Wisdom. 

7. vli rdio = he returned, turned lo, repented tv 

in m S, past [ Tram Mwb. (tmbah f maldb]) 
Technically ii mean;:, In respect oTman. to turn lo 
AlJah in pcniicnce and with resolve to reform, 
and in respect of Allah, to lurn in forgiveness; and 
mercy See at 2] 87. p. 89, n 8. 

8. ^ lulm - injustice, wrong, transgression, 
oppression. See ytizltm at 4: 160. p. 3 1 6. n. 2 

9. i. e„ refonns his conduct and deeds H-*' 

"dftnlur s he reformed, made amends, set right, 
settled, adjusted (v. til, hi s. past in form IV of 
jtiiuba [ Hiluli/.yuluh/ maxtabult], lo be good, 
proper. Seem 2: 1 82. p. 86. ri. 7). 

10 ^yt ytituhsi = he forgives, he iums to, he 
returns (v. Mi m. *. imperative f from labs [lawb. 
lawbah / malab], to lurn See ft. 7 above and at 
4:26. p. 252. n. 7). 

11 i K t im yu'adhdhibu - he punishes, penalizes, 

chastises, torments {v. iii. m. s, impfcl. from 
'adhdhaba. form II [lu tlhib] of 'adiaiba ['<idhb), 
lo impede, lo obstruct See al 5:18. p. 338. n. 2; 
3; 128. p. 206. ft. 7; 2:284. p. ISI, n, 6), 









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3*6 



Surah 5 ; At-MH iduh [Part Out) 6] 



.•:-■' '.>.'■' 



f ^iir>0^i> antl forgives 'whom He wills; 
jjtU^JafJ ana " Allah is over everything 
gj^Luij^ All-Powerful. 



i 






os> 






41. O you the Messenger, 

let there not grieve 2 you 

those who rush 

into disbelief - 

of those who say 

"We believe" 

with their mouths 4 while 

their hearts do not believe, 5 

and of those who are Jews - 

lending ready ear 6 
to the lie, 
lending ready ear 
to another people 



who did not come to you. 7 
They distort 8 the words 
after their settings,* 
saying: "If you are given 
this take it, 10 

'*?$£ jIj and 'f vou are no1 given it, 
bjjwJE be c au ti ous ! " ' ' 






1 ,jiii yaghfiretu) - he forgives, pardons (v. iii. in 

1. impfct. from ghatara [ghufr fmaghftrali 
ahufran\, to forgive, See 41 4:168. p. .119. n. 10). 

2, iSjrn V (S yaAzi"t(u) = let he or it not grieve. 

sadden (v. iii. m t. imperative (prohibition) Tram 
kaiana [ha^an/hvm\ The last letter is vowelless 
because of the la of prohibition coming before the 
verb, See yaht/iKumt at .1:170, p 222, n 14). 

3, cyj^i yu sari una - they rush, make haste, 

dash, hurry [v. iii. rn pi. impfct. from fdro'a. 
form 111 of suru'a \ sira'tsam'harah], to be 
quick. See at 3; 176, p. 224, n, 10), 

4. Jjit 'afwah (pi,; sing, ^j> fukak} « mouths, 

vents. Sec at 3:167, p. 221, n. 8, 
i, The reference is to the altitude and conduct of 
the hypocrite*, particularly these at the time of the 
Prophet, peace and bindings of Allah be on him, 
and to the Jews 

6 jj*^— tammd'Sin (pi.; % lamrtiA) ■ ready 

listeners, those who eagerly hear, those who lend 
ready eat (act. participle in the intensive fnmi of 
/u"iit from sami'a \sam' tstima' Jstutiu'uh 
Anusnui']. to hear. 

7 i. c, the arrogant Jewish leaders and rabbu 
who, out of pride, did not come to the Prophet, 
peace and blessings of Allah be on him, and 
misled their people by telling ties about him. 
denying his I'mphethood and by distorting theit 
own scripture 

8. J>»,r~< yuharrifiijia - they distort. dislocate, 
pervert, deflect, twist, corrupt, misconstrue, alter 
(v. iii. m. pi. impfct. from hurrafu, form II of 
harntfii lharf], to deflect, to change. See- at 5:) 3, p. 
33S, It. 2*). 

9. i, e., after the setting of their proper amicus 
anil meanings, j-i'j- mamSdi' (pi. s, ~ y 

mandi") = settings, positions, places, sites, 
passages (in ■ book) See at 5:13, p. 335, n. 3. 
ID. 1 e., those Jewish leaders and rabbis asked 
their people 10 accept only what was it 
conformity with the distortion amj 
misinterpretation made by them (the rahhis). 
1 1 IjjJUt ihdftaru = you (all) beware, be on the 

alert, be cautious (v. ii. m. pi imperative Front 
hadhira [itidhr/hadhar], w be cautious See 

hadharal2:\9, p. lit. 11 I 1) 



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Sirah 5: Al Muiduh [Part (Juz) 6] 



349 



- j*3 
**>• «,, ..-> i 

— 



in i 



*■ J 4 i 



And anyone whom 

Aliah intends 1 the trial 2 of, 

you can never avail 3 him 

as against Allah in any way. 

Such ones are they whom 

Allah did not intend 

to purify 4 their hearts. 

They will have in the world 

disgrace; 5 

and they will have 

in the hereafter 

a grave 6 punishment. 

42. Ready listeners' 
to the lie, 

hearty consumers* of 
the forbidden thing. 9 
So if they come to you/ 
adjudicate" between them 
or refrain 12 from them. 
If you refrain from them, 
they can never harm 13 you 
whatever; 



1. i> jufrirf tynrtdai* he intends, desires, has in 
mind (v. Mi. m. s. Lmpfcl, fomm 'ardda, form IV 
from rada [rawd], to walk about. The final letter 
it vowellcss and SO the medial yd" is dropped 
because the verb is in a conditional clause 
| preceded by turn J. See at 3: US, p. 21 1, n. 10). 

2. te> fiineh [pi. ftttm) = trial, temptation, 
enticement, discord. See at 4:91, p. 282. n. 6} 

3. .LLU; lamlikaUO - you possess, hold, 

dominate, own, have power (v it m. S. impfcl. 
from mtiSaka [mutk/mulk/milk], to take in 
possession. The last letter lakes luihuh because of 
the particle tan coming before the verb. See 
yamhku at 5:17, p. 337, n, 3). 
4 jt^t f«tahhira{u) = lie purifies. cleanse)! (v. iii. 
in s, impfcl from lahharti form 11 of 
luhantftahura [tuhr/tahiirah). to be Clean. The 
last letter takes falhuh because of the panicle 'an 
coming before the vcib See at 56. p. 331. n. 9). 

5. isjt- khizj) = disgrace, ignominy, humiliation. 
See at 5:33, p. 345. n. 15. 

6. i^jl** 'attra ■ great, magnificent, splendid, big, 
stupendous, grand, huge, immense, enormous, 
monstrous, grave. Seen! 4:162. p, 317. n. 5). 

7. i t . they axe ready listeners, civ., 

8. jyUt 'akkitSH (p|,; s, tikiM) = hearty 

consumers, voracious eaters (active panic tple in 
the intensive form of fa"Sl from 'akula 
[ 'ukl/mti <wl), lo eat. Sec Id la'kuii at 4:29, p 
253, n. 3), 

9. <£*- tukt (s,; pi. a*~i on^f) - forbidden 

thing, unlawful and itl-gottcn property. 

10. i. e,, for judgement and decision. 

J I. f£»-> uhkum a judge, adjudicate, give 
decision fv. ii. m. s. imperative from takama 
[liulcml to pass judgement. See lahkuma at 4:105. 
p'29l.n. 11). 

1 2. ^/i 'a'rid - avert, ovoid, discard, turn away, 
refrain <v. ii. m. s, imperative from 'a'ruda, Form 
IV of uradtt /'amda I'ard], to be wide, to 
become visible. See at 4: 81 , p. 277, n, 5), 

13. ij^ ytutunH(na) - they harm, injure, 
damage, hurl (v. til, m. pi. impfcl. from darra 
[dorr], to harm, The terminal nun is dropped for 
the particle Ian coming before the verb. Se* at 
3: 1 77. p. 225, n. 2. 



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Surah 5 : M-Mti 'iduh (Pirn Vm ') ft] 






>-0jj and if you do adjudicate, 
,, ^ ,C-ii adjudicate between them 

I t '-ji t, with equity. 1 
4-4^6^ Verily Allah loves 
l^jjn^illf the doers of justice. ' 

3tj 43. And how can 
illi^J: they make you judge 4 
>JLtj while there is with them 
Cji.7£li the Tflwra/i wherein 
-Jtfj^i is the decree of Allah, 
,<^T£ii yet they turn away 5 

^$*-*£s after lhaI? 
JLijfcj And they are not 

^^^A^jill the believing ones. 6 

Section (Ruku*) 7 
LJjJfi^l ^4. Indeed We sent down 
ljj<ijj^f the Tawrah wherein 
%j*£& ' s guidance 7 and light. 6 
l^J^ofi By it there gave judgement 
■•{jt fcfj jaai the Prophets* who 

.1 surrendered 10 [to Allah] 



1. c-^j- hakamta = yaw adjudicated, passed 
judgement, gave decision («. it. m, S. post from 
hoionu [Aui«],tD pass- judgement See uhkam at 
5:42, p. 349, n, LI). 

2. J>-J 9«i = justice, equity, fairness. Sec at S:S, 
p. 332. (1. 5; 4: US, p. 304, n 3 

3. jJ«— i- nuiffifffi = just, equitable, ctoeti of 

justice (active participle from aijiarii, form IV of 

tjuitik: \tji:st/qist/ijusut\. to act justly See mi/jini 
al 4:3, p. 237,11.6), 

4. dy£?v yahakkimana - they make judge. 

appoint as ruler (v. iii, m. pi. implct Irom 
httkktimt), form II of htikstniu \hakm). to [uu 
judgement See Mtumrtr at n. I above) 

5. i c. , they turn away from the judgment Of (he 
Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be on him, 
even though it is in conformity with Allah's decree 
in the Tawrah, which they professed to believe in 
and in which they interpolated other things, u^j* 

yalanaHawna = they turn away, desist, refnia i » 
iii. in pi . iiupfcl. from lawtiliii. form V of trutiya, 
to come near. Sue \ii!umitl,i at .1:23. p, 164, n. 2). 

6. i. e., they did neither believe in the Prophethnod 
of Muhammad, peace and Musings or Allah he 
on him, and the Qur'an, nor truly and wholly in 

[licit own scripture 

T. L c, guidance from error to the truth or 
monotheism usj> hudan = guidance. 

ti. i e.. the light of Allah's laws and regulation* for 
individual and collective conduct of affairs Jf 

n&r is.: pi, anwiir) = tight, illummiuion 

9. i. c , [he Prophets who were sent between Milii 
and 'Isa,. peace be on them, adjudicated all cases 
that arose among their followers and conducted ill 
affairs according to Allah's laws and regulations 
as contained in the Tawrah. 

10. i. e.. they surrendered themselves completely 
to Allah, abiding by His injunction* md 
prohibitions and carrying out His laws and 

regulations, thus being Muslims. lysJ. 'ailama 

= (licy surrendered submitted, commuted 
themselves, resigned themselves (v. iii m. pi past 
in form IV of mlinrn {sutSmah/sri&m). to be safe, 
secure. See atltirnu at 4: 1 25. p. 2<». n. ). 






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Sarah 5: Ai M&'idah [Part Uuz'i 6] 



351 



fjjli li-JJJ for those who were Jews; 
bUffl'i ant * f so did] f ^ e rabbis. 1 
jG-Vlj and the savants, 2 
i jhj-^-.J C as they were given charge 1 

-if wiSS; of the Book of Allah 
*£*\j>\^>} and they were over it 
iU^i witnesses. 4 
iruHj^iox* So do not fear 5 men 
~ij ^'£JS'i but fear Me, nor 
,0j^h buy 6 with My Revelations' 

SLiC: a little value.* 
*^^Jj-j And whoever judges not by 
li\ jyllL what A Hah has sent down, y 
Jiydjli such people, 
^ij^Sj^i they are the unbelievers. 



CSj 45. And We ordained' 
t^j ; ,;v- on them therein" 
y-illUjliihil that a life is for a life, 
■Wj^Jt^y and an eye for an eye, 
jiVC Ji&lMj and a nose for a nose, 






iVij and an ear for an ear, 
and a tooth for a tooth. 



tJ'J 



l.^tfj rabbamyy&ti (p|,, sing, ruiixW) - model 

savants wrto educate and (rain people, rabbis. [See 

Al-Tahari, pi, III, pp. 326327]. See rabkdniyym 

it 3:79, p. 187. n |), 

2. jt»-f '»W4r (pi.; s ^- MabrAibr) = savants. 

greatly learned men 

3 'j hi- ^i mluhftzu m they were given the charge 

of, were asked to preserve [v. lit. m. p! past 

passive from tslahfaui, form X of *u(fij« [/ii/jc], to 

preserve, to protect, See hafiz at 4:80," p. Z7& n 

3), * . 

4. i. e. they kept an eye over its preservation and 
implementation. .M^i ihuhadd' (p|. ; s . j^ 

fhahiil)= witnesses, martyrs See at 4; 135, p. 304, 
n. 3 

5. tji-« V la takiututw = you (alt) do not fear (v. 

ii. m. pi. imperative { prohibitum) from ktuuhiya 

{kkiahytkhtifhyuHY to fear. See at 5:3. p. 328, n 

I)- 

7, £>0 'SySt (sing, dyah} = signs, minifies, 

revelations, evidences. See at 5:10. p. 333. n. 2. 

6. tj>!J Y IS tmhtaru = you (all) do not buy (v. 
ii, hi. pi. imperative {prohibition) from shard 
[shiratt /skira'}, to buy, sell. See at 2:41. p. 21, 
n 5). Here it means do not tamper with, distort or 
conceal anything of Allah's revelations to get a 
iitllcof worldly gain, 

S. j-i lhamtin (pi. jt_l arhmdnA^J alhminah} = 

price, value, See at 3: 1 99, p, 234. n. 9. The 
reference here is. in the first instance, to the 
practice of some Jewish savants of the time to 
tamper with or misinterpret their Sacted texts in 
order to gain some temporary worldly advantages 
or to prevent men from believing in the Qur'in 
and the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.h). The 
exhortation is, however, general 

9. Jjil on -a A j ~ he seni down (v. iii in, s. past in 
form IV [Vnjoff of ntmilu [nuial\, to come down, 
gel down. See at 4: 166, p 319. n. 2j r 

10, LJ" katabna = we wrote, made incumbent, 

imposed, ordained, prescribed (v, iii. m, s, past 
from kataba [katb/kilabalt], to Wrilc. See at 4:66, 
p. 270, n, 5) 



1 1 . t. e., in the Tawrdh 






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S&rah 5 : Al-Md idah |part IJiif > 6) 






J^l^airXr^J and wounds l equal for equal. 3 
But whoever 
-<.'. gives it up charitably' 

it will be an expiation' 1 for him. 
And whoever judges not by 
what Allah has sent down, 
such ones, 
they are the transgressors. 5 



I £,)/■ l«ruh (pi , s -., 

injuries. 



jurh) wounds, 






. 



--■ -""Yi 









jt Uu». 



*J*jJ-lu»j 



Ir* - !1 



46. And We despatched 6 

in their wake 7 

'Isa, son of Mary am, 

confirming 11 

what was before him 

of the Tawrah; 

and We gave him the Gospel 

wherein is guidance and light 

and as confirmation 

of what was before him 

of the Tawrah, and 

as guidance and admonition' 

for the godfearing. 10 



2 ,j*UJ qhas = equal for equal. Ihe rule Ot equal 

retribution, reprisal, retaliation, equipoise, 
counterbalance. See at 2: 195, p. 93, n. 6. 

3. i c, forgoes it graciously. J-i~al tautdiaqii - 

he gave charitably, gave up charitably, donated, 
made a gift (v. mi m. s. past in form V of .tadtuja 
[xadtj/jjdq). ro speak ihc Irulh, to be true See 
yassaddaqii al 4: 92, p. 283, n. $}. 

4. i. e., Allah will efface the sins of the (he one 
who charitably forgoes taking retaliation ijiif 

kuffumh - ex pillion, expiatory gifts, atcncmfnl 
See nukaffir at 4:31. p. 254. n. 2. 

5. JjJU» lAlimGit (sing. ^ «}(im| ■ 

transgressors, wrong-doers, unjust persons, Active 
participle From glioma [inlm/nilm). to (In n'rtiruj 

See al 3:94. p. 193, n. 1>. 

f, Uji qjjjayna = we sent, despatched (v. i. pi 

past from ^o/?S. form II of qafd [?a/it'} to follow 
s.o.'s tracks. See at 2:87, p. 41, n. 3). 

7. /W "fliA^ (pi ; s. / ether) (nicks, traco, 

vestiges, marks, remnants, antiquities a\& 
'atkarihi =oo his track, at his heels, in his wake. 

8. tf ■ r- masaddiq = one who or that which 

confirms, verifies, attests (active participle from 
saddaqa, form II of mdaqa [sadqfcidq\. 10 Speak 
ihe truth See al 4;47.*p. 262. ti, 4). 

9. iky maw'izalf (pi. nuiMrd'iz) = admuniiion, 
exhortation, counsel. See at 2:275, p. 144. n. 10, 

JO. ^jjt^ mutiaqin (axe./gen. of mutlaquit. ijng, 

murrain) = those who arc on their guard, 
godfearing Active participle from ittaqi, form 
VIII of waqd Iwaqy.' wiqdyah\, to guard, la 
protect. See at 3:115. p. 201, r. 5) 



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Sutuh 5: Al-Ma idah [Fart (Aa") 6| 



353 



| 

- --TV 



Si-'"* -"it 



47. Lei there adjudicate 1 
the followers of the Gospel 
by what Allah has sent down 
therein. 

And whoever judges not by 
what Allah has sent down, 
such persons, 
they are the defiant ones. 2 

48. And We have sent down 
to you the Book 1 

in truth, 4 confirming 5 

what was before it 

of the Book 6 

and overriding and saving'it. 

So adjudicate between them 

by what Allah has sent down 

and do not follow 8 

their whims* 

away from what has come to 

you of the truth. 

We set for every one of you 

a code 10 and a norm. ' ' 



1. It is a command to I he professed followers of 
the Gospel (Injil), i. e , the Christians, to conduct 
themselves and abide by what is laid down hs ft. If 
they really do so they will find the discrepancy 
between their heliefs and practices on the one 
hand, and the teachings of their Scripture on the 
other, and also the need to believe in the 
Prophelhood of Muhammad, peace and blessings 
of Allah be on him. 

2. j ji-ii f&siq&n (pi.; sing, f&siq) = disobedient, 

defiant, wantonly sinful, (active participle from 
(ataqa [)hq\. to stray from the right course, 10 
renounce obedience, See at 3; 1 10, p. 199, n, 4). 

3. i. c.. the Qur'Sn. 

4. i e. the Quran is truty sent down by Allah, 
there is no doubt in it. 

5. .j.--,—' mutaddiq = one who or that which 

Confirms., verifies, sltests (active participle from 
saddaqa, form II of sudaqa [itidqfsidq]. Id speak 
ibe truth. See at 5:46. p. 352. n. S). 

6. i. c., each and every Book in its original and 
unaltered form as sent to the Prophets before 
Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be on 
him. 

7. i, e. the Qur'an prevails over all previous 
scriptures and preserves their original and 
unaltered messages. l y> T f mutiny mm - that 

which controls, overrides and protects (act, 
|vulici|i]c hum hnymtitiit \lmymanahl, (c control 
and protect. 

8. £i y la tatttbi' = do not follow (v. ii. m. ». 

imperative \ prohibition J Trom idaba'a, form VIII 
of tahi'a [mba' /labd'ah], to follow, See at li 
Mtabi'u at 4:135. p. 324. n. 6). 

9. «lj*t 'ahwS' (sing. jy> luiwtm) = desires, 

fancies, wishes, caprices, whims. See at 2: 145, , p. 

69. n. 8). 

10. it A shirah = code. than ah 



1 1. £}+* mirthaj (s.: pi. ^i^ memahij) = norm, 
pattern, method, course, procedure, open way, 



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354 



Surah 5 : AlMu'iduh [Pari iJut") 6] 




















And if Allah so willed, 
he would have made you 
a single community; 1 
but that He may lest 3 you 
in what He has given you. 
So vie with one another 
in the good things. 4 
To Allah shall be 
the return 5 of you all; 
then He will apprise 6 you 
of what you use to 
differ 7 in. 

49. And that you judge 

between them by what 

Allah has sent down; 

and do not follow 

their whims 8 

and beware' of them 

lest they should entice 10 you 

away from some of what 

Allah has sent down to you. 

Hence if they turn away, 11 



1, l*T 'iimmah (pi. ^ 'umum) - community, 
people, nation, generation, species, ctan, 
category. See at 3: 1 1 4, p. ZOO, n. 8. 

2, jLj yablutta{lit) " he tests, tries, (v. tit. m. i. 

iropftl, from bald \balw f bald"}. 10 test, to by. 
The final totter takes falhak because Of a hidden 
an in li (/am of motivation) coming before the 
vwfc. See ibtalu at 4:6. p. 238, n. 12). 

3, -ji^-' istabUjH - you (all) vie with one 

another, try to get ahead of one another, compete, 
race for (v. ii. m. pi. imperative from ismbtuta. 
foim VIII. of sahaqa [sabq], to gel before, in 
precede, to go ahead See at 2:148. p, 70. n, I). 

4 i c, good deeds approved by the Qur'an and 
sunnah o^ khayr&t {pi.; snip ,, - khayrah) = 
good thing* /deeds. See at 3: 1 14. p, 201, n. I. 

5 i- e . on the Day of Judgement. r-~f murji' ((,. 
pi . ~. y mardji ') = rclum, place of return, resort, 

authority to which reference is made (verbal 
noun/adverb of place from rajsi'a. Sec at ?:55. p, 
177. ri. 9). 
D - '■if* yunabbi'u = he apprises, informs, 

notifies, advises, tells (v. iii. s. impfct from 
nabba'a, Torm II of naba'a [iiab'Mubu'], to be 
prominent. Sec 'unabbi 'a at 5: 14, p. 336, n 1 ) 
7. jytAi takhlaiifiina = you (all) disagree, differ 

(from one another), are at variance, dispute, 
quartet Cv ii. m. pi. impfct. from ikhlulafu, Torn 
VIII of khalafu [khulf